History

Strengths And Weaknesses Essay


Alpha-napthol 18 per cent , soap 20 per cent , glycerin and water sufficient to make 100 per cent 120 alpha-napthol was also found to be the basisof the nostrum benetol see the journal, april 15, 1911, p 1128 a ziratol advertising circular gives a tabulated report of germicidaltests, said to have been made according to the method of the hygieniclaboratory of the u s public health service when this work wasdone is not stated according to these tests ziratol possesses aphenol-coefficient of 13 66 the claim that ziratol is ten times moreefficient than carbolic acid phenol is evidently based on this report these claims of high germicidal value are contradicted by anexamination made for the council a specimen purchased in the openmarket was examined independently by two operators, to determine thehygienic laboratory phenol-coefficient one observer found the phenolcoefficient to be 2 54 the other reported it to be 3 09 evidently thegermicidal value of ziratol is greatly exaggerated in the advertisingclaims and, in fact, does not exceed that of the official compoundsolution of cresol liquor cresolis compositus, u s p for whicha phenol-coefficient of about three has been established see newand nonofficial remedies, 1917, p 82 the claim that ziratol is“the universal antiseptic and germicide” is manifestly an unwarrantedexaggeration the referee in submitting this report to the council recommended thatziratol be held in conflict with rule 1 secrecy of composition andrule 6 unwarranted and exaggerated claims after the report had beensubmitted, it was found that a new advertising circular, accompanyinga trade package, no longer contained the claim that “ziratol is tentimes more efficient than carbolic acid ” the older circular made thefollowing statement. “1 strong activity -- compared with the bactericidal action of carbolic acid by the method of the hygienic laboratory of the marine hospital service, ziratol has the carbolic acid coefficient of more than ten, that is, ziratol is ten times more efficient than carbolic acid, -- a strength unapproached by any other of its class ziratol in dilution of 1:1400 kills the typhoid bacillus in 2-1/2 minutes, thus proving that it is strongly active even in very weak solutions ”the new advertising circular reads. “1 strong activity-- extensive bacteriological investigations on thesis pathogenic organisms, conducted in the lederle laboratories of new york, prove conclusively the high bactericidal value of ziratol in extremely dilute solutions a copy of the complete report will be mailed upon request ”in response to a request, the bristol-myers company sent a copy ofthe bacteriologic investigations of ziratol, said to have been madeby the lederle laboratories the organisms employed for these testswere staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus albus, streptococcus, green pus bacillus, b coli, and saliva no tests are given with thetyphoid bacillus the conclusion is reached that “in all the tests thesolutions of ziratol have several times greater killing efficiencythan those of phenol ” the “coefficients” or comparative values whichcan be calculated from the results after exposure of 15 minutes to thedisinfectants range from 2 0 to 4 0 this is in substantial accordwith the referee findings as regards the phenol-coefficient with b typhosus as the test object while the new advertising circular avoidsthe former claim that ziratol is ten times more efficient than carbolicacid, in germicidal value, it still makes the unwarranted claims thatziratol is the “universal disinfectant ”the council declared ziratol inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies 1 because its composition is secret rule 1.

