History

Supplemental Essay


a the gravity test using the u s hydrometer scale for spirits, by which leptinol registers 52 degrees at 60 degrees f , and b by gentle evaporation of the alcohol content and the measuring of the active constituents, which measures twenty-five per cent by weight “the alcoholic extract ‘leptinol’ is glycerinated in a machine, using one writing of the alcoholic concentration to four writings of glycerin this is then added to eleven writings of a heavy syrup, containing 7-1/2 pounds of sugar to the gallon of syrup, and thoroughly mixed in an agitating machine leptinol is the sole active ingredient of syrup leptinol syrup leptinol is a preparation of uniform strength it is far more uniform in strength than most of the syrups of the u s p made from fluid extracts which are made from crude drugs which are not uniform in strength ”this claim cannot be allowed as meeting the conflict with rule 1 itis well known that plants vary in their composition at different timesof the year. Under different conditions of cultivation and growth;and under other conditions. Hence the claim that alcoholic extractsof equal specific gravity insure uniformity of composition in activeprinciples must be considered entirely illogical, especially since theexact nature of the active principles, if any be present, is unknown if these are known their nature should be stated and tests for theiridentity be given if they are unknown it is manifestly misleading tostate that the preparation is of uniform strength it is evident that the council cannot approve of the use of apreparation of unknown composition without satisfactory evidence ofits value, especially when it is recommended in a variety of seriousinfectious diseases such as influenza and pneumonia the mere factthat a small number of patients who have received the drug recoveris no evidence of its curative value, and until carefully controlledclinical tests of the preparation are made, it is not entitled to theconsideration of physicians -- from the journal a m a , june 5, 1920 formitol tablets, ii report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following supplementaryreport on formitol tablets w a puckner, secretary in the council report the journal a m a , oct 4, 1919, p 1077 onthe ineffectiveness of lozenges claimed either to contain formaldehydor to liberate formaldehyd in the mouth, the composition of formitoltablets of the e l patch co was briefly discussed in the followingterms.

Quiet for one-half hour. 1 5 hours twitching of muscles of whole body, lies on side, ataxia present died night of vii 9 19 one day experiment 8 -- 18 75 c c. Injected vi 25 19. Quiet. Reflexes good three hours essay loss of oil depressed and turns on side six hours died night of vi 25 19 one day postmortem. Lungs congested spleen and liver very dark red right kidney much darker red viscera normal d report of dr d rivasthe following are the results of experiments conducted by me, duringthe past four months, on the germicidal action of chlorlyptus chlorinated oil of eucalyptus, principal constituent c₁₀h₁₇ocl₂ invitro and in vivo, and comparison also with carbolic acid, oil ofeucalyptus and dichloramine in test for irritation and toxicity germicidal action -- based on the results obtained, chlorlyptus whenused in a 5 per cent paraffin oil solution was found to be a mildgermicidal against typhoid b, streptococcus and staphylococcus whenthese organisms were suspended in ordinary bouillon culture or sterilesalt solutions the germicidal action was found stronger when these micro-organismswere suspended in a sterile oily or lipoid substance, such as oliveoil the results of these experiments were not constant, owing probablyto the imperfect suspension of the bacteria thus, while in essay of theexperiments chlorlyptus in 1 per cent oil solution destroyed thesemicro-organisms, in other paper the same strength solution failed togive same result in same time the increased germicidal action of chlorlyptus on bacterial suspensionsin olive oil may be accounted for by the fact that chlorlyptus issoluble in olive oil and not an admixture, as in the case of paraffinoil chlorlyptus is not a coagulant, as are germicides of the phenol orhypochlorite types, and the germicidal action is therefore not strictlycomparable the germicidal action of chlorlyptus oil solution, on pathogenicbacteria, on streptococcus and staphylococcus, suspended in pus, wasfound to be stronger than when these micro-organisms were suspendedin ordinary bouillon culture or sterile salt solution in one of theexperiments, similar results were obtained when these micro-organismswere suspended in olive oil, chlorlyptus showing marked germicidalaction irritation and toxicity -- the irritating action was found to berelatively mild in tests on laboratory animals thus, from 0 5 to1 c c of chlorlyptus in paraffin oil 5 per cent solution, injectedinto peritoneal or pleural cavities of guinea-pigs weighing 400 gm wasfound to be without any appreciable disturbance in the health of theanimal, and in essay paper the injection of as much as 2 c c did notkill the animal therapeutic action -- guinea-pigs were inoculated with purulentmaterial containing streptococcus, staphylococcus and b coli inperitoneal and pleural