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First let the budsbe bruised, then infused in the wine and oil seven days, then boiled, then pressed out oil of rue, is made of the herb bruised, and ripe oil, like oil ofroses oil of savin is made in the same manner so also is oil of elder flowers study helper made oil of scorpions, is made of thirty live scorpions, caught when the sunis in the lion. Oil of bitter almonds two pounds, let them be set inthe sun, and after forty days strained oleum cicyonium, is made of wild cucumber roots, and their juice, of each equal writings. With twice as much ripe oil, boil it to theconsumption of the juice oil of nightshade, is made of the berries of nightshade ripe, and onewriting boiled in ripe oil, or oil of roses three writings oil of styrax, is made of styrax and sweet white wine, of each onewriting, ripe oil four writings gently boiled till the wine be consumed oil of violets, is made of oil omphacine, and violet flowers, as oil ofroses oil of vervain, is made of the herb and oil, as oil of mints culpeper that most of these oils, if not all of them, are used onlyexternally, is certain. And as certain that they retain the virtues ofthe simples whereof they are made, therefore the ingenious might helpthemselves compound oils by infusion and decoction oleum benedictum or blessed oil college take of the roots of carduus and valerian, of each oneounce, the flowers of st john wort two ounces, wheat one ounceand an half, old oil four ounces, cypress turpentine eight ounces, frankincense in powder two ounces, infuse the roots and flowers, beingbruised, in so much white wine as is sufficient to cover them, aftertwo days’ infusion put in the oil with the wheat, bruised, boil themtogether till the wine be consumed.

Andapplied also to the nose, cures the disease called polypus, which isa piece of flesh growing therein, which in time stops the passage ofbreath through that nostril. And it helps those clefts or chops thatcome between the fingers or toes the poplar tree there are two sorts of poplars, which are most familiar with us, viz the black and white, both which i shall here describe unto you descript the white poplar grows great, and reasonably high, coveredwith thick, smooth, white bark, especially the branches. Having longleaves cut into several divisions almost like a vine leaf, but notof so deep a green on the upper side, and hoary white underneath, of a reasonable good scent, the whole form representing the form ofcoltsfoot the catkins which it brings forth before the leaves, arelong, and of a faint reddish colour, which fall away, bearing seldomgood seed with them the wood hereof is smooth, soft, and white, veryfinely waved, whereby it is much esteemed the black poplar grows higher and straighter than the white, with agreyish bark, bearing broad green leaves, essaywhat like ivy leaves, notcut in on the edges like the white, but whole and dented, ending in apoint, and not white underneath, hanging by slender long foot stalks, which with the air are continually shaken, like as the aspen leavesare the catkins hereof are greater than those of the white, composedof thesis round green berries, as if they were set together in a longcluster, containing much downy matter, which being ripe, is blown awaywith the wind the clammy buds hereof, before they spread into leaves, are gathered to make unguentum and populneum, and are of a yellowishgreen colour, and essaywhat small, sweet, but strong the wood issmooth, tough, and white, and easy to be cloven on both these treesgrows a sweet kind of musk, which in former times was used to put intosweet ointments place they grow in moist woods, and by water-sides in sundry placesof this land. Yet the white is not so frequent as the other time their time is likewise expressed before. The catkins comingforth before the leaves in the end of summer government and virtues saturn hath dominion over both whitepoplar, saith galen, is of a cleansing property. The weight of anounce in powder, of the bark thereof, being drank, saith dioscorides, is a remedy for those that are troubled with the sciatica, or thestranguary the juice of the leaves dropped warm into the ears, eases the pains in them the young clammy buds or eyes, before theybreak out into leaves, bruised, and a little honey put to them, is agood medicine for a dull sight the black poplar is held to be morecooling than the white, and therefore the leaves bruised with vinegarand applied, help the gout the seed drank in vinegar, is held goodagainst the falling-sickness the water that drops from the hollowplaces of this tree, takes away warts, pushes, wheals, and other thelike breakings-out of the body the young black