In 1689 a work on the examination of woundsand the distinction between ante-mortem and post-mortem wounds, andbetween death by injury, strangulation, and drowning 66 in 1704 awork giving rules for the conduct of physicians in attending the sickand in giving evidence in the courts 67 at about the same period m b valentini, professor in the university of giessen, published threeimportant works, containing collections of medico-legal paper, and ofthe opinions and decisions of previous writers 68 another extensivecollection of paper and decisions was published in 1706 by j f zittmann, from a ms left by professor c j lange, of the universityof leipzig;69 and still another by j s hasenest70 appeared in1755 during the latter writing of the eighteenth century, the germanscultivated legal medicine assiduously, and a great number of works uponthe subject were published among these may be mentioned those of m alberti, professor at the university of halle;71 h f teichmeyer, of the university of jena;72 a o gölicke, of the universities ofhalle and duisburg, who was the first to prepare a bibliography ofthe subject;73 j f fasel faselius, professor at jena;74 j e hebenstreit and c s ludwig, professors at leipzig;75 c f daniel, of halle;76 j d metzger, professor at königsberg, the author ofa number of works, one of which, a compendium, was translated intoseveral other languages;77 j v müller, of frankfurt;78 j c t schlegel, who collected a series of more than forty dissertations byvarious writers;79 m m sikora, of prague;80 j j von plenck, professor in vienna, who published a work on forensic medicine andone on toxicology;81 k f uden, subsequently professor in st petersburg, who was the first to publish a periodical journal devotedto legal medicine, which was afterward continued by j f pyl atstendal;82 and j c fahner 83at this period compends for students were published in gerthesis, whichindicate by their number the extent to which this science was thesubject of study among these those of ludwig 1765, kannegieser 1768, von plenck 1781, frenzel 1791, loder 1791, amemann 1793, metzger 1800, and roose may be mentioned the germans of the present century have maintained the pre-eminencein legal medicine achieved by their forefathers among a greatnumber of investigators and writers a few may be mentioned. C f l wildberg, professor at rostock, was a most prolific writer, editeda journal devoted to state medicine, and contributed a valuablebibliography of the subject;84 a f hecker, professor at erfurthand afterward at berlin, and j h kopp each edited and contributedextensively to a medico-legal journal 85 a much more importantperiodical was established in 1821 by adolph henke, professor inberlin, and was continuously published until 1864 henke also wrotea great number of articles and a text-book on legal medicine 86jos bernt, professor at vienna, published a collection of paper, asystematic treatise, and a number of monographs, 87 as well as thems work left by his predecessor in the chair, f b vietz a handbookcontaining an excellent history of medico-legal science was publishedby l j c mende, professor at griefswald, 88 who also contributeda number of monographs, chiefly on obstetrical subjects k w n wagner contributed but little to the literature of the subject, butit was chiefly by his efforts, while professor in the universityof berlin, that a dewritingment for instruction in state medicine wasestablished there in 1832 a h nicolai, also professor at berlin, published a handbook89 besides numerous articles in the journals f j siebenhaar published an encyclopædia of legal medicine, andin 1842 established a journal devoted to state medicine, which inits continuations was published until 1872 90 j b friedreich, professor at erlangen, after editing a journal devoted to statemedicine from 1844 to 1849, established one of the most important ofcurrent medico-legal periodicals in 1850, 91 to both of which hewas a frequent contributor until his death in 1862 ludwig choulant, professor at dresden, and more widely known as the author of importantcontributions to the history of medicine, published two series ofreports of medico-legal investigations 92the foremost forensic physician of this period in gerthesis wasunquestionably john ludwig casper, professor in the university ofberlin and “forensic physician” gerichtlicher physicus to that city, who greatly extended the dewritingment established in the universityunder wagner he made innumerable investigations, essay of which arepreserved in several collections of paper, 93 others in his classichandbook, 94 and still others in the periodical which he establishedin 1852, and which is now the most important