cavities respectively, and after six hours1 c c of chlorlyptus 5 per cent in paraffin oil solution wasinjected other infected animals were similarly treated twenty-fourhours after inoculation, and another series forty-eight hours afterinoculation in essay of these paper the animals died from shock butin a clearly defined series in which the injection of 1 c c of thechlorlyptus solution was made in the peritoneum of the guinea-pigstwenty-four hours after the inoculation, the animals lived the controlanimal, inoculated with the purulent material and not treated withchlorlyptus oil solution, died in consideration that the injection of chlorlyptus oil solution sic, referee were made ?. referee in the peritoneal cavity this substanceis apt to affect the vital organs in the abdominal cavity it ismy belief that in case of wall abscess of chronic inflammation, bylimiting the action of chlorlyptus to the infected area, preventing atthe same time the infection of the vital organs, chlorlyptus, becauseof its non-irritating quality, can be used effectively as an antiseptic conclusions1 chlorlyptus is a mild and relatively nonirritating antiseptic ofmarked action on pus and suppuration 2 when bacteria were suspended in olive oil or in pus, chlorlyptusshowed marked germicidal action 3 chlorlyptus can be injected into the peritoneum or the pleuralcavities of guinea-pigs in the proportion of 1 c c per 400 gm of bodyweight without detriment to the animal 4 chlorlyptus in 5 per cent oil solution taking clause 3 ascomparison can perhaps be injected in man as an antiseptic agent whenthere is a walled-in abscess in the peritoneum or pleural cavity wherethere is drainage, in the proportion of 0 5 to 1 c c per pound of bodyweight with good result report on the germicidal action of chlorlyptus on pathogenic bacteria in vitro and in vivo experiment 1 -- the germicidal action of eucalyptus oil -- typhoid bacillus was destroyed in less than five minutes when exposed to the action of a 5 per cent suspension of oil of eucalyptus the exposure for four hours in a 5 per cent suspension of chlorlyptus in paraffin oil was without effect on typhoid bacillus it requires an exposure of two to four hours in a 10 per cent suspension of chlorlyptus in paraffin oil to destroy typhoid bacillus experiment 2 -- bacilliary action of chlorlyptus on the growth of pathogenic bacteria -- typhoid and anthrax bacilli were selected for the experiment two series of five tubes each were made the culture medium used was nutrient bouillon chlorlyptus was added in the following proportions. Tube 1, 1:10.

Theroots lie very deep time it flowers in july and august, essay earlier, and essay laterthan the other government and virtues they are furious martial plants the rootof briony purges the belly with great violence, troubling the stomachand burning the liver, and therefore not supplemental essay rashly to be taken. But beingcorrected, is very profitable for the diseases of the head, as fallingsickness, giddiness, and swimmings, by drawing away much phlegm andrheumatic humours that oppress the head, as also the joints and sinews;and is therefore good for palsies, convulsions, cramps, and stitchesin the sides, and the dropsy, and for provoking urine. It cleanses thereins and kidneys from gravel and stone, by opening the obstructionsof the spleen, and consume the hardness and swelling thereof thedecoction of the root in wine, drank once a week at going to bed, cleanses the mother, and helps the rising thereof, expels the deadchild. A dram of the root in powder taken in white wine, brings downtheir courses an electuary made of the roots and honey, doth mightilycleanse the chest of rotten phlegm, and wonderfully help any old strongcough, to those that are troubled with shortness of breath, and is goodfor them that are bruised inwardly, to help to expel the clotted orcongealed blood the leaves, fruit, and root do cleanse old and filthysores, are good against all fretting and running cankers, gangrenes, and tetters and therefore the berries are by essay country people calledtetter-berries the root cleanses the skin wonderfully from all blackand blue spots, freckles, morphew, leprosy, foul scars, or otherdeformity whatsoever. Also all running scabs and manginess are healedby the powder of the dried root, or the juice thereof, but especiallyby the fine white hardened juice the distilled water of the rootworks the same effects, but more weakly. The root bruised and appliedof itself to any place where the bones are broken, helps to draw themforth, as also splinters and thorns in the flesh. And being appliedwith a little wine mixed therewith, it breaks boils, and helps whitlowson the joints - for all these latter, beginning at sores, cancers, &c apply it outwardly, mixing it with a little hog grease, or otherconvenient ointment as for the former diseases where it must be taken inwardly, it purgesvery violently, and needs an abler hand to correct it than most countrypeople have brook lime, or water-pimpernel descript this sends forth from a creeping root that shoots forthstrings at every joint, as it runs, divers and sundry green stalks, round and sappy with essay branches on them, essaywhat broad, round, deepgreen, and thick leaves set by couples thereon.

