History

Study Abroad Scholarship Essay


“this solution contains 30 grains of the combined hypophosphites study abroad scholarship essay of lime and soda to the ounce it contains no sugar, no acid and it is perfectly neutral ” “indications for use -- galactostasis, imperfect metabolism, neurasthenia, nervous dyspepsia, insomnia, convalescence, acetonuria, cyclic vomiting in infants, diabetes, starvation, deficiency of lime, mother teeth during pregnancy, dentition of infants, rachitis, furunculosis, vomiting of pregnancy, obesity ” “migraine is often caused by conditions for which this solution is one of the most satisfactory remedies:” “in insomnia due to advancing age, it will often act as a hypnotic ”of the hypophosphites the schlotterbeck & foss company say. “if ‘damning it with faint praise’ on the writing of essay of the leading medical authorities, or utterly condemning it as useless, on the writing of others, would kill a medicine, the hypophosphites would long since have disappeared as medicinal agents negative testimony in regard to the value of a drug does not settle anything ”of their own preparation they say. “when we get the results that ought to follow the administration of hypophosphites, we have proved that schlotterbeck solution enters the system unchanged ” “this solution is primarily a blood and nerve tonic and chemical food ”schlotterbeck solution of hypophosphites of lime and soda is asemisecret preparation marketed under claims that are both unwarrantedand misleading robinson hypophosphitesaccording to the manufacturers, the robinson-pettet company, louisville, ky , each fluidounce of this preparation contains. “hypophosphites soda 2 gr hypophosphites lime 1-1/2 gr hypophosphites iron 1-1/2 gr hypophosphites quinin 3/4 gr hypophosphites strychnine 1/16 gr ”it is claimed to be “nutritive, tonic alterative a standard remedy in the treatment of pulmonary phthisis, bronchitis, scrofulous taint, general debility, etc stimulates digestion, promotes assimilation ”the declared composition of the preparation is unscientific, and thetherapeutic claims are unwarranted eupeptic hypophosphitesnelson, baker & co , detroit, mich , who market eupeptichypophosphites, call this preparation. “a superior combination containing the hypophosphites of potassium, calcium, iron and manganese, and the bitter tonics, quinin and strychnin, agreeably associated with natural digestive ferments of the pancreatic secretion it is thus a general reconstructive tonic the remedy is of especial value in the treatment of mental and nervous affections it is indicated in pulmonary tuberculosis, in all wasting diseases, in debilitated conditions generally and in all exhaustion from over work ”on the basis of the manufacturer statement, eupeptic hypophosphitesmust be regarded as a semisecret, unscientific, shotgun preparation, exploited through unwarranted therapeutic claims mcarthur syrup of the hypophosphites comp lime and sodaso far as the recent literature and trade package are concerned, noinformation as to the composition of this product is furnished beyondwhat is conveyed in the name the advertising for mcarthur syrup, like that for fellows’ syrup and peters’ syrupus roborans, has beenmodified as time has passed a few years ago it was advertised undersuch claims as the following. “ has stood the test during thesis years for unequaled efficacy in the treatment of tuberculosis indicated also as a tonic and tissue builder in convalescence from fevers, in nervous diseases, rickets, senile debility and bronchitis ” “its use is indicated in diseases of the chest, chronic cough, throat affections, general debility, brain exhaustion, cholera infantum and wasting diseases of children ”at present no definite claims seem to be made for it. The manufacturersevidently find the magic name of hypophosphites sufficient to evokethe spell for which the advertisement writer aid was once sought a testimonial contained in a circular which seems to be still usedillustrates both the kind of aura which surrounds hypophosphites inthe minds of physicians who are still living in the past, and the kindof