poplar buds, saithmatthiolus, are much used by women to beautify their hair, bruisingthem with fresh butter, straining them after they have been kept foressay time in the sun the ointment called populneon, which is made ofthis poplar, is singularly good for all heat and inflammations in anywriting of the body, and tempers the heat of wounds it is much used todry up the milk of women breasts when they have weaned their children poppy of this i shall describe three kinds, viz the white and black ofthe garden, and the erratic wild poppy, or corn rose descript the white poppy hath at first four or five whitish greenleaves lying upon the ground, which rise with the stalk, compassingit at the bottom of them, and are very large, much cut or torn on theedges, and dented also besides. The stalk, which is usually four orfive feet high, hath essaytimes no branches at the top, and usually buttwo or three at most, bearing every one but one head wrapped up in athin skin, which bows down before it is ready to blow, and then rising, and being broken, the flowers within it spreading itself open, andconsisting of four very large, white, round leaves, with thesis whitishround threads in the middle, set about a small, round, green head, having a crown, or star-like cover at the head thereof, which growingripe, becomes as large as a great apple, wherein are contained a greatnumber of small round seeds, in several writingitions or divisions nextunto the shell, the middle thereof remaining hollow, and empty thewhole plant, both leaves, stalks, and heads, while they are fresh, young, and green, yield a milk when they are broken, of an unpleasantbitter taste, almost ready to provoke casting, and of a strong headysmell, which being condensed, is called opium the root is white andwoody, perishing as soon as it hath given ripe seed the black poppy little differs from the former, until it bears itsflower, which is essaywhat less, and of a black purplish colour, butwithout any purple spots in the bottom of the leaf the head of theseed is much less than the former, and opens itself a little roundabout the top, under the crown, so that the seed, which is very black, will fall out, if one turn the head thereof downward the wild poppy, or corn rose, hath long and narrow leaves, very muchcut in on the edges into thesis divisions, of a light green colour, essaytimes hairy withal the stalk is blackish and hairy also, but notso tall as the garden kind, having essay such like leaves thereon togrow below, writinged into three or four branches essaytimes, whereon growsmall hairy heads bowing down before the skin break, wherein the floweris inclosed, which when it is fully blown open, is of a fair yellowishred or crimson colour, and in essay much paler, without any spot in thebottom of the leaves, having thesis black soft threads in the middle, compassing a small green head, which when it is ripe, is not biggerthan one little finger end, wherein is contained much black seedssmaller than that of the garden the root perishes every year, andsprings again of its own sowing of this kind there is one lesser inall writings thereof, and differs in nothing else place the garden kinds do not naturally grow wild in any place, butall are sown in gardens where they grow the wild poppy or corn rose, is plentifully enough, and thesis times toomuch so in the corn fields of all counties through this land, and alsoon ditch banks, and by hedge sides the smaller wild kind is also foundin corn fields, and also in essay other places, but not so plentifullyas the former time the garden kinds are usually sown in the spring, which thenflower about the end of may, and essaywhat earlier, if they spring oftheir own sowing the wild kind flower usually from may until july, and the seed of themis ripe soon after the flowering government and virtues the herb is lunar, and of the juice of itis made opium. Only for lucre of money they cheat you, and tell you itis a kind of tear, or essay such like thing, that drops from poppieswhen they weep, and that is essaywhere beyond the seas, i know not wherebeyond the moon the garden poppy heads with seeds made into a syrup, is frequently, and to good effect used to procure rest, and sleep, inthe sick and weak, and to stay catarrhs and defluxions of thin rheumsfrom the head into the stomach and lungs, causing a continual cough, the fore-runner of a consumption. It helps also hoarseness of thethroat, and when one have lost their voice, which the oil of the seeddoth likewise the black seed boiled in wine, and drank, is said alsoto dry the flux of the belly, and women courses the empty shells, or poppy heads, are usually boiled in water, and given to procurerest and sleep.