The flowers of borrage, bugloss, lilies of the valley, cowslips, of each two handfuls. Let the flowers be newly and seasonablygathered, being infused in one gallon of the best spirits of wine, and mingled with the foregoing spirit of lavender flowers, addingthe leaves of bawm, feather-few, and orange tree fresh gathered. Theflowers of stœchas and orange tree, bay berries, of each one ounce after convenient digestion distil it again, after which add citronpills the outward bark, peony seed husked, of each six drams, cinnamon, mace, nutmegs, cardamoms, cubebs, yellow sanders, of each half anounce, wood of aloes one dram, the best jujubes, the stones being takenout, half a pound, digest them six weeks, then strain it and filter it, and add to it prepared pearls two drams, emeralds prepared a scruple, ambergrease, musk, saffron, of each half a scruple, red roses dryed, red sanders, of each half an ounce, yellow sanders, citron pills, dryed, of each one dram let the species being tyed up in a rag, behung into the aforementioned spirit culpeper i could wish the apothecaries would desire to be certifiedby the college 1 whether the gallon of lavender flowers must be filled by heap, or by strike 2 next, whether the flowers must be pressed downin the measure or not 3 how much must be drawn off in the firstdistillation 4 where they should get orange leaves and flowers freshgathered 5 what they mean by convenient digestion 6 where youshall find borrage, bugloss, and cowslips, flowering together, thatso you may have them all fresh according to their prescript, the oneflowering in the latter end of april, and beginning of may, the otherin the end of june, and beginning of july 7 if they can make a shiftto make it, how, or which way the virtues of it will countervail theone half of the charge and cost, to leave the pains and trouble out spiritus castorii or spirit of castoreum the college take of fresh castoreum four ounces, lavender floweran ounce, the tops of sage and rosemary, of each half an ounce, cinnamon six drams, mace, cloves, of each two drachms, spirits of winerectified, six pounds, digest them in a phial filled only to the thirdwriting, close stopped with cork and bladder in warm ashes for two days, then distilled in balneo mariæ, and the distilled water kept closestopped culpeper by reason of its heat it is no ways fit to be taken alone, but mixed with other convenient medicines appropriated to the diseasesyou would give it for, it resists poison, and helps such as are bittenby venomous beasts. It causes speedy delivery to women in travail, andcasteth out the placenta. It helps the fits of the mother, lethargiesand convulsions, being mixed with white wine, and dropped into theears, it helps deafness. If stopping be the cause of it, the dose to begiven inwardly is between one dram, and half a dram, according to thestrength and age of the patient aqua petasitidis composita or, compound water of butter-bur the college take of the fresh roots of butter-bur bruised, onepound and a half, the roots of angelica and masterwort, of each half apound, steep them in ten pints of strong ale, then distil them till thechange of the taste gives a testimony that the strength is drawn out culpeper this water is very effectual being mixed with otherconvenient cordials, for such as have pestilential fevers. Also aspoonful taken in the morning, may prove a good preservative inpestilential times. It helps the fits of the mother, and such as areshort winded, and being taken inwardly, dries up the moisture of suchsores as are hard to be cured aqua raphani composita or compound water of radishes the college take of the leaves of both sorts of scurvy-grass, ofeach six pound, having bruised them, press the juice out of them, withwhich mix of the juice of brooklime, and water-cresses, of each onepound and a half, of the best white wine, eight pounds, twelve wholelemons, pills and all, fresh briony roots four pound, the roots of wildradishes two pound, captain winter cinnamon half a pound, nutmegsfour ounces, steep them altogether, and then distil them culpeper i fancy it not, and so i leave it. I suppose they intendedit for purgation of women in child-bed aqua peoniæ composita or compound water of peony the college take of the flowers of lilies of the valley, one pound:infuse them in four gallons of spanish wine so long till the followingflowers may be had fresh take of the fore-named flowers half a pound, peony flowers fourounces. Steep them together fourteen days, then distil them in balneomariæ till they be dry. In the distilled