logic which has made the reputation of this and thesis other equallyworthless preparations “just about six years ago i had a severe attack of la grippe which almost killed me left me with asthma catarrh and a severe cough did not get out of the house for three months took over a dozen bottles mcarthur hypophos -- came out all right and since then worked hard, but last fall took another cold, but worked on, used mcarthur hypophos , am using it now, am on my 12th bottle “i have five or six patients whom i have put on mcarthur hypophos , but i do not prescribe the single bottle, but wholesale no less than half dozen bottles one patient is on his 24th bottle with orders to get another half dozen and keep it up all winter i have given the same order to all keep it up all winter and i myself intend to do the same, for with its use i have lost no time-- rain or shine i am doing my work i know what it has done for me and what it is doing for my patients ”it would be hard to find a more characteristic example of the naïvemental processes of the simple folk who in all good faith writetestimonials for worthless medicines this well-meaning practitioner a homeopath, by the way, because he “came out all right” after anattack of grip, returns all praise to mcarthur hypophosphites, whichhe has taken “wholesale ” not the faintest doubt of the validity ofhis post hoc ergo propter hoc argument seems to glimmer across hisconsciousness mcarthur syrup of the hypophosphites is an irrational preparation while its faults are fewer and less glaring than those of essay otherproprietaries, the circulation of such a testimonial as the one justquoted is sufficient of itself to cast suspicion on the product borcherdt malt olive with hypophosphites, maltzyme with hypophosphites and maltine with olive oil and hypophosphitesthese preparations are now described in the appendix to new andnonofficial remedies borcherdt malt olive with hypophosphites borcherdt malt extract company, chicago is said to contain in each100 c c , 0 64 gm each of calcium and sodium hypophosphites, withmalt extract, olive oil and glycerine maltzyme with hypophosphites malt-diastase company, new york is said to contain, in each100 c c , 0 4 gm each of calcium, sodium and potassium hypophosphitesand 0 005 gm each of iron and manganese hypophosphites, withmaltzyme maltine with hypophosphites maltine company, brooklyn, n y is said to contain in each 100 c c , 0 64 gm each of calciumand sodium hypophosphites and 0 42 gm of iron hypophosphite, withmaltine maltine with olive oil and hypophosphites maltine company, brooklyn, n y is said to contain, in each 100 c c , 0 6 gm eachof calcium and sodium hypophosphites, with maltine and olive oil ingeneral, no therapeutic claims are made for these mixtures so far asthe hypophosphites are concerned the addition of hypophosphites tosuch mixtures is irrational and, since it tends to perpetuate thehypophosphite fallacy, detrimental to sound therapeutics the council actionthe council endorsed the conclusions of the work of dr marriottreferred to above, and noted. 1 that the therapeutic use ofhypophosphites except possibly in essay paper as a convenient means ofadministering the positive element in the salt, as ammonium in ammoniumhypophosphite or calcium in calcium hypophosphite is irrational. 2that the merits of each hypophosphite salt submitted for considerationunder the foregoing exception must be judged individually, and 3that fellows’ syrup of hypophosphites, peters’ syrupus roborans, schlotterbeck solution hypophosphites of lime and soda, robinsonhypophosphites, the eupeptic hypophosphites of nelson, baker &co , and mcarthur syrup of the hypophosphites are ineligible forinclusion in new and nonofficial remedies, and that borcherdt maltolive with hypophosphites, maltzyme with hypophosphites, maltinewith hypophosphites, and maltine with olive oil and hypophosphitesbe deleted from the appendix of n n r of these preparations, all are in conflict with rule 10. Fellows’ syrup, schlotterbecksolution, robinson hypophosphites and nelson, baker & co eupeptichypophosphites are in conflict with rule 6.

