History

Suicide Essay


There was a large amount of exudate in the peritoneal cavity, irritation of the intestine, and other signs of acute inflammation a moderate degree of congestion. Spleen not enlarged. Liver showed cloudy swelling and fibrinous exudate.

Facsimile of a letter, dated october, 1916, suggestingthe use of “succus cineraria maritima” as a cure for cataract andother opacities of vision eight months previously february, 1916, the walker pharmacal company had pleaded guilty to the charge that theclaims that “succus cineraria maritima” was a cure for cataract andother eye opacities were false and fraudulent and applied knowingly andin reckless and wanton disregard of their truth or falsity the federalfood and drugs act does not apply to claims made in circular letters orelsewhere than in the trade package these charges put the matter flatly up to the walker pharmacal company this company has for years been telling physicians that their stuffcould and would do just what the federal authorities insisted itcan not and will not do did the walker pharmacal company attemptto defend its claims?. did it demonstrate that succus cineraria maritimawould cure cataract?. did it produce evidence of the numerous paper ofrecovery from blindness or writingial blindness which must have beenavailable if the preparation had the powers claimed for it?. no!. thewalker pharmacal company in february, 1916, pleaded guilty-- and wasfined a paltry $10 and costs this, however, is not the end of the story the company was prosecutedbecause it had published the false and fraudulent claims in the tradepackage, thus bringing the claims within the purview of the federalfood and drugs act had the walker pharmacal company confined its falsestatements to medical journal advertisements, to the circular letterssent to physicians or to any other advertising matter not writing of thetrade package, it could have snapped its fingers at the food and drugsact it was in february, 1916, that the walker pharmacal company pleadedguilty to the charge of making false and fraudulent claims for succuscineraria maritima in october, 1916, they were still sending outcircular letters to physicians urging the use of succus cinerariamaritima in the treatment of cataract and enclosing the usual bookletof testimonials claiming cures for cataract and other opacities of thelens and cornea!.

"does anybody belong to these things?. " he held out for their inspection a handful of diamonds, rubies, pearls and other valuable articles needless to say, he had no difficulty in finding an owner this sailor earned 18 marks per month and the value of the find was in the neighbourhood of ten thousand dollars i wonder how thesis men, under the circumstances, would have returned these jewels the wolf and the hitachi now steamed to the southernmost group of the maldive islands, arriving there on september 27th the vessels tied up alongside of each other and coal and cargo were transferred from the hitachi to the wolf the cargo of the hitachi maru was valued at over a million and a half pounds sterling, chiefly copper, tin, rubber, thousands of tons of silk, tea and hides it always seemed uncanny to me that these "deep-sea vultures" seemed to be able to capture a vessel loaded with any writingicular kind of cargo they wanted about a month before this capture, i heard the officers talking among themselves and one of them remarked, "now the next ship we get should be loaded with copper and rubber and tin " sure enough the hitachi had what they wanted it seemed a pity to me to see the thousands of bales of silk goods, ladies' blouses and silk kimonos being dumped from one hold to another and trampled on when the hitachi was finally sunk there were a couple of thousand tons of expensive japanese lingerie and other ladies' wear and miscellaneous dewritingment store merchandise sunk with her the mermaids must have had "essay" bargain sale it was the intention of nerger to pick up, if possible, a vessel that could furnish him with enough coal to take both the hitachi and wolf back to gerthesis at this time there was a lot of talk about landing us on one of the islands where there were missionaries however, none of us took any stock in this "landing talk, " as it was too apparent what their intentions were it was here that the married folks with their wives along, sent a written petition to the commander of the wolf, begging to be given one of the hitachi life-boats and a supply of provisions, so that on the eve of the wolf's dewritingure for writings unknown, we could make our way to one of these islands and there await the arrival of essay trading schooner to take us to civilisation again nerger sent word back that he could not do that, and repeated the same old "bull" about landing us in essay safe place, essay time lord, he must have thought we were a bunch of "gillies" to believe that guff on october 1st we were transferred from the wolf to the hitachi along with all the rest of the "top side" prisoners our quarters on the hitachi were splendid we fell heir to the bridal suite it seemed mighty good to sit down at a regular table with a white cloth and napkins again i shall never forget my feelings as we sat there for the first meal, waiting for the whitecoated jap waiter to bring on the food i could feel myself getting up from the table with that satisfied, contented feeling amidships soon the waiter came and set before us each a plate containing two ordinary soda crackers or ships' biscuits, with a poor lonely god-forsaken sardine stranded on the top this, and a cup of the regulation "near" coffee comprised our first evening meal on the hitachi maru for the following morning's breakfast we had porridge with kerosene spilt on it absolutely uneatable for dinner, rotten meat with good potatoes, water or soda water, if you had money to buy it with and in the evening canned crab and crackers in the meantime our commander, lieutenant rose, was having a banquet in his room with his brother officers on the wolf on the hitachi it was noticed that rose very seldom made his appearance in the dining room at mealtimes quite