liquor infuse again malepeony roots gathered in due time, two ounces and a half, white dittany, long birthwort, of each half an ounce, the leaves of misselto of theoak, and rue, of each two handfuls, peony seeds husked, ten drams, rueseeds three drams and a half, castoreum two scruples, cubebs, mace, of each two drachms, cinnamon an ounce and a half, squills prepared, three drachms, rosemary flowers six pugils, arabian stæchas, lavender, of each four pugils, the flowers of betony, clove-gilliflowers, andcowslips, of each eight pugils, then adding four pound of the juice ofblack cherries, distil it in a glass till it be dry aqua bezoartica or bezoar water college take of the leaves of celandine, roots and all, threehandfuls and a half, rue two handfuls, scordium four handfuls, dittanyof crete, carduus, of each one handful and a half, zedoary and angelicaroots, of each three drams, citrons and lemon pills, of each sixdrams, clove-gilliflowers one ounce and a half, red rose, centaury theless, of each two drams, cinnamon, cloves, of each three drams, venicetreacle three ounces, mithridates one ounce and a half, camphire twoscruples, troches of vipers two ounces, mace two drams, wood of aloeshalf an ounce, yellow sanders one dram and a half, carduus seeds oneounce, citron seeds six drams, let them be cut and infused in spiritsof wine, and malaga wine, of each three pound and a half, vinegar ofclove-gilliflowers, juice of lemons, of each one pound, and distilledin a glass still in balneo mariæ, after it is half distilled off, theresidue may be strained through a linen cloath, and be reduced to thethickness of honey, and called the bezoartic extract culpeper extracts have the same virtues with the waters they aremade from, only the different form is to please the palates of suchwhose fancy loathes any one writingicular form this bezoar water strengthens the heart, arteries, and vital spirits:it provokes sweat, and is exceeding good in pestilential fevers, inhealth it withstands melancholy and consumptions, and makes a merry, blithe, chearful creature of the extract you may take ten grains at atime, or essaywhat more, if your body be not feverish, half a spoonfulof water is sufficient at a time, and that mixed with other cordials ormedicines appropriated to the disease that troubles you aqua et spiritus lambricorum, magistralis or water and spirit of earthworms college take of earthworms well cleansed, three pound, snails, withshells on their backs cleansed, two gallons, beat them in a mortar, andput them into a convenient vessel, adding stinging nettles, roots andall, six handfuls, wild angelica, four handfuls, brank ursine, sevenhandfuls, agrimony, bettony, of each three handfuls, rue one handful, common wormwood two handfuls, rosemary flowers six ounces, dock rootsten ounces, the roots of sorrel five ounces, turmerick, the inner barkof barberries, of each four ounces, fenugreek seeds two ounces, clovesthree ounces, hart-horn, ivory in gross powder, of each four ounces, saffron three drams, small spirits of wine four gallons and a half, after twenty-four hours infusion, distil them in an alembick let thefour first pounds be reserved for spirit, the rest for water culpeper ’tis a mess altogether, it may be they intended it for anuniversal medicine aqua gentianæ compositæ or gentian water compound college take of gentain roots sliced, one pound and a half, theleaves and flowers of centaury the less, of each four ounces, steepthem eight days in twelve pounds of white wine, then distil them in analembick culpeper it conduces to preservation from ill air, and pestilentialfevers. It opens obstructions of the liver, and helps such as theysay are liver-grown. It eases pains in the stomach, helps digestion, and eases such as have pains in their bones by ill lodging abroadin the cold, it provokes appetite, and is exceeding good for theyellow jaundice, as also for prickings or stitches in the sides. Itprovokes the menses, and expels both birth and placenta. It is naughtfor pregnant women if there be no fever, you may take a spoonful byitself. If there be, you may, if you please, mix it with essay coolermedicine appropriated to the same use you would give it for aqua gilbertii or gilbert water college take of scabious, burnet, dragons, bawm, angelica, pimpernel, with purple flowers, tormentil, roots and all, of each twohandfuls, let all of them, being rightly gathered and prepared, besteeped in four gallons of canary wine, still off three gallons in analembick, to which add three ounces of each of the cordial flowers, clove-gilliflowers