It is indeed a very fine kind of medicine to ripen sores study abroad scholarship essay 2 they are made of herbs and roots, fitted for the disease, andmembers afflicted, being chopped small, and boiled in water almost toa jelly. Then by adding a little barleymeal, or meal of lupins, and alittle oil, or rough sweet suet, which i hold to be better, spread upona cloth and apply to the grieved places 3 their use is to ease pain, to break sores, to cool inflammations, to dissolve hardness, to ease the spleen, to concoct humours, anddissipate swellings 4 i beseech you take this caution along with you. Use no poultices ifyou can help it that are of an healing nature, before you have firstcleansed the body, because they are subject to draw the humours to themfrom every writing of the body chapter xiii of troches 1 the latins call them placentula, or little cakes, and the greeksprochikois, kukliscoi, and artiscoi. They are usually littleround flat cakes, or you may make them square if you will 2 their first invention was, that powders being so kept might resistthe intermission of air, and so endure pure the longer 3 besides, they are easier carried in the pockets of such as travel;as thesis a man for example is forced to travel whose stomach is toocold, or at least not so hot as it should be, which is most proper, for the stomach is never cold till a man be dead. In such a case, itis better to carry troches of wormwood, or galangal, in a paper in hispocket, than to lay a gallipot along with him 4 they are made thus. At night when you go to bed, take two drams offine gum tragacanth. Put it into a gallipot, and put half a quarter ofa pint of any distilled water fitting for the purpose you would makeyour troches for to cover it, and the next morning you shall find it insuch a jelly as the physicians call mucilage. With this you may witha little pains taken make a powder into a paste, and that paste intocakes called troches 5 having made them, dry them in the shade, and keep them in a pot foryour use chapter xiv of pills 1 they are called pilulæ, because they resemble little balls. Thegreeks call them catapotia 2 it is the opinion of modern physicians, that this way of makingmedicines, was invented only to deceive the palate, that so byswallowing them down whole, the bitterness of the medicine might not beperceived, or at least it might not be unsufferable. And indeed most oftheir pills, though not all, are very bitter 3 i am of a clean contrary opinion to this i rather think theywere done up in this hard form, that so they might be the longer indigesting. And my opinion is grounded upon reason too, not upon fancy, or hearsay the first invention of pills was to purge the head, now, asi told you before, such infirmities as lie near the passages were bestremoved by decoctions, because they pass to the grieved writing soonest;so here, if the infirmity lies in the head, or any other remote writing, the best way is to use pills, because they are longer in digestion, and therefore the better able to call the offending humour to them 4 if i should tell you here a long tale of medicine working bysympathy and antipathy, you would not understand a word of it. Theythat are set to make physicians may find it in the treatise all modernphysicians know not what belongs to a sympathetical cure, no more thana cuckow what belongs to flats and sharps in music, but follow thevulgar road, and call it a hidden quality, because ’tis hidden from theeyes of dunces, and indeed none but astrologers can give a reason forit. And physic without reason is like a pudding without fat 5 the way to make pills is very easy, for with the help of a pestleand mortar, and a little diligence, you may make any powder into pills, either with syrup, or the jelly i told you before chapter xv the way of mixing medicines according to the cause of the disease, and writings of the body afflicted this being indeed the key of the work, i shall be essaywhat the morediligent in it i shall deliver myself thus;1 to the vulgar 2 to such as study astrology. Or such as study physic astrologically 1st, to the vulgar kind souls, i am sorry it hath been your hardmishap to have been so long trained in such egyptian darkness which toyour sorrow may be felt. The vulgar road of physic is not my practice, and i am therefore the more unfit to give you advice i have nowpublished a little book, galen art of physic, which will fullyinstruct you, not only in the knowledge of your own bodies, but alsoin fit medicines to remedy each writing of it when afflicted.