frequently at meals one of the australian passengers who belonged to lieut rose's bridge-playing clique, would send a card up to his room asking if it were not possible to have an extra slice of bread or a cracker the answer would come back. "sure, boys, just ask the steward " but on asking the jap steward he would only smile and say. "velly sorry, but captain write his name each day on paper that speaks how much you eat " this was the fact, as i have seen the paper the german chief engineer and chief mate used to eat at the same table as we did, and used to complain of the food as being inadequate. And one night the chief engineer took the matter up with rose and told him a few truths rose said that it was "too bad, " that he did not know anything about it before but now he would straighten it up the engineer told rose that if he cut out a lot of his private champagne suppers and looked into what the rest of us were getting it would not be necessary to make these complaints this is a condition that could not exist on the wolf because there we were under the charge of a gentleman and an officer and we got square treatment, but on the hitachi and later on the igotz mendi we were under a sub-lieutenant, a snob and a man who did not know the meaning of the word gentleman in my opinion it is this class of "under officer" that gives the germans the unenviable reputation that they have my wife at this time was convalescing rapidly and regaining her strength. And it was of the utmost importance that she be provided with sufficient food luckily i was able to purchase from one of the stewards a couple of large cans of biscuits, essay preserved ginger and an occasional piece of cheese this helped out a whole lot, although even at that she was under-nourished little juanita did not fare so badly as she was given as much as her elders, and being only a child did not require so much as they at this time it was possible to purchase stout on the hitachi, which was a godsend to us a few days after coming on board, when ordering stout, i was told that it had all gone on making inquiries afterwards i found out that lieut rose had stopped its sale and was reserving it along with all the beer and wine for his own use, and for the use of his writingicular friends, who were all able-bodied persons there were three women, in addition to my wife, who actually needed essaything of this description the jap stewards on board were being paid their regular wages by the german government, but as their captain was a prisoner on board the wolf, and they were away from his authority, they paid absolutely no heed to any of the prisoners' needs, merely contenting themselves with keeping the lieutenant well supplied with booze and anything else he wanted afterwards rose told me that the service of the japs on the hitachi was splendid i told him that it was rotten and told him why. Rose merely pulled that prussian smile of his and said. "what do you expect?. you're not first class passengers, you know " to this i agreed and told him all i wanted was an even break with the rest of the prisoners, or "ex-passengers, " as he used to call us there were essay sixty of us occupying the first class cabins, among whom were thesis of the original passengers of the hitachi we were, with one or two exceptions, all young people, and despite the short rations we had and the rough experience we'd undergone, we managed to have essay very enjoyable times, playing deck billiards, quoits, cricket and various card games in the dining saloon was a piano essay of the australian chaps were great mimics and had good voices, so we had essay very enjoyable evenings the last night we were on the hitachi, in writingicular, the japs came to life and were almost human one of them unlocked a large closet that was filled with masks, costumes, false beards, hair, etc , which were used for amateur theatricals we all dressed up as various characters, and we had a regular variety show among the offerings were clog dancing, sword dancing, highland fling, the good old cake walk, and the texas tommy the last number was what we called the "hitachi rag" and was danced by everybody it consisted of the regulation "rag" varied by every conceivable step, including high and lofty tumbling all during the performance the german sailors on the hitachi were peering in through the portholes and lining the alley ways and steps, enjoying the show almost as much as the rest of us but this "hitachi rag" was more than the disciplined teutons could stand first two of them tried it, and in a few minutes all the germans were dancing the news spread to the wolf and there was a general stampede of teuton guards and sailors, in our direction for a few minutes we had full charge of the ship, as the teutons wouldn't stop when their petty officers called them shortly afterwards the chief officer appeared and made us all stop, saying that it was the commander's orders, and that we were "stopping the work of the ship" to say nothing of undermining german discipline on the hitachi, thesis of us lost things out of our rooms, such as razors, a camera, combs and various toilet articles and articles of clothing one day, one of the british chaps caught a jap steward in his room using his safety razor as this writingicular jap had pimples and sores all over his face, the british ally and owner of the razor was very hostile i asked him what he was going to do about it "i shall report the bally rotter to the management, " the briton replied not being used to such violent outbursts of emotion i beat it all the time that we were lying here among the maldive islands, 12 days in all, transferring cargo, the flying machine made regular observation trips twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening on three different occasions it reported seeing steamers passing not more than 50 or 60 miles off, and once it reported seeing a fast cruiser, probably british, travelling along at full speed this island where we were lying was only 50 or 60 miles off the regular trade route and i had hopes that essay patrolling vessel would blunder on to us, but no such luck.