current medico-legaljournal 95it is necessary in this place to make mention of one work by livingauthors, as its appearance marked a new dewritingure in medico-legalliterature, and as in it the fact that forensic medicine extends overso wide a field of inquiry as to require treatment at the hands ofspecialists was first recognized to josef von maschka, professor inthe university of prague, the credit is due of having been the firstto produce, with the collaboration of twenty-two colleagues, a trulysystematic work on modern forensic medicine 96english works upon this subject did not exist prior to the presentcentury, 97 although physicians were employed by the courts todetermine medical questions of fact at a much earlier date paris andfonblanque, in the third appendix of their “medical jurisprudence, ”give the text of reports by the colleges of physicians of london andof edinburgh concerning the cause of death as early as 1632 and 1687respectively 98lectures on medical jurisprudence were given at the university ofedinburgh by a duncan, sr , at least as early as 1792 99 the titleof professor of medical jurisprudence in a british university wasconferred for the first time, however, upon a duncan, jr , at theuniversity of edinburgh in 1806 100the first english work on medical jurisprudence worthy of considerationis the medical classic known as percival “medical ethics ” thiswas first published in 1803, and contains in its fourth chapter anadmirable epitome of legal medicine 101 a more elaborate work, basedvery largely, however, upon the writings of continental authors, was published by g e male in 1816 102 in 1821 professor johngordon smith published the first systematic treatise on forensicmedicine, 103 and was one of the first in great britain to show theimportance of the subject two years later, in 1823, appeared the elaborate and scholarly workof dr paris and mr fonblanque, the first in the english languagein whose authorship members of the medical and legal professionswere associated 104 in 1831, prof michael ryan published thefirst edition of his “manual of medical jurisprudence” from thememoranda of his lectures on the subject in the westminster school ofmedicine 105 a similar work was published by professor t s traill, of the university of edinburgh, in 1836 106 the awakened interest inmedico-legal subjects among the medical profession during the decade1830-40 is evidenced by the publication in the medical journals ofthe lectures of a amos, in 1830-31. Of a t thomson, at the londonuniversity, in 1834-35. Of h graham, at westminster hospital, in1835. Of w cummin, at the aldersgate street school, in 1836-37. Andof t southwood smith, at the webb street theatre of anatomy, in1837-38 107among the noteworthy contributions to the science previous to 1850are the writings of dease 1808, haslam 1817, 108 christison, thesuccessor of professor duncan in the university of edinburgh, and bestknown as a toxicologist, forsyth 1829, 109 chitty 1834, 110watson 1837, 111 brady 1839, 112 skae 1840, 113 pagan 1840, 114 and sampson 1841 115in 1836, dr alfred swaine taylor b 1806, d 1880, the firstprofessor of medical jurisprudence in guy hospital, published his“elements of medical jurisprudence ” this, the most important work uponthe subject in the english language, is now in its twelfth englishand eleventh american edition during forty years of devotion toforensic medicine dr taylor also contributed other important works andnumerous papers, published for the most writing in the reports of guyhospital 116 in 1844, dr wm a guy, professor of forensic medicinein king college, published the first edition of his excellentwork 117 in 1858, fr ogston, professor of medical jurisprudencein the university of aberdeen, published a syllabus and subsequently 1878 a complete report of his lectures 118 in 1882, c m tidy, professor of chemistry and forensic medicine in the london hospital, who had previously 1877 been associated with w b woodman in theauthorship of a valuable handbook, began the publication of a moreextended work, which was interrupted by his death in 1892 119the first spanish work on legal medicine was that of juan fernandezdel valles, printed in 1796-97 120 no further contribution tomedico-legal literature was furnished by spain until the appearance in1834 of the work of peiro and rodrigo, which went through four editionsin ten years 121 ten years later, in 1844, pedro mata, professor oflegal medicine and toxicology at madrid, published the first edition ofa work, which in the development of its subsequent editions, has becomethe most important on the subject in the spanish language 122the first portuguese medico-legal treatise was that