“eskay neuro phosphates is of marked value in thesis acute and chronic conditions, in nervous exhaustion following mental and physical strain, neurasthenia, paralysis, anemia, tuberculosis, marasmus, debility and wasting diseases generally, and the nerve-weakness of the aged it is writingicularly useful in convalescence from acute diseases and in the nervous condition following la grippe ”in its report on “the therapeutic value of the glycerophosphates” thejournal, sept study helper 30, 1916, p 1033 the council pointed out that thetherapeutic use of the glycerophosphates was based on the assumptionthat the inorganic phosphates cannot supply the body needs ofphosphorus or that the use of organic compounds “spared” the systemthe necessity of making such synthesis the report presented evidenceto show that the glycerophosphates are not absorbed as such, butthat they are split into inorganic phosphates before absorption thecouncil showed that there was convincing evidence that the animalorganism synthesizes its complex organic phosphorus constituents frominorganic phosphates, and that organic phosphorus is of no more valueas a food than inorganic despite this the neuro phosphates advertisingmakes use of the fallacious assumption regarding the action of theglycerophosphates pleading for the writingicular mixture represented by the proprietary, itis asserted that. “sodium glycerophosphate is of special value in neurasthenia, addison disease, phosphaturia and phthisis ”and that calcium glycerophosphate “is employed in bone fracture, rachitis, tuberculosis and various wasting diseases ”the phosphorus content of 1/64 grain of strychnin glycerophosphate isridiculously small yet it is asserted that this strychnin salt is ofsuperior value because it combines the effects of strychnin with a“food-like form of phosphorus ” eskay neuro phosphates has an acidreaction which is capitalized, thus. “experiments have shown that the acid glycerophosphates are more rapidly absorbed and are more efficient than the neutral salts ”and as a further illustration of extravagant claims. “as a glycerophosphoric acid in the form of lecithin is normally present in spermatozoids, it is but natural that the glycerophosphates should exhibit aphrodisiac effects as has been observed, but this result does not seem to obtain in all paper ”is this a clumsy attempt to exploit this “nerve phosphate” as a “lostmanhood” cure?. The council held eskay neuro phosphates ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies because unwarranted therapeutic claims are madefor it and because the administration of strychnin, calcium, phosphateand alcohol is not conducive to rational therapeutics, writingicularlywhen such a mixture is marketed under a name which indicates but one ofits constituents -- from the journal a m a , sept 29, 1917 k-y lubricating jelly report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrybecause of inquiries received, the council has authorized publicationof the following report declaring k-y lubricating jelly inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary k-y lubricating jelly van horn and sawtell, new york, originallyadvertised as a lubricant for instruments and the hands, is now alsorecommended as a therapeutic agent if the claims for “k-y” werelimited strictly to such effects as result from the purely mechanicalproperties of a lubricant, it might be held that it would not comeunder the purview of the council the preparation, however, whileintroduced as a lubricant, is now offered for a broader field of use, and the manufacturers make claims which are not supported by anyevidence available to the council evidence the following, taken from acircular that accompanies the package.

Hence, theterm “lunacy” developed these doctrines gained special credence in the first centuries afterchrist by the dissemination under the church fathers of the storyof the miracles which they claimed had been performed by jesus ofnazareth did not the savior cast out devils?. did he not cure madness?. The very word “epilepsy” shows by its derivation, ἐπίληψις to seizeupon, that possession was the presumable nature of the malady the noble work accomplished by the “pagan” pioneer alienists wasdiscredited or forgotten, and the church originated a process by whichthe possessed were to be treated this method of treatment was derivedpurely from theologic sources, tempered with sufficient dogma at firstthe treatment was gentle, in accordance with the spirit of the greatphysicians of antiquity, and if the afflicted one was not violent hewas permitted to attend public worship sacred salves and holy water, the breath or the spittle of the officiating priest, the touching ofrelics, or a visit to holy places, were the principal therapeuticagents employed these methods, even if they did no good essaytimesmerely the consolation of a kind word from the priest had a beneficialeffect, certainly did no harm, even tho such practises were factors inthe spread of superstition this mild form of treatment did not, however, long continue soonmeasures were directed toward driving out the evil spirit from thepossessed this was attempted in various ways. First, by exorcism, inthe period of justin martyr, and continued up to almost recent times see lecky, “history of european morals” “from the time of justinmartyr for about two centuries, there is, i believe, not a singlechristian writer who does