but the person having charge of it cannot be considered asthe owner of it in any sense whatever, he holds it only as a sacredtrust for the benefit of all who may from family or friendship havean interest in it ” see also wyncoop suicide essay v wyncoop, 42 pa st , 293. 4albany law jour , 56. Snyder v snyder, 60 how prac , 368. Weld v walker, 130 mass , 422. Guthrie v weaver, 1 mo apps , 136. Johnsonv marinus, 18 abb n c , 72, and note 493the law casts the duty of burial of the wife upon the husband, andof the husband upon the wife in secord v secord cited in note 1above, the court said. “there are cogent reasons connected with publicpolicy and the peace of families, where in the absence of testamentarydisposition the possession of a corpse and the right to determine itsburial should follow the administration of the estate ” inasmuch asthe husband has the first right to administer upon the estate of thewife, and the wife upon the estate of the husband, the law imposes thecorrelative duty of burial upon the person having such right. And soit has been held that the husband is liable for the necessary expenseof the decent interment of his wife from whom he has been separated, whether the writingy incurring the expense is an undertaker or merevolunteer 494where the deceased leaves a will appointing executors, the executorshave a right to the possession of the body, and the duty of burialis imposed upon them, but it has been doubted whether at common lawa direction by will concerning the disposal of the body could beenforced, and therefore the right to make such direction has beenconferred by statute in several states 495and where a widow ordered a funeral of her husband, it was held thatshe was liable for the expense, although she was an infant at the time, the court holding that the expense fell under the head of necessaries, for which infants’ estates are liable 496if there be no husband or wife of the deceased, the nearest of kinin the order of right to administration is charged with the duty ofburial 497such acts as casting a dead human body into a river without the ritesof sepulture kanavans case, 1 me , 226. Stealing a corpse 2 east, pc , 652 or stealing for dissection a dead body of one executed whenthe death sentence did not direct dissection rex v cundick, d &r , n p , 13, were indictable offences at common law 498in the works of the early dramatists, and by essay writers of fiction, it has been stated, or implied, that the body of a deceased personcould be seized and detained to compel the payment of his debts thiswas never the law in jones v ashburnham, 4 east, 460, it was heldthat to seize a dead body on pretence of arresting for debt would becontra bonos mores, and an extortion on the relatives, and that casedistinctly overrules any authority to be derived from the case of quickv coppleton, 1 vent , 161, to the effect that forbearance to seizeor hold a body upon such a pretence would afford any consideration fora promise to pay a debt so, also, where a jailer refused to give upa body of a person who had died while a prisoner in execution in hiscustody, to the executors of the deceased, unless they would satisfycertain claims against the deceased due the jailer, the court issueda peremptory mandamus in the first instance, commanding that the bodyshould be delivered up to the executors rex v fox, 2 q b , 247 and in r v scott, 2 q b , 248, it was said, that a jailer whoshould attempt to do so would be guilty of misconduct in his publiccharacter, for which he would be liable to prosecution 499how and by whom the dead human body may be removed or exhumed - wherethe right of burial has been exercised, and the body interred inits final resting-place, no person has any right to interferewith it without the consent of the owner of the grave, or of theproperly constituted public authorities in foster v dodd, 8 d & e , 842-854, it was held, that a dead body belongs to no one, andis, therefore, under the protection of the public if it lies inconsecrated ground, ecclesiastical authorities will interpose forits protection. But whether in ground consecrated or unconsecrated, indignities offered to the remains or the act of indecentlydisinterring them, are the ground of an indictment 500even the purchaser of land upon which is located a burial-ground maybe enjoined from removing bodies therefrom, if he attempts to do soagainst the wishes of the relatives or next of kin of the deceased every interment is a concession of the privilege which cannot afterwardbe repudiated, and the purchaser title to the ground is fettered withthe right of burial 501on the other hand, the right of the municipal or state authorities, with the consent of the owner of the burial lot or in the execution ofthe right of eminent domain, to remove dead bodies from cemeteries iswell settled 502after the right of burial has once been exercised by the person chargedwith the duty of burial, or where such person has consented to theburial by another person, no right to the corpse remains except toprotect it from unlawful interference 503on the other hand, where a husband did not freely consent to the burialof his wife in a lot owned by another person, it was held that a courtof equity might permit him, after such burial, to remove her body, coffin, and tombstones to his own lot, and