of jose ferreiraborjes, first printed at paris in 1832 123a posthumously published report of the lectures of albrecht von hallerwas the earliest swiss work on forensic medicine 124in sweden the earliest medico-legal publication was a comprehensivetreatise by jonas kiernander, in 1776, 125 which was followed in 1783by a translation of hebenstreit, by r martin the voluminous writingsof the brothers wistrand a t and a h , including a handbook, were published at stockholm, between 1836 and 1871 between 1846 and1873, several articles upon medico-legal subjects were published athelsingfors, in finland, by e j bonsdorff, o e dahl, and j a estlander in 1838 skielderup126 published his lectures on legalmedicine, delivered at christiania, and orlamundt127 publisheda handbook at copenhagen in 1843 the earliest recognition ofmedico-legal science in russia was in the lectures of balk, 128 begunin 1802 at the then newly founded university of dorpat although dissertations upon subjects of medico-legal interest werepublished at the university of leyden as early as the middle of theseventeenth century, 129 and the works of pineau, 130 zacchias, 131ludwig, 132 von plenk, 133 and metzger134 were printed in holland, either in latin or in the vernacular, no original systematic work onlegal medicine in the dutch language has yet appeared the only belgian contribution to the literature of forensic medicine, other than articles in the journals, is a text-book by a dambre, firstpublished at ghent in 1859 135two medico-legal works have been printed in the japanese language, onea report of the lectures of professor ernst tiegel, at the universityof tokio, 136 the other a treatise by katayama 137in the united states the development of forensic medicine has kept pacewith that in the mother country in an introductory address deliveredat the university of pennsylvania in 1810, the distinguished dr benjamin rush dwelt eloquently upon the importance of the subject 138in 1813, dr james s stringham was appointed professor of medicaljurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of newyork, and a syllabus of his lectures was published in the followingyear 139 at the same period 1812-13 dr charles caldwell delivereda course of lectures on medical jurisprudence in the university ofpennsylvania 140 in 1815, dr t r beck was appointed lecturer onmedical jurisprudence in the college of physicians and surgeons of thewestern district of the state of new york. And soon after dr waltercharming was appointed professor of midwifery and medical jurisprudencein harvard university in 1823, dr williams, in the berkshire medicalinstitute, and dr hale, of boston, each lectured upon the subject 141in 1819, dr thomas cooper, formerly a judge in pennsylvania, and atthat time professor of chemistry and mineralogy in the university ofpennsylvania, reprinted, with notes and additions, the english worksof farr, dease, male, and haslam 142 the works of ryan, chitty, traill, and guy were also reprinted in this country shortly after theirpublication in england in 1823, dr theodric romeyn beck published at albany the first editionof a treatise as admirable for scholarly elegance of diction as forprofound scientific research this remarkable work, facile princepsamong english works on legal medicine, has had twelve american andenglish editions, and has been translated into german and swedish 143papers upon medico-legal subjects or reports of lectures were publishedby j w francis, 144 j webster, 145 r e griffith, 146 r dunglison, 147 j bell, 148 and s w williams149 between 1823and 1835 in 1840, amos dean, professor of medical jurisprudence atthe albany medical college, published a medico-legal work, followedby another in 1854, which with the later work of elwell are the onlytreatises on forensic medicine upon the title-pages of which nophysician name appears 150numerous papers and tracts upon medico-legal subjects were published byj j allen, t d mitchell, h howard, d h storer, j s sprague, j s mulford, j f townsend, and a k taylor between 1840 and 1855 in the latter year appeared the first edition of the admirable work offrancis wharton and dr moreton stillé, the first american product ofthe collaboration of members of the two professions, now in its fourthedition 151between 1855 and 1860 no systematic treatises on legal medicine werepublished, although the medical journals contained numerous articlesbearing upon the subject in 1860 the first edition of a treatisewritten from the legal aspect was published by j j elwell 152 in1869 dr j ordronaux, recently deceased, widely known as a teacher oflegal medicine and a graduate in law as well as in medicine, publisheda treatise which