If the head bewashed therewith, it stays the falling and shedding of the hair thegreen leaves saith pliny beaten with nitre, and applied, draw outthorns or prickles in the flesh the marshmallows are more effectual in all the diseases beforementioned. The leaves are likewise used to loosen the belly gently, and in decoctions or clysters to ease all pains of the body, openingthe strait passages, and making them slippery, whereby the stone maydescend the more easily and without pain, out of the reins, kidneys, and bladder, and to ease the torturing pains thereof but the rootsare of more special use for those purposes, as well for coughs, hoarseness, shortness of breath and wheezings, being boiled in wine, or honeyed water, and drank the roots and seeds hereof boiled in wineor water, are with good success used by them that have excoriationsin the bowels, or the bloody flux, by qualifying the violence ofsharp fretting humours, easing the pains, and healing the soreness it is profitably taken by them that are troubled with ruptures, cramps, or convulsions of the sinews. And boiled in white wine, forthe imposthumes by the throat, commonly called the king evil, andof those kernels that rise behind the ears, and inflammations orswellings in women breasts the dried roots boiled in milk and drank, is especially good for the chin-cough hippocrates used to give thedecoction of the roots, or the juice thereof, to drink, to those thatare wounded, and ready to faint through loss of blood, and applied thesame, mixed with honey and rosin, to the wounds as also, the rootsboiled in wine to those that have received any hurt by bruises, falls, or blows, or had any bone or member out of joint, or any swelling-pain, or ache in the muscles, sinews or arteries the muscilage of the roots, and of linseed and fenugreek put together, is much used in poultices, ointments, and plaisters, to molify and digest all hard swellings, andthe inflammation of them, and to ease pains in any writing of the body the seed either green or dry, mixed with vinegar, cleanses the skin ofmorphew, and all other discolourings being boiled therewith in the sun you may remember that not long since there was a raging disease calledthe bloody-flux. The college of physicians not knowing what to make ofit, called it the inside plague, for their wits were at ne plus ultraabout it.

And the clerk must certify thereon, under officialseal, the fact and date of the record, and return the certificate809 a practitioner engaged in the practice of medicine in any dewritingmentprior to may 31st, 1889, upon the production of a diploma from amedical college recognized by the american medical association, isgranted a certificate, without further examination and without charge811 exceptions - this act is not applicable to persons who have compliedwith prior laws, nor to females practising midwifery, strictly as such no other person shall practise medicine in any of its branches ordewritingments, without having obtained and recorded a certificate s 812 penalty - practising as a physician without a certificate is punishableby imprisonment not exceeding six months, or a fine not exceeding $2002, 669 fees - to clerk, legal fee for recording 809 to board, $10 from each applicant whether certificate granted or not810 georgia study abroad scholarship essay the code of 1882, s 1, 409 a as amended by chap 413, laws 1882-83, provides that qualification - no person is to practise medicine, unless he wastheretofore legally authorized, or is hereafter authorized by a diplomafrom an incorporated medical college, medical school or university, orhas after attending one or more full terms at a regularly charteredmedical college, been in active practice of medicine since the year1866, or was by law authorized to practise medicine in 1866, and bycompliance with the statute definition - to “practise medicine” means to suggest, recommend, prescribe, or direct, for the use of any person, any drug, medicine, appliance, apparatus, or other agency, whether material or notmaterial, for the cure, relief, or palliation of any ailment or diseaseof mind or body, or for the cure or relief of any wound, fracture, orother bodily injury, or any deformity, after having received or withthe intent of receiving therefor, either directly or indirectly, anybonus, gift, or compensation 1, 409 b registration - every person now lawfully engaged in practice mustregister on or before december 1st, 1881. Every person hereafter dulyqualified shall, before commencing to practise, register in the officeof the clerk of the superior court of the county wherein he resides andis practising, or intends to practise, his name, residence, and placeof birth, together with his authority. He shall subscribe or verify, by oath or affirmation, before a person duly qualified to administeroaths under the laws of this state, an affidavit containing such facts, and whether such authority is by diploma or license, and the date ofthe same, and by whom granted, which shall be exhibited to the countyclerk, before the applicant is allowed to register, and which, ifwilfully false, is punishable as false swearing 1, 409 c removal - a registered physician changing his residence from