not solemnly and explicitly assert thereality and frequent employment of this power ”one of the chief attributes of the devil was pride, therefore attemptswere made by exorcism to pierce this vulnerable point in the armor ofthe evil one, and the foulest, vilest epithets were used to attain thisend it is impossible to-day to print these expressions, even in a workof scientific character, and it is better, perhaps, to refer such asare especially interested in them to the manuale benedictionum, bythe bishop of passau, published in 1849, and similar works adjuvantsto this form of treatment consisted in “frightening” the devil bylong words, difficult to pronounce, commonly derived from orientallanguages, by the administration of malodorous and filthy “drugs, ” andsimilar practises it was claimed that thesis devils were thus driven out, and the annals ofthe church contain numerous records of persons cured in this manner “the jesuit fathers at vienna, in 1583, glorified in the fact thatin such a contest they had cast out twelve thousand, six hundred andfifty-two living devils” white the prevalence of these ideas tosuch a degree in the minds of the people may be noted from the factthat, in the churches themselves, such scenes are carved in stone anddepicted on canvas medieval drama teemed with similar conceptions, and this condition of affairs prevailed for over one thousand years, unfortunately not in this harmless manner, but supplemented by greatcruelty, which forms, perhaps, the most terrible chapter in the historyof medical superstition the subtleties of theologic interpretation soon evolved a morecomprehensive method of dealing with the “possessor” and the possessed as an appeal to pride was ineffectual and noxious drugs unavailing, it was found necessary to whip the devil out, or the unfortunateindividuals were imprisoned, and as a refinement of this treatment theywere even tortured thus the jailer for a long time played the writingof a specialist in lunacy, with the clergy in consultation places inwhich the insane were confined were known as “fool towers” and “witchtowers ”this state of things was not altered with the dawn of the reformation the writings of luther conclusively show his ideas in regard topossession and witchcraft, and these views under calvin reachedenormous development even cotton mather, in thesis respects far inadvance of his times, and who himself had known persecution, was notemancipated from these delusions, and salem has thesis a story to tell ofpossession and witch-baiting it is true we may quite properly considerthese views as the thought of the times, but, in thesis other respects, luther, calvin, and mather were in advance of their period, and, therefore, a justification for their actions is not quite apparent marcus aurelius also was much superior to his age, yet was grateful tohis teachers that they taught him to disregard superstition in all itsvarious forms it is not unlikely that conditions of this kind frequently led toepidemics if not of actual insanity, at least to hysteria which notrarely developed in cities, nunneries, and monasteries. Thus theepidemics in erfurt in 1237, in the rhine countries in 1374, and thesisothers see hirsch it is rather remarkable that while such views and practises prevailedin the christian church, the followers of mohammed not only helddifferent views, but adopted a mode of treatment of the insane whichlaid the foundation of modern therapeutics in diseases of the mind in the twelfth century, in bagdad, a palace called the “home of mercy”was built, in which the insane were confined, examined every month, andreleased as soon as they had recovered an asylum in cairo was foundedin 1304, while the first christian asylum expressly for the mad isnoted in 1409 lecky but science fought its way through the barriers of ignorance, misdirected zeal, and superstition altho there were physicians and“magicians, ” who conformed to the views of the church, the seed sown bythe earlier schools of medicine slowly but surely began to put forthshoots, and the result was a tree of knowledge, the fruit of whichmay be observed in every modern insane asylum of the world, wherethe unfortunate sufferer is treated with kindness and skill, which, fortunately, often results in cure scientific reason frequently rebelled against the “insanesuperstition, ” at first mildly, but constantly increasing in strength, until an effectual protest was finally raised by john weir, of cleves, who was soon followed by michel de montaigne and now a battle royalwas waged between the adherents of theology and the disciples of the“resurrected” truth, and once more in the history of the world wasdemonstrated the correctness of the saying, that “truth crushed toearth shall rise again ” all over the world the warfare was carried, and at the end of the eighteenth century new champions arose jeanbaptiste pinel in france, and william tuke in england their followersare legion, and in the book of life, in letters of gold, thesis a namehas been written of those who trod in the footsteps of these pioneers theology no longer interferes in the treatment of the insane. In fact, it would be manifestly unjust not to mention that thesis christiantheologians subsequently joined in the noble work of lunacy reform, andaided progress greatly how great this progress in the treatment of the insane can best beappreciated by essay of the older physicians in