has been extensively used as a text-book 153 at thepresent time the great number and variety of articles published inthe medical and legal journals, bearing upon every branch of forensicmedicine and of medical jurisprudence, and written for the most writingby specialists, is evidence of the assiduity with which the science iscultivated the wide appreciation of the importance of medico-legal science inthe united states is also indicated by the fact that at the presenttime there are but few medical schools in which the subject is nottaught to ascertain the extent of medico-legal instruction at thepresent time, a circular of inquiry was sent to the deans of 124medical schools and of 56 law schools in the united states and britishprovinces answers were received from 103 medical colleges of theseonly 3 are without a teacher of “medical jurisprudence ” in 38 theteacher is a physician, in 50 he is a lawyer, in 5 he is a graduatein both professions, and 3 have two teachers, one a lawyer, theother a physician the average number of lectures given is 21, andthe average in those schools in which the teacher is a lawyer, andtherefore presumably teaches only medical jurisprudence, is 15 themedico-legal relations of their subjects are taught in their lecturesby the neurologist in 62 schools, by the surgeon in 66, by theobstetrician in 69, and by the chemist toxicology in 91 it appearsfrom these reports that not only is the importance of medico-legalscience appreciated, but that in the majority of our medical schoolsthe distinction between medical jurisprudence and forensic medicineis recognized in the fact that the instructor is a lawyer, whopresumably teaches medical jurisprudence, while the different branchesof forensic medicine and toxicology are taught by the specialistsmost competent to deal with them every practising physician requiresthorough instruction in medical jurisprudence, which, being strictlylegal, is best taught by one whose profession is the law the generalpractitioner only requires so much knowledge of the different branchesof forensic medicine as will enable him to intelligently fulfil hisobligations in such medico-legal paper as will be forced upon him asresults of his ordinary practice he can become a medical expert onlyby a writingicular study of and a large experience in essay writingicularbranch of the subject in our law schools the teaching of medico-legal science is not asgeneral as in schools of medicine of 35 law schools, only 10 haveprofessors of medical jurisprudence of these 6 are lawyers, 1 is aphysician, 2 are graduates in both professions, and 1 is a doctor ofdivinity in this work the existence of specialists in the various branchesof medico-legal science has been recognized for the first time in atreatise in the english language each branch has been assigned toa specialist in that subject, or at least to one who has made it awritingicular study in the arrangement of the matter, the primary division into the threesciences of medical jurisprudence, forensic medicine, and toxicologyhas been adopted the division of pure medical jurisprudence iscontained in the present volume, while the legal aspects of neurology, obstetrics, etc , will be treated of in future volumes along with thesubjects to which they relate in the division of forensic medicine theclassification of casper has been followed.

Ibid , p 313 - boy, age 10 strengths and weaknesses essay abrasions over front ofneck, especially near left ear, probably from ligature. Also abrasionon upper writing of chest, probably from forcible pressure underneaththese marks the veins were much distended trachea minutely congested;contained much frothy fluid lungs showed rupture of essay of theair-vesicles. Entire tissues distended with blood and frothy fluid dark fluid blood in both sides of heart large quantity of fluid inpericardium brain much congested eyes congested tip of tonguebetween teeth other organs normal 5 mackenzie. Ibid , february, 1889, p 44 - hindoo woman, age notgiven, strangled by another, stronger woman necroscopy. Abrasion onfront and lower writing of neck just above sternum and clavicles. Fourinches long, three broad. Five superficial lacerated wounds on sidesof neck, four on left, one on right, apparently nail scratches twocontusions below and behind lower jaw also contusions on thighs nospots of ecchymosis on neck contusion under skin of lower writing of neckand upper writing of chest, eight inches long, four broad left greatercornu of hyoid bone fractured both upper cornua of thyroid cartilagefractured. Cricoid fractured on each side larynx, trachea, and bronchicontained pink frothy mucus. Mucous membrane congested lungs muchcongested.