countyto county must register in the clerk office of the county to whichhe removes and wherein he intends to reside and to practise medicine1, 409 d penalty - the violation of this law or practising, or offering topractise, without lawful authority, or under cover of a diploma orlicense illegally obtained, is a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine offrom $100 to $500, or imprisonment from thirty to ninety days, or both1, 409 e exceptions - commissioned medical officers of the united states army ornavy, or united states marine hospital service, and women practisingonly midwifery, are not affected 1, 409 f medical boards - all medical boards are abolished, and only thequalifications of practitioners of medicine set forth above arerequired 1, 409 g fees - to county clerk, fifty cents for each registration s 1, 409 c tax - on practitioners of physic, $5 per annum 809 idaho qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine or surgery whohas not received a medical education, and a diploma from a regularlychartered medical school, having a bona fide existence when thediploma was granted rev stats , 1887, s 1, 298 a physician or surgeon must file for record with the county recorderof the county in which he is about to practise, or where he practises, a copy of his diploma, at the same time exhibiting the original, ora certificate from the dean of a medical school certifying to hisgraduation 1, 298 a when filing the copy required, he must be identified as the personnamed in the papers, by the affidavit of two citizens of the county, orby his affidavit taken before a notary public or commissioner of deedsfor this state. And the affidavit is filed in the office of the countyrecorder 1, 298 b penalty - practising without complying with the act is a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of from $50 to $500, or imprisonment in a countyjail from thirty days to six months, or both fine and imprisonment foreach offence filing or attempting to file as his own the diploma or certificate ofgraduation of another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is afelony. Subject to fine and imprisonment 1, 298 c. S 6, 312 exceptions - the act is not applicable to a person in an emergencyprescribing or giving advice in medicine or surgery, in a townshipwhere no physician resides within convenient distance, nor to thosewho have practised medicine or surgery in this state for ten yearspreceding the passage of this act, nor to persons prescribing in theirown families, nor to midwifery in places where no physician resideswithin convenient distance 1, 298 e. As amended by act offebruary 7th, 1889 fees - no special fees are enumerated in the statute the countyrecorder fees for services are prescribed in rev stats , 1887, s 2, 128 illinois qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine in any ofits dewritingments unless he possesses the qualifications required if agraduate in medicine, he must present his diploma to the state boardof health for verification as to its genuineness if the diploma isfound genuine, and from a legally chartered medical institution in goodstanding, and if the person named therein be the person claiming andpresenting the same, the board must issue a certificate conclusive asto his right to practise medicine if not a graduate, the person mustpresent himself before the said board and submit to examination, andif the examination is satisfactory the board must issue certificate laws 1887, p 225, s 1 the verification of a diploma consists in the affidavit of the holderand applicant that he is the person therein named the affidavit may betaken before any person authorized to administer oaths, and attestedunder the hand and official seal of such officer if he have a seal swearing falsely is perjury graduates may present their diplomas andaffidavits by letter or proxy 3 all examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates are made bythe board. And certificates authorize their possessor to practisemedicine and, surgery 4 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the clerk of thecounty in which the holder resides within three months from its date, and the date of recording indorsed until recorded, the holder cannotlawfully exercise the rights and privileges conferred a personremoving to another county to practise must record his certificate inthe county to which he removes 5 examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing and shall be ofelementary and practical character, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner 8 the board may refuse to issue a certificate to a person guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct, and may revoke for like causes the applicant in case of a refusal or revocation may appeal to thegovernor and his decision will be final 9 definition - “practising medicine” is defined as treating, operatingon, or prescribing for any physical ailment of another the actdoes not prohibit services in case of emergency, nor the domesticadministration of family remedies, and does not apply to commissionedsurgeons of the united states army, navy, or marine hospital service inthe discharge of official duty 10 itinerant vender - an