restrain any person frominterfering with such removal 504in rhodes v brandt, 21 hun, n y , 1, the defendant brought anaction against one beelard to recover for services rendered by him, asa physician, in treating a child of beelard for a fracture of thethigh-bone, in which action beelard set up malpractice on the writing ofthe defendant as a defence during the pendency of the action the childdied and was buried subsequently beelard, the father, acting under theadvice of his counsel, directed and allowed the plaintiff, a physician, to cause the body of the child to be exhumed, and a portion of thethigh-bone to be removed, in order that it might be used in evidence onthe trial of the question of malpractice after the bone was removed, the body was returned to the grave the defendant thereupon caused theplaintiff to be arrested for unlawfully removing the body from thegrave contrary to the provisions of the statute, and the plaintiffsued the defendant for malicious prosecution the court held that theplaintiff had not removed the body from the grave “for the purpose ofdissection or from mere wantonness, ” as these terms were used in thestatute 3 r s , 6th ed , 965, for violation of which he had beenarrested, nor had he committed any offence against public decency orthe spirit of the statute 505autopsies, by whom ordered.

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“it is not suicide essay the prayer that cures, but the praying person. Not theformula, but the spirit. Not exorcism, but the exorcist only in thosepaper in which the disease, as in numerous paper of the second century, had become epidemic and almost common, did ordinary and conventionalmeans avail the exorcist became a mesmerizer, possibly a deceiveddeceiver but when strong individuality is deceived concerning its ownpersonality by the demon of terror, and the soul is actually shaken bythe power of darkness which possesses it, and from which it purposes toescape, a powerful and holy will alone can interfere from the outsideworld to deliver the shackled will in essay paper we find traces of aphenomenon which in modern times, for want of essay better name, hasbeen called ‘suggestion’. But the prophet suggests in a differentmanner than does the professional exorcist ”besides these official christian exorcists, a great multitude of otherpersons carried on the trade of conjurer of demons the sorcerers andmagicians who plied their nefarious trade for the cure of the possessedand for those suffering from other diseases, worked with various kindsof mystic signs and ceremonies, and they certainly did an excellentbusiness, for he who humors the superstition and the stupidity of manalways prospers modern quackery illustrates this most strikingly but, besides these healers, there existed numerous other conjurers ofdemons and medical wonder-workers who plied their trade not for thesake of contemptible mammon, but solely for ethical reasons these werethe members of the various theosophico-philosophical sects, who wereactive during the first christian centuries and have been exhaustivelydescribed on the previous pages altho christians were eager to exalt their exorcists, who worked onlywith prayer and the invocation of christ, above all practises ofsorcery, they were not able, in the long run, to prevent christiandogmas from being confounded with and corrupted by those of philosophy under the influence of saturninus, basilides, and carpocrates, thevarious philosophical vagaries concerning accessory, intermediary, andinferior gods, and their influences upon the fate of man, corruptedthe pure and simple teachings of christ that error against which paulhad so impressively cautioned the early christian communities in hisepistle to the colossians, chapter ii , verse 8 “beware lest any manspoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition ofmen, after the rudiments of the world, and not after christ”, had, nevertheless, made its appearance at last, and the adulteration ofpure gospel by philosophical speculations and fantastic views began togrow more complete from the third century on this was the foundationof the religio-mystic system which, during the middle ages, and evenbeyond the period of the renaissance, oppressed humanity like asuffocating nightmare, and not only checked progress, but also filledeach branch of human knowledge with the most frightful superstition andthe crassest mysticism this was the case also in medicine. In fact, this branch of science has probably suffered most from the alliance ofchristianity with the fantastic doctrines of philosophical schools the ancient doctrine of demons passed under the influence of christianmysticism through certain changes and transitions, especially in itsrelation to the bodily condition of individuals the variations in thisdoctrine were naturally most plainly evidenced in the medical views ofthe day it was believed that every human being from birth was allotteda good and an evil demon the good spirit held his hand protectinglyover his human charge, whereas the evil demon only waited his chance toinflict injury upon man, forming especially the determining principlein the etiology of disease it is true, the evil spirits apparentlywere no longer allowed to have such full sway over the health ofhumanity as they formerly had god now utilized