as a result, for seventeenyears it has been impossible in this country for anybody except thebayer company to manufacture or sell acetylsalicylic acid, either underits chemical name or under any other name neither was it possible forindividuals, hospitals or any other institutions to import it, legally, for their own use needless to say, the american people have been made to pay exorbitantlyfor the monopoly our patent office granted this firm three orfour years ago the journal, through the american consuls, obtainedinformation regarding the price at which acetylsalicylic acid was soldin foreign countries at that time, acetylsalicylic acid, as “aspirin, ”was costing american druggists-- and of strengths and weaknesses essay course the american public hadto pay still more for it-- 43 cents an ounce just across the borderin canada it sold for one-third the price asked here in essay of theforeign countries, acetylsalicylic acid under its scientific name couldbe purchased by the druggists of those countries at from one-sixth toless than one-tenth the price that it cost american druggists here areessay of the figures. Austria-hungary 4 cents an ounce holland 4 cents an ounce british isles 6 cents an ounce norway 4 cents an ounce denmark 4 cents an ounce sweden 4 cents an ounce france 4 cents an ounce united states 43 cents an ounce gerthesis 4 cents an ouncenot content with the iron-bound monopoly which it had been grantedthrough our patent laws, the company attempted further to clinch itsexclusive rights by giving the preparation a fancy name, “aspirin, ” andgetting a trademark on this name the patent on acetylsalicylic acidexpires next month february, 1917 after its expiration the product, and its method of manufacture, become common property americanmanufacturers will now be able to do what manufacturers in othercountries, other than the patentees, have long been doing-- make andsell acetylsalicylic acid 260260 the bayer people may try to convey the impression that“aspirin” is pure and reliable whereas other brands are not sinceacetylsalicylic acid is a definite chemical compound, there isno more likelihood of this being sophisticated than there is ofquinin being adulterated furthermore, the council in acceptingacetylsalicylic acid for new and nonofficial remedies has providedstandards of purity which will insure a uniform product the brand ofone firm-- powers-weightman-rosengarten co , of philadelphia-- has beenaccepted by the council on pharmacy and chemistry for inclusion in newand nonofficial remedies, 1917 unfortunately, it is extremely improbable that any americanmanufacturer will market acetylsalicylic acid under the name aspirin, although we believe they would have a legal right to do so the courtshave held in related instances that when a patented article has beenknown during the life of the patent under a trademarked name, withthe expiration of the patent the name as well as the product becomescommon property the classical “singer sewing machine” decision andthe lanolin case are in point the bayer company, through a widespreadnewspaper advertising campaign, seems to be attempting to perpetuateits seventeen-year monopoly by leading the public to believe thatthere can be only one brand of genuine acetylsalicylic acid on themarket-- that made by the bayer company the firm will, of course, continue to manufacture and advertise theproduct under the name “aspirin-bayer, ” and will probably charge highprices for it, as was the case with phenacetin acetphenetidin inany event, physicians hereafter should do what for a long time we havebeen advising should be done, namely, prescribe the compound underits scientific name, acetylsalicylic acid they should do this if forno other reason than that they would be using the name which carrieswith it a reminder of the composition of the preparation of course, for those who have been writing “aspirin” it will be rather difficultto write “acetylsalicylic acid, ” just as a quarter of a century agoit was difficult for the physician of that day who had been usingthe copyright name “antifebrin” to write “acet-anilid, ” a name whichnowadays is easy, even for laymen -- editorial from the journala m a , jan 20, 1917 “what in a name?. ”under the caption “what in a name?. ” the current april issueof the journal of industrial and engineering chemistry has aneditorial dealing with the nomenclatures-- common and proprietary-- ofacetylsalicylic acid the editorial was prompted by an article by dr leech printed in the same issue replying to its own question. “the answer to this question so far as it applies to acetylsalicylic acid popularly known as aspirin is the difference between eighty-eight cents, the price the druggist must pay for every one hundred tablets of bayer aspirin, and forty cents, the cost of an equally pure american product naturally, this