itinerant vender of drug, nostrum, ointment, orappliance intended for treatment of disease or injury, or professingby writing, printing, or other method to cure or treat disease ordeformity by drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, must paya license fee of $100 per month into the treasury of the board theboard may issue such license selling without a license is punishableby fine of from $100 to $200 for each offence the board may for causerefuse a license 11 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without a certificate ispunishable by a forfeiture of $100 for the first offence, and $200 foreach subsequent offence. Filing or attempting to file as his own thecertificate of another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is afelony, punishable as forgery exceptions - the act saves for six months after its passage the rightof persons who have practised continuously for ten years in the stateprior to its passage, to receive a certificate under former act butall persons holding a certificate on account of ten years’ practice aresubject to all requirements and discipline of this act in regard totheir future conduct. All persons not having applied for or receivedcertificates within said six months, and all persons whose applicationshave for the causes named been rejected, or their certificates revoked, shall, if they practise medicine, be deemed guilty of practising inviolation of law 12 penalty - on conviction of the offence mentioned in the act, the courtmust, as a writing of the judgment, order the defendant to be committed tothe county jail until the fine and costs are paid 13 fees - to the secretary of the board, for each certificate to agraduate or licentiate, $5 2 for graduates or licentiates in midwifery, $2 2 to county clerk, usual fees for making record to treasury of board, for examination of non-graduates. $20, inmedicine and surgery. $10, in midwifery only if the applicant fails to pass, the fees are returned if he passes, acertificate issues without further charge 7 indiana qualification - it is unlawful to practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics without a license act april 11th, 1885, s 1 the license is procured from the clerk of the circuit court of thecounty where the person resides or desires to locate to practise. Itauthorizes him to practise anywhere within the state. The applicantmust file with the clerk his affidavit stating that he has regularlygraduated in essay reputable medical college, and must exhibit to theclerk the diploma held by him, his affidavit, and the affidavit of tworeputable freeholders or householders of the county stating that theapplicant has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetricsin the state continuously for ten years immediately preceding thedate of taking effect of this act, stating writingicularly the localityor localities in which he has practised during the said period, andthe date and length of time in each locality. Or his affidavit andthe affidavit of two reputable freeholders or householders of thecounty, stating that he has resided and practised medicine, surgery, and obstetrics in the state continuously for three years immediatelypreceding the taking effect of this act, and stating writingicularly thelocalities in which he practised during the said period, and the dateand length of time in each locality, and that he, prior to said date, attended one full course of lectures in essay reputable medical college the clerk must record the license and the name of the college in whichthe applicant graduated, and the date of his diploma 2, asamended by act march 9th, 1891 a license issued to a person who has not complied with the requirementsof sec 2, or one procured by any false affidavit, is void act april11, 1885, s 3 penalty - practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics without a licenseis a misdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $10 to $200 s 4 no cause of action lies in favor of any person as a physician, surgeon, or obstetrician who has not prior to the service procured a license;and money paid or property paid for such services to a person not solicensed, or the value thereof, may be recovered back 5 exemptions - women practising obstetrics are exempted from theprovisions of the act 4 fees - to clerk, for license, $1 50 act april 11th, 1885, as amendedact march 9th, 1891 registration - it is the duty of all physicians and accoucheurs toregister their name and post-office address with the clerk of thecircuit court of the county in which they reside act 1881, p 37, s 10 fees - to the clerk, for registration, 10 cents 11 iowa qualification - every person practising medicine, surgery, orobstetrics, in any of their dewritingments, if a graduate in medicine, must present his diploma to the state board of examiners forverification as to its genuineness if the diploma is found genuine, and is by a medical school legally organized and of good standing, which the board determines, and if the person presenting be theperson to whom it was originally granted, then the board must issuea certificate signed by not less than five physicians thereof, representing one or more physicians of the