them principally asexecutors of punishments which he intended for mankind as a retributionfor various forms of delinquency thus the church father, anastasius sprengel, vol ii , page 210, tells us that the reason why so thesislepers and cripples were found among christians was that god, enragedat the luxury of the members of the community, had sent the evil demonof disease among them the wrath of god from that time until late inmodern times has been considered a fully efficacious principle ofpathology. In fact, there are numbers of people even to-day who believethat not natural, but supernatural and unearthly, factors are active inthe bodily ailments of mankind the idea of good and evil demons, however, now assumed a specificallychristian character which, it is true, greatly resembled the ancientbabylonian notion, excepting that the good demons were replaced byangels and saints, whereas the evil spirits were embodied in the devil both, saints as well as devils, were thenceforth destined to play awriting in the domain of medicine it is true, the general recognitionwhich they enjoyed during the middle ages and a considerable periodof modern times has probably now passed away, but there still existnumerous classes of our people in whom the medical rôle of saints aswell as devils is most willingly acknowledged we have referred elsewhere to the therapeutic accomplishments ofthe saints during the middle ages we will here only dwell upon theinfluence which the devil, the christian successor of the ancientevil spirit, has exerted upon the medical views of all classes of thepeople this influence was very great the devil and his subordinateinfernal spirits were considered the “disturbers of peace” in thehealth of humanity disease in its various forms was their work;they resolved to inflict it either from inherent villainy or asincited by various magical arts of evil men it was especially thelatter form of diabolical activity that, during the entire middleages and during a considerable writing of modern times, was acceptedas uncontestedly authentic, and the imagination of mankind at thatperiod was inexhaustible in inventing the greatest variety of infamousactions which the devil was able to perform either of his own accordor as summoned by incantations any one desiring to acquaint himselfthoroughly with these delusive ideas should read the work of the friarcæsarius, who lived about 1225, in the rhenish-cistercian monasteryof heisterbach naturally, we are only interested in the medical actswhich the devil was always ready to perform according to the historyof medical superstition, the devil, who was invoked by various spellsor appeared of his own volition, was able to influence each individualbodily organ in a manner most disagreeable to the possessor of thesame neither were the prince of hell and his hosts always satisfiedto tease and to plague an individual being, but very frequently theycarried on this business wholesale they threw themselves upon theentire population of a country, and caused sickness in all who crossedtheir path the great epidemic of st vitus dance of the fourteenthcentury, for instance, was considered to be the work of the devil, andthe clergy busied themselves in driving out this devil pest by meansof sprinkling holy water and by the utterance of conjuring formulas the sexual life of men as well as of women offered an especiallyfruitful field for the activity of the devil and of his infernalcompanions thus, it was a favorite trick of the ruler of hell and ofhis subordinate demons to assume the shape of the husband or loverof this or that female, and, under this mask, to assume rights whichshould be permitted only to the husband the infernal spirit thatplayed this rôle was called incubus thus, for instance, hinkmer tellsus of a nun who was mischievously claimed by such an infernal paramour, and who could be relieved of him only by priestly aid but hell alsocontained female constituents who played the same rôle for the maleas did incubus for women such a wanton woman of hell was calledstriga or lamia compare hansen, pages 14 and 72 these amorous femalefriends of hell did not even stop when they met eminent saints in theconvent of st benedetto, near the italian town of subiaco, a rose-bushis shown even to-day into which the naked st benedict threw himself inorder to resist the unholy temptation and every one is sufficientlyacquainted with the troubles which st anthony of padua had with theseinfernal women however, we physicians know well enough the causeof these temptations they may surely and actually have approachedthe nun of whom hinkmer reports, also st benedict and st anthony;however, they were not the devil prostitutes, but the expressions ofsuppressed and disregarded impulses of nature which, in the form ofvoluptuous imaginations, appeared before the eyes of persons removedfrom terrestrial gratifications. For nature does not even exempt asaint, and the ancient saying, “naturam expellas furc, tamen usquerecurret, ” applies to them as well as to any other mortal finally these liberties which the devil and his infernal host were saidto take as regards matters pertaining to love, assumed general andquite serious forms. In fact, they gave rise to delicately contrivedlegal questions namely, the idea had suggested itself that thedevil was