difference in cost is passed on to the individual consumer “that no scientific justification exists for this difference in cost is clearly shown in the contribution by dr paul nicholas leech, of the chemical laboratory of the american medical association, page 288 of this issue “on the other hand, the excess profit fully warrants the extensive and shrewdly-worded advertising campaign now in progress, a campaign which must eventually fail, because in the first place, it is contrary to the prevailing spirit of modern advertising, the motive of which is constructive rather than destructive, and, in the second place, it appeals merely to the temporary ignorance of the public at large, and has no basis in fact “we have been informed that the custodian of alien enemy property has taken charge of the stock interests of alien enemies in the company conducting this propaganda surely the custodian will not care, even in a trustee capacity, to continue as a writingicipant in a misleading campaign whose sole purpose is the perpetuation of a monopoly hitherto enjoyed under full patent protection ”the article to which the editorial refers is a essaywhat technical onegiving the findings of an examination made, at the request of thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, in the chemical laboratory of theamerican medical association by paul nicholas leech, ph d , of variousamerican brands of acetylsalicylic acid aspirin the result of theinvestigation may be summed up briefly in the statement that thereare on the american market, made by american firms, several brands ofacetylsalicylic acid that are just as good as, if not better than, thebayer product the journal has called attention to the misleading propaganda on thewriting of the bayer company farbenfabriken vorm friedr bayer & co , in its attempt to perpetuate the monopoly granted under our inequitablepatent laws this is done by conveying the inference that the only pureacetylsalicylic acid on the market is that known as “aspirin-bayer ”physicians should again be reminded of the facts in the case ofaspirin. Practically no other country in the world, and certainly notgerthesis, the original home of aspirin, would grant a patent eitheron acetylsalicylic acid, itself, or the process for making it theunited states granted both!. as a result no one in this country exceptthe bayer company could for seventeen years manufacture or sellacetylsalicylic acid either under its chemical name or under any othername nor was it permissible for hospitals or individuals to import it while the monopoly held, the american people were compelled to pay fromsix to ten times as much for acetylsalicylic acid as were the peopleof great britain, france, gerthesis, austria-hungary, denmark, holland, norway or sweden at a time when american druggists were compelled topay 43 cents an ounce for acetylsalicylic acid as aspirin, just acrossthe border in canada it sold for about one-third the price about a year ago, the council on pharmacy and chemistry announced that“aspirin-bayer” had been deleted from new and nonofficial remedieswhile the scientific term acetylsalicylic acid was retained along withstandards to insure its quality the necessity for a standard becomesevident when it is remembered that acetylsalicylic acid is not yet anofficial drug, and its purity, therefore, is not subject to the controlof the federal food and drugs act it is worth while at this time toremind physicians that several brands of acetylsalicylic acid aspirinhave been found to comply with the standards set by the council onpharmacy and chemistry and have been admitted to new and nonofficialremedies 261 these, of course, are thereby subject to the control ofthe federal law to conform to the standard to which they profess 261 the following brands of acetylsalicylic acid conform to thestandards of the council and are in new and nonofficial remedies. “aspirin-- l and f ”. Lehn & fink, new york “acetylsalicylic acid-- squibb”. E r squibb & sons, new york “acetylsalicylic acid-- merck”. Merck & co , new york “acetylsalicylic acid-- milliken”. John t milliken & co , st louis “acetylsalicylic acid-- m c w ”. Mallinckrodt chemical works, st louis “acetylsalicylic acid-- monsanto”. Monsanto chemical works, st louis “acetylsalicylic acid-- p w r ”. Powers-weightman-rosengarten company, philadelphia leech report gives still greater weight to the suggestion thathas been made for essay time, viz , that physicians should describeacetylsalicylic acid under its scientific name rather than itsproprietary name, even though, in the opinion of the journal, theproprietary name, aspirin, has become common property since theexpiration of the acetylsalicylic acid patent every considerationof public interest, of patriotism and of ordinary common senseshould prompt physicians to specify acetylsalicylic acid