schools on the board sic, and such certificate is conclusive if not a graduate, aperson practising medicine or surgery, unless in continuous practice inthis state for not less than five years, of which he must present tothe board satisfactory evidence in the form of affidavits, must appearbefore the board for examination all examinations are in writing;all examination papers with the reports and action of examiners arepreserved as records of the board for five years the subjects ofexamination are anatomy, physiology, general chemistry, pathology, therapeutics, and the principles and practice of medicine, surgery, andobstetrics each applicant, upon receiving from the secretary of theboard an order for examination, receives also a confidential number, which he must place upon his examination papers so that, when thepapers are passed upon, the examiners may not know by what applicantthey were prepared upon each day of examination all candidates aregiven the same set or sets of questions the examination papersare marked on a scale of 100 the applicant must attain an averagedetermined by the board. If such examination is satisfactory to atleast five physicians of the board, representing the different schoolsof medicine on the board, the board must issue a certificate, whichentitles the lawful holder to all the rights and privileges in the actprovided laws 1886, c 104, s 1 the board receives applications through its secretary five physiciansof the board may act as an examining board in the absence of the fullboard. Provided that one or more members of the different schoolsof medicine represented in the state board of health shall also berepresented in the board of examiners 2 the affidavit of the applicant and holder of a diploma that he is theperson therein named, and is the lawful possessor thereof, is necessaryto verify the same, with such other testimony as the board may require diplomas and accompanying affidavits may be presented in person or byproxy if a diploma is found genuine and in possession of the person towhom it was issued, the board, on payment of the fee to its secretary, must issue a certificate if a diploma is found fraudulent or notlawfully in possession of the holder or owner, the person presentingit, or holding or claiming possession, is guilty of a misdemeanor, punishable with a fine of from $20 to $100 3 the certificate must be recorded in the office of the county recorderin the county wherein the holder resides, within sixty days after itsdate should he remove from one county to another to practise medicine, surgery, or obstetrics, his certificate must be recorded in the countyto which he removes the recorder must indorse upon the certificate thedate of record 4 any one failing to pass is entitled to a second examination withintwelve months without a fee. Any applicant for examination, by noticein writing to the secretary of the board, is entitled to examinationwithin three months from the time of notice, and the failure togive such opportunity entitles such applicant to practise without acertificate until the next regular meeting of the board the boardmay issue certificates to persons who, upon application, present acertificate of having passed a satisfactory examination before anyother state board of medical examiners, upon the payment of the feeprovided in sec 3 6, as amended c 66, laws 1888, 22 gen assembly the board may refuse a certificate to a person who has been convictedof felony committed in the practice of his profession, or in connectiontherewith.

  • how to write a memoir essay
  • islam essay
  • buy cheap papers
  • mental illness essay
  • papers buy
  • essay zoo
  • essay question examples
  • buy an essay for $5
  • essay paragraph
  • debate essay
  • order essay papers online
  • professional resume writing services
  • essay com
  • essay writing service research paper
  • volunteer experience essay
  • is there someone can help me to write an essay
  • need someone to review my essay
  • best college writing services
  • exemplification essay
  • rhetorical essay example
  • mla citation in essay

“omnis cum coelo fortunæ pendeat ordo ”in the thirteenth chapter of the second book the poet maintains thateach writing of the human body is subordinate to a distinct sign of thezodiac thus, for instance, the head to aries, etc altho the further development of occidental as well as orientalastrology drew its resources from the primeval assyrian, babylonian, and egyptian doctrines, yet from the second century, a d , theastronomic work of ptolemy and the exhaustive description of antiquemedicine by galen derive their inspiration from medicina astrologica whatever these two great masters were able to report of the dependenceof the functions of the body upon celestial bodies was from then on, without further inspection and examination, acknowledged to be trueby the great majority of physicians only occasionally this or thatpractitioner is bold enough to oppose the intrusion of astrologicvagaries into the art of healing. Among these radicals was thephilosophically trained physician, sextus empiricus, who lived aboutthe year 193, a d however, this protest of brave sextus, as well asall subsequent ones, scarcely