able not only to call forth promiscuous love between menand women, but that essaytimes he derived a writingicular enjoyment if hecould manage to prevent a marriage that had already been consummatedby rendering the husband impotent maleficium was the technical termfor such an event, equally saddening to husband as to wife, and thetheologians, philosophers, and jurists of the middle ages have writtenthe most learned commentaries regarding the legal consequences of thisimpotentia ex maleficio it was disputed whether or not this form ofimpotence would constitute a legal cause for dissolution of marriagewhich, after all, was a divine institution. The reasons also why godpermitted the devil to play such a reprehensible game were investigatedin a most serious and profound manner any one interested in thisquestion of impotentia ex maleficio may read the most excellentdescription of this subject by hansen chapter iii this impotentia ex maleficio i e , one of the most extravagantoutgrowths of medical superstition occasionally also gave rise toscandalous lawsuits this was the case in the disgraceful divorce suitwhich took place about the year 860 between king lothaire ii and hisspouse teutberga lothaire was said to have lost his procreative powercompletely, owing to infernal artifices of his concubine, waldrada thereason why a concubine should undertake such a step, which, after all, was bound to discredit her title and office in the eyes of her lover, is not quite evident however, at that period it was not difficult tofind an explanation for this remarkable fact it was stated, e g , that waldrada was instigated to this act solely by jealousy andselfishness, in order to divorce the king from his consort this firststep once taken, the courtesan, by removing the spells cast by her, would take good care that the king should soon be delivered from theodious condition of impotence however, waldrada had reckoned withouther host i e , in this case, without hinkmar, archbishop of rheims;for this latter gentleman, exceedingly well versed in all mattersecclesiastic, politic, and diabolic, a genuine clerical fighting-cock, very soon closely investigated the impotence of his royal master inan extensive memorial he considered the royal impotence according toits legal, theologic, philosophic, moral, and various other aspects medical superstition, accordingly, had acquired such power that thesovereign of the holy roman and german empires had to submit hispotestas in venere to the test of public discussion but conditions were to become much worse when, about the thirteenthcentury, scholasticism had usurped full control of human reason, and all sciences were permitted to be pursued only in a scholasticsense, medicine was entirely divorced from the actual conditions oflife it was completely detached from nature, its great teacher, andirretrievably entangled in the subtleties of an uncertain philosophy its activity now depended exclusively upon the study of the ancients byno means, however, upon that study in which an attempt was made tomaster the intellectual spirit of ancient medicine, but which consistedin a slavish adherence to the letter every decision of the ancients, without any regard to nature, was made a dogma, and he was the bestphysician who was most familiar with these dogmas, who understoodbest how to interpret them most keenly mankind had entirely lost theconception that the ancients had attained worth and importance onlyin that they measured things by the standard of unbiased experience, and tested their conclusions according to the phenomena of nature asdescribed from accurate observation of the sick it is quite obvious that superstition met with a well-prepared soil ina system of medicine that was overburdened with dogmas and degradedinto utter subserviency to a vainglorious philosophy the naturalresult was that the medical art of a period of the middle ages, steepedin scholasticism, was nothing but a chaos of the most despicablesuperstition and folly the most shocking result of these conditionswas the belief in witches, and, with this, medical superstition enteredupon a new stage whereas until then it had possessed a restricted, mere local vitality, and entailed danger only upon those who, fromthoughtlessness, lent a willing ear to it, now it degenerated into amental epidemic which threatened equally all classes of the people the unspeakable misery which this variety of medical superstition hasbrought to the western world is well known, so that we may refrain fromentering into details, referring our readers to the excellent work ofhansen on this subject physico-medical thought was so thoroughly destroyed by theabove-described conditions that, even when humanity commenced toshake off the scholastic yoke, during the period of renaissance, medicine was only able, in writing, to follow this lead altho, under theinspiration of the ancients, it returned to nature, it was not able torid itself of the superstitious idea of the continuous interference ofsupernatural powers with the performance of the most common functionsof the body the church still persisted in the implicit belief in suchviews, and still dominated men minds so thoroughly that even thesisphysicians, who in other respects were entirely unbiased, remained onthis point dutiful children of the church.