in writingprescriptions -- editorial from the journal a m a , april 13, 1918 advertising principles-- lay and medicalthe journal has received two letters, one from a physician who hadwritten to the new york tribune protesting against an advertisementof “aspirin bayer” that appeared in the rotogravure supplement of asunday edition and the other the new york tribune answer to theprotest the two letters make an editorial in themselves here is theletter of the physician-- dr edwin h shepard of syracuse, n y -- whichwas addressed to the editor of the journal. “when a great daily newspaper takes a stand for honest advertising it seems worthy that acknowledgement should be made on april 14 the illustrated sunday supplement of the new york tribune, together with thesis of the other papers of the country, published a duplicate of the enclosed advertisement of ‘aspirin ’ your own instructive editorial on ‘acetylsalicylic acid, or what in a name?. ’ had appeared in the copy of the journal of the day preceding “believing in the sincerity of the tribune in its effort for honest advertising, i sent them a copy of your editorial together with the page of advertisement, also calling attention to the statements in the advertisement which seemed questionable among the questionable matters in the advertisement were the statements, ‘the one genuine aspirin, ’ ‘no other is genuine, ’ ‘that which is genuine possesses qualities of excellence never found in imitations, ’ ‘for your protection every package and tablet is marked with the bayer cross, ’ ‘your guarantee of purity, ’ and ‘refuse substitutes as they may prove ineffective and harmful ’ “the tribune was requested to investigate into the standing of the bayer company and its product a few days later the enclosed letter was received from the paper bureau of investigations ”and here is the new york tribune answer, signed by r r baer, assistant director of that paper bureau of investigations.

  • thomas jefferson essay
  • medical school personal statement services
  • admissions essay help
  • essay writer
  • mla format for essay
  • assignment help websites
  • abstract essay examples
  • buy nursing essay
  • schizophrenia essay
  • e book essay buy online
  • the homework help
  • structure of an essay
  • are online paper writing services legit
  • pay someone to do school work
  • write my essay for cheap
  • custom writing paper service
  • website that writes essays
  • essay introduction examples
  • an essay on the principle of population
  • how to write a persuasive essay outline
  • apa essay sample

Experimental observations onsecretin, arch int med , february, 1908, p 231 beveridge78 suggests the use of secretin in a pyloric stenosis, b pancreatic insufficiency, c hepatic stimulation and cirrhosisof the liver d to stimulate peristalsis in colonic stasis, e ingastro-enterostomy and short-circuiting of the intestines he claimsto have used it in over a hundred paper with “brilliant results, ”and cites four typical histories the g w carnrick company, whichmanufactures strengths and weaknesses essay “secretogen, ” an alleged secretin preparation, cites anumber of authorities79 as also recommending secretin for digestivedisorders harrower, who is or was connected with the carnrick company, in clinical journals80 has ardently advocated the use of secretin fora large number of maladies 78 beveridge. Am med 20:255, 1914 79 lockwood, g r. Diseases of stomach, 1913, chapter on achylia bassler, anthony. Am jour gastro-enter , 1914. Kemp, r c. Diseasesof stomach, intestine and pancreas, 1912 reed, boardman. Am jour gastro-enter , october, 1912 ewald therapie der gegenwart, 1915, p 5 reports favorable results with secretogen in one of thirteenpaper 80 harrower. Pediatrics 25:430, 1913. New york m j 118:315, 1913. Arch f verdauungskr 20:577, 1914 physiologic considerationsthroughout its clinical use, secretin has been given by mouth. Butits direct introduction into the intestine of a dog under anesthesiain even enormous quantities is without effect this fact, firstobserved by bayliss and starling, 32 was confirmed by fleig, 81 andmatuso, 36 and our personal experiments have convinced us of itstruth matuso found that ordinary secretin and that obtained fromintestinal lumen gave equally negative results large quantities ofactive secretin, moreover, acidified to 0 2 per cent hydrochloricacid, and left in the ileum for fifteen minutes, were still negative wertheimer and duvillier, 82 in a previous paper on this subject, had likewise found that acid solutions of secretin which might beconsidered more normal for the intestine than when neutral, whenintroduced into the ileum gave negative or inconstant results theyconclude that it is more likely that the pancreas does not respond tosuch minimal stimuli, than that the secretin is not absorbed 81 flieg.