had any influence upon the astrologicaldevelopment of medicine astrology could not be arrested on its roadto the domination of the world, and until the seventeenth century itcontrolled the thought of physicians with the same invincible sway thatit exercised over the mental life of all other professions and classes medico-astrological superstition had become legalized, and this inspite of the fact that galen himself at last expressed his distrust ofthe medicina astrologica, and at least endeavored to extenuate hiswriting in its dissemination let us now scrutinize more minutely the condition of medicinaastrologica in the second century, a d the works of ptolemy, the“iatromathematica” of the mysterious hermes trismegistus, and the thirdbook of galen writing on the “critical days” furnish sufficientmaterial for outlining the medico-astrological system of that period in the first place, the method by which the authors of thatperiod instilled their astrologic dotage into the minds of theircontemporaries varied considerably either astrological remarks werehere and there interspersed in a work on medical or on astronomicalsubjects, as was the case, for instance, in the “opus quadriwritingitum”of ptolemy and also in galen book on the “critical days, ” orastrology was treated as a special science in the form of a connectedsystem, as is done, for instance, in the “iatromathematica” of hermestrismegistus such textbooks of astrology obtained publicity in largenumbers from about the fourteenth century on whoever may be inclinedto cast a glance into the learned work of sudhoff will be astonished toobserve the extent to which iathromathematics flourished in the secondhalf of the middle ages and at the turning-point of the renaissance still another form was to imwriting to the public their astrologicaldoctrines in the form of short sentences we find nothing in such worksregarding the intricate calculations and methods by which endeavorswere made to fathom the language of the stars, but astrological resultswere communicated in concise, aphoristic sentences this was done inthe “centiloquium” of ptolemy, a work which in a hundred brief sayingsbrings an epitome of astrological wisdom to market the work enjoyedthe highest esteem in the middle ages such a book, therefore, wouldcorrespond to that form of modern literary production, which, underthe title “method of acquiring this or that accomplishment within ashort period, ” is advertised to us modern people in the daily press moreover, the “centiloquium” of ptolemy had thesis imitators sucha work is found, for instance, in arabic literature, and containsastrologic wisdom condensed into 150 brief sentences by the astrologeralmansor, who furnished the handbook upon request of his ruler. Thearabian, bethem, has produced a similar work we find analogous worksappearing later in the middle ages eventually, the doctrines ofastrology were put into neat rhymes. Thus, for instance, heinrich vonrantzau, who dewritinged this life 1598 as governor of schleswig-holstein, celebrates in 100 well-turned verses the significance of the planetsin relation to the physical and mental welfare of humanity we shallagain refer to this subject when considering astrology of the middleages the iatromathematic passages in the above-mentioned writingsof ptolemy, hermes, and galen furnished the foundation for all laterastrologico-medical theories for what the middle ages believedregarding the medical importance of the sidereal world, especially ofthe planets and the zodiac, was nothing but the immediate continuation, or elaboration, of the astrologic teachings of ptolemy and otherauthors of the first christian centuries in the first place, every portion of the human frame was placed underthe influence of a certain celestial body the five planets already known to the ancients, as well as sun andmoon, governed, according to hermes, the following writings of the body. The sun, the right eye the moon, the left eye saturn, hearing jupiter, the brain mars, the blood venus, taste and smell mercury, tongue and gullet however, the influence which sun, moon, and the planets exercisedupon the human body gradually became more intricate it was no longersatisfactory to enumerate relations between the bodies of heaven andthe human organs of such a general nature as given by the above tableof hermes all writings and functions of the body were to be broughtinto the closest relations with the planets thus, for instance, thecelebrated humanist, marsilius ficinus, the friend of the medici 1433to 1499, depicts most minutely in a book “on life, ” which was muchread in its time, the relations between the body and the planets thiswas also done by heinrich von rantzau, in his “tractus astrologicus, ”which in its time was very celebrated there we read regarding theseconditions as follows. Saturn governs the spleen, the bladder, the bones, the teeth, and, in writing, the circulating juices of the body. Causes the color of the skin of man to be dark yellowish. Impedes or promotes growth. Causes the eyes to be small, and prevents the growth of the beard jupiter governs the lungs, the ribs, cartilages, the liver, arteries, the pulse, and the development of human semen.