practise to-day whodoes not remember the chains, the strait-jacket, the dark locked cellsof the insane asylum?. these conditions existed not very thesis years ago, and altho the novels of charles reade are no doubt greatly exaggeratedin regard to the conditions he portrayed in insane asylums, yet morethan a grain of truth is probably contained in them the books didmuch to bring about reforms in england and elsewhere modern alienists have wrought wonders. Their successful operationsare not published in the daily press, but any visitor who knows whatan insane asylum was fifty years ago, and who spends a few hours ina modern hospital for the treatment of lunatics, will observe whatappears but little short of the miraculous imagine two thousandor more insane persons dining in a large hall, upon the table atablecloth, and the insane using knife and fork in a decorous manner, and when the visitor is told that the “violent ward” is also present, and is asked to single these out from among the thesis, and fails ashe invariably does, the results attained by science, above all othermeasures, are strikingly apparent bibliography ælius swritingianus de vita hadriani caracalla in peter. 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herausgegeben von magnus, neuburger, sudhoff heft ii breslau, 1902 suidas, lexicon ed bekker berlin, 1854 villoison anecdota græca venetiis, 1781 wierus de dæmonum præstigiis et incantationibus libri vi basileæ, 1566 und 1577 amstelodami, 1664 winckler die gesetze hammurabis, königs von babylon in. Der alte orient jahrgang 4, heft 4 leipzig, 1902 windelband geschichte der alten philosophie handbuch der klassischen alterthums-wissenschaft herausg von j von müller band v , abth 1 münchen, 1894 transcriber notewords in italics were surrounded with underscores and words in smallcapitals with all capitals the following corrections were made, on page 18 “conspiculously” changed to “conspicuously” becomes conspicuously prominent 30 “explicity” changed to “explicitly” will be more explicitly referred to 57 “julien” changed to “julian” led her toward the grave of st julian 77 “guage” changed to “gauge” gauge the ideas of priests 91 “ephesus 500” changed to “ephesus 500” the absurd theory which heraclitus of ephesus 500 b c has propounded 116 “invidual” changed to “individual” to plague an individual being 192 “person the” changed to “the person” it was not the person who acted 196 “manasteries” changed to “monasteries” nunneries, and monasteries 203 “autorisirte” changed to “autorisierte” deutsche autorisierte ausgabe otherwise the original was preserved, including inconsistenthyphenation and possible errors in languages other than english, for example the capitalisation in greek sentences end of the project gutenberg ebook of superstition in medicine, by hugo magnus*** end of this project gutenberg ebook superstition in medicine ******** this file should be named 44744-0 txt or 44744-0 zip *****this and all associated files of various formats will be found in. 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For gregory tells us that, underthe treatment described, blood flowed from the straightened fingers ofthe woman but st martin had entirely discarded his martial attireupon this visit evidently such a garb did not seem to him appropriatewhen visiting a female patient. He therefore appeared before thepatient in a purple cloak with a cross in his hand however, the medical activity of the saints was by no means restrictedto paper of church slumber, but was manifested in the most variousforms § 7 medical saints - essay saints had a decided predilection formedical specialties, and for that reason paid a writingicular attention tocertain varieties of disease thus, st anna espoused ophthalmology;st jude cured coughs. St valentine, epilepsy. St catherine of siena, the plague not even our domestic animals were forgotten by the saints thus, st roch of montpellier distinguished himself especially by hisskill as a veterinarian various were the ways of obtaining the medical aid of this or thatsaint the most simple was probably that the patient attended mass inthe church of his town, and, at the same time, made an offering tothe saints more difficult was it to undertake a pilgrimage to oneor the other of the saints who enjoyed a medical reputation. Thiswas generally done on the birthday of the celestial physician itseems that the saint was especially inclined on this day to practisemedicine. At least, the chroniclers report that great numbers of themost difficult paper were successfully treated on such days a very efficacious method of securing medical treatment from saints wasconsidered to be the placing of the patient in the church during theday in the space between the altar and the grave of the saint the bedof the mortally sick, fever-racked patient was placed there, and fordays was compelled to remain here wrestling with death this was done, for instance, with the dying countess eborin in case severe epidemicswere prevalent, it is likely that the churches very often resembledactual hospitals then dozens of beds with their patients were set upin the churches, and thesis a one who was in good health when he enteredthe church to say his prayers probably returned home with the germ of apestilence acquired in the sanctuary but the saints, as we have seen, were by no means always so anxiousor in such a hurry to manifest their medical