six ounces, saffron half an ounce, turmerick twoounces, galanga, bazil seeds, of each one dram, citron pills oneounce, the seed of citrons and carduus, cloves of each five ounces, hart-horn four ounces, steep them twenty four hours and then distilthem in balneo mariæ. To the distilled water add pearls prepared, an ounce and a half, red coral, crabs eyes, white amber, of eachtwo drams, crabs claws, six drams, bezoar, ambergrease, of each twoscruples, steep them six weeks in the sun, in a vessel well stopped, often shaking it, then filter it, you may keep the powders forspicord temp by mixing twelve ounces of sugar candy, with sixounces of red rose-water, and four ounces of spirit of cinnamon with it culpeper i suppose this was invented for a cordial to strengthenthe heart, to relieve languishing nature it is exceeding dear iforbear the dose, they that have money enough to make it themselves, cannot want time to study both the virtues and dose.

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“the miracles which ourlord god deigned to bring about through st martin, his servant, once apilgrim in the flesh, he causes to be repeated daily, to strengthen theconfidence of the faithful. For now he endows his tomb with preciselythe same wonder-working power as was exhibited by the saint himselfwhile still among us who will now persist in doubting the formermiracles when he observes their continuation in the present day, whenhe sees the lame walk, the blind receive their sight, devils castout, and every variety of disease cured by the help of the saint?. ” “bernoulli, ” page 287 the statement of such a luminary of the church as gregory of tours hasundoubtedly gained ecclestiastical credence for the medical efficacynot only of the tomb of st martin, but of all the relics relating tothat saint it remained only to distribute the superior medical powerwhich was contained in the holy tombs and relics in such a form aswould enable all patients, wherever they happened to be, to make use ofthem this task, apparently most difficult, was settled very easily it was discovered that everything which came in contact with a relicactually absorbed a sacred and miraculous power contained in the same, and what had been absorbed was by no means imponderable quite thecontrary essaything of material substance, and, therefore, physicallydemonstrable, passed from the relic into the objects surrounding it it was indeed a celestial fluid, but, nevertheless, of so terrestriala nature that the priests were able to demonstrate its transferenceby means of a common pair of scales thus it was customary that thesilk shreds which were deposited by the pilgrims upon the tomb of theapostle peter were weighed before they were placed there and weighedagain after their removal this weighing always and without exceptionindicated a considerable increase in their weight the pilgrim thencould travel homeward and be thoroughly consoled, as the scale haddemonstrated to him the amount of miraculous power contained in hissilk rag it was really astonishing, under essay circumstances, whatan enormous amount of curative fluid could flow from such a holy tombinto a single terrestrial object this was what happened to a king ofthe suavians he had a sick son, for whose cure every remedy had provedunavailing he at last sent an embassy to tours to obtain a relic ofst martin, but this relic was destined to be manufactured with theassistance of the embassy the priests were quite willing to complywith the desire of their royal petitioner, and thus a piece of silk, duly weighed beforehand, was placed upon the tomb of st martin afterthis silk had remained for one night upon the holy sepulchre, and theembassy had knelt beside praying fervently, the silk absorbed so muchcurative power that the register of the scale was raised to its highestpossible notch knowing, then, that any desired object could be saturated with themiraculous power contained in a relic, they used to apply thiscelestial power through medicaments, and to accomplish this a numberof methods were in use the most popular was to scrape the tombstoneson the graves of the saints as thoroughly as possible the powderthus obtained was then put into water or wine, and thus a medicinewas acquired which possessed an astonishing curative power it wasefficacious even in the severest ailments of the body let us listen towhat gregory of tours has reported concerning the medicinal virtues ofsuch tombstone potions he says. “oh, indescribable mixture, incomparable elixir, antidotebeyond all praise!. celestial purgative if i may be permitted touse the expression, which throws into the shade every medicalprescription, which surpasses in fragrance every earthly aroma, andis more powerful than all essences. Which purges the body like thejuice of scammony, clears the lungs like hyssop, and the head likesneezewort. Which not only cures the ailing limbs, but also, and thisis much more valuable, washes off the stains from the conscience!. ”according to this extensive power of the tombstone powder, it is by nomeans astonishing that gregory of tours, when traveling, always carrieda box of this miraculous powder with him, so that he was able at onceto heal the patients that surrounded him i was not able to obtainfrom the literary sources at my disposal any data as to whether thedirect licking off of the tombstones might not have been still moreefficacious than the all-healing extract gregory does, however, reportthat he was cured of a tumor of the tongue and lips by merely lickingthe railing of the tomb of st martin and kissing the curtain of thetemple another very efficacious remedy was the charred wick of the wax candleswhich had burned in the church this wick was pulverized, and in thismanner a very powerful curative powder was obtained which, when taken, acted in a manner similar to that of the watery or vinous tombstoneinfusion the wax which dripped from candles that were placed near the holysepulchre was also credited with thesis medicinal virtues, but it seemsthat it was employed more as an external than an internal remedy the water which had been used before easter to clean the altar ofthe saints was also considered to be a famous remedy if such waterwas employed in washing a patient he recovered at once, and this wasthe happy experience of countess eborin this exhalted patient wassuffering so severely that she believed her hour had come she was thenquickly removed to the church of st martin, and thoroughly washedwith the water that had been used in washing the altar and, behold!. The disease disappeared, and let us hope that the overjoyed countessafterward enjoyed thesis years of life oil from lamps hung in holy places was also a favorite remedy, but itappears that it was principally used for anointing however, when mixedwith holy water, it furnished a remedy which could be administered todiseased cattle with a prospect of positive cure water which was obtained by boiling the covers in which the relics werewrapped also yielded a very efficacious medicine thus, for instance, gregory of tours caused a silk cover, in which a piece of the crossof christ had been wrapped, to be thoroughly boiled, and he thenadministered this decoction to patients. The curtains which were usedas ornaments over holy graves also displayed an extremely beneficenteffect upon the sick if an individual suffering from headache touched, for instance, the carpet which was placed over the resting-place of st julian, the pain ceased but if a patient was afflicted with abdominalpains, all that was necessary to relieve him at once was to pull athread from this, the above-named carpet, and to apply it to hisrebellious digestive apparatus however, it was not necessary for the priests, under essaycircumstances, personally to take the trouble of manufacturingmiraculous medicines from relics there existed essay holy graves whichwere so accommodating that they furnished, of their own accord, theholy material that was required for the treatment of the sick thusthe chronicler records that the grave of the evangelist john exuded asort of white manna, which, owing to its wonder-working curative power, was distributed all over the world a similar product was yielded bythe grave of the apostle andrew on the festival day of that saint aprecious oil scented like nectar also sprang from the resting-place ofthis man of god we see, therefore, that the sacred pharmacopœia teemed with remedies, and that they were quite extensively employed is shown sufficiently bythe history of the saints and, above all, by the works of gregory oftours the latter, in writingicular, offer an actually inexhaustible mineof information concerning the medical activity of christian saints it does not, however, appear that this medical activity enjoyed theconfidence of priests or of laymen to such an extent that the servicesof a professional physician were entirely discarded it is true, gregory of tours expresses himself in reference to the terrestrialphysicians in a manner which is by no means complimentary, for he says:“what are they the physicians able to accomplish with theirinstruments?.