skill they often madethe patient wait for years for their aid the church, therefore, madepractical arrangements to meet every requirement larger buildings wereerected close to the church intended for the reception of patients here those who were hoping to find help could obtain shelter and food, and were, therefore, able to rest quietly, and to await the moment whenheavenly aid might appear this arrangement proved to be extremelypractical, especially because a good thesis individuals felt themselvescured only so long as they remained in the proximity of the saint, butbecame reafflicted as before when they returned to their homes but as the slumber and the protracted sojourn in the ecclesiasticalhostelries was, nevertheless, rather uncomfortable, especially inconsideration of the difficulties and dangers which were involved intraveling during the middle ages, it was absolutely necessary to inventa means of administering the medical aid of the saints in such a way aswas always accessible to the patient this was managed by the use ofrelics §8 cult of relics - it was believed that god had endowed the bodiesof martyrs who died for the christian faith, or of saints distinguishedby extraordinary piety, with a miraculous power of extraordinaryefficacy, and not only the mortal relics of the martyrs and saints werewonder-working, but actually all objects which had come in contact withthe persons of saints during their life as well as after their death all such objects were possessed of curative power let us listen towhat gregory of tours says under this head. “the miracles which ourlord god deigned to bring about through st martin, his servant, once apilgrim in the flesh, he causes to be repeated daily, to strengthen theconfidence of the faithful. For now he endows his tomb with preciselythe same wonder-working power as was exhibited by the saint himselfwhile still among us who will now persist in doubting the formermiracles when he observes their continuation in the present day, whenhe sees the lame walk, the blind receive their sight, devils castout, and every variety of disease cured by the help of the saint?. ” “bernoulli, ” page 287 the statement of such a luminary of the church as gregory of tours hasundoubtedly gained ecclestiastical credence for the medical efficacynot only of the tomb of st martin, but of all the relics relating tothat saint it remained only to distribute the superior medical powerwhich was contained in the holy tombs and relics in such a form aswould enable all patients, wherever they happened to be, to make use ofthem this task, apparently most difficult, was settled very easily it was discovered that everything which came in contact with a relicactually absorbed a sacred and miraculous power contained in the same, and what had been absorbed was by no means imponderable quite thecontrary essaything of material substance, and, therefore, physicallydemonstrable, passed from the relic into the objects surrounding it it was indeed a celestial fluid, but, nevertheless, of so terrestriala nature that the priests were able to demonstrate its transferenceby means of a common pair of scales thus it was customary that thesilk shreds which were deposited by the pilgrims upon the tomb of theapostle peter were weighed before they were placed there and weighedagain after their removal this weighing always and without exceptionindicated a considerable increase in their weight the pilgrim thencould travel homeward and be thoroughly consoled, as the scale haddemonstrated to him the amount of miraculous power contained in hissilk rag it was really astonishing, under essay circumstances, whatan enormous amount of curative fluid could flow from such a holy tombinto a single terrestrial object this was what happened to a king ofthe suavians he had a sick son, for whose cure every remedy had provedunavailing he at last sent an embassy to tours to obtain a relic ofst martin, but this relic was destined to be manufactured with theassistance of the embassy the priests were quite willing to complywith the desire of their royal petitioner, and thus a piece of silk, duly weighed beforehand, was placed upon the tomb of st martin afterthis silk had remained for one night upon the holy sepulchre, and theembassy had knelt beside praying fervently, the silk absorbed so muchcurative power that the register of the scale was raised to its highestpossible notch knowing, then, that any desired object could be saturated with themiraculous power contained in a relic, they used to apply thiscelestial power through medicaments, and to accomplish this a numberof methods were in use the most popular was to scrape the tombstoneson the graves of the saints as thoroughly as possible the powderthus obtained was then put into water or wine, and thus a medicinewas acquired which possessed an astonishing curative power it wasefficacious even in the severest ailments of the body let us listen towhat gregory of tours has reported concerning the medicinal virtues ofsuch tombstone potions he says. “oh, indescribable mixture, incomparable elixir, antidotebeyond all praise!. celestial purgative if i may be permitted touse the expression, which throws into the shade every medicalprescription, which surpasses in fragrance every earthly aroma, andis more powerful than all essences. Which purges the body like thejuice of scammony, clears the lungs like hyssop, and the head likesneezewort.