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It being extensively used in the east we have as yet nodecisive figures as to its effects, but there is an impression that itmay have essay value the other vaccine is a mixed vaccine of the moreimportant bacteria in the respiratory tract in influenza, principallypneumonococci, streptococci and influenza bacilli it appears thatvaccines of this nature are in extensive use, but we have no evidencethat any benefit will be derived from them to say that thousandshave been vaccinated with apparently statistics essay writing service good results means nothing atall, simply because we are still in the midst of the outbreak, inthesis places even in the earlier stages how slender the basis ofthis anti-influenzal vaccination when it is considered that the realnature of influenza is still unknown!. in any event, it will requirethesis carefully elaborated and controlled observations before anythingdefinite may be learned in regard to the effect of these vaccines, and it is probably safe to say that nothing on which to rely in thefuture can be learned from the indiscriminate vaccination now goingon there is, therefore, no basis on which promise of protection fromvaccines may be made they may be harmless, and they may or may not beof preventive value -- editorial from the journal a m a , oct 26, 1918 intravenous therapythe intravenous administration of drugs is a new dewritingure in therapy, but one which is rapidly increasing in use among its reputedadvantages are that it is the quickest means of obtaining the effectsof a drug, the effects are obtained with a certainty not obtained byother methods, and they are so marked that they cannot fail to impressthe observer these advantages in thesis paper are apparent rather thanreal. But even were they real advantages, they should not blind usto the various and serious dangers which this method involves thetechnic, although not difficult, must be thoroughly mastered, orundue pain, infection, air embolism, or even death may result suchaccidents, however, are ordinarily easily avoided, and should beconsidered quite inexcusable more serious is the fact that the drugsgiven intravenously reach the system, and especially the heart, in adifferent manner and concentration from that to which physicians areaccustomed with ordinary methods of administration pharmacologistshave long practiced intravenous administration, when studying acuteeffects of drugs, and they have observed that frequently the immediateresult of such injections is a prompt fall of blood pressure, notobtained when the same drugs are given by mouth or even hypodermically this fall in blood pressure is commonly attributed to irritation ofthe endocardium it is usually of short duration, but is certainlyundesirable and essaytimes may have serious results it has also been observed that several drugs, for instance, quinin andpotassium, depress the cardiac muscle when given intravenously muchmore than when given in other ways furthermore, any substance whichtends to precipitate proteins must be injected slowly and with extremecaution, or it will produce intravascular clotting and sudden death deaths have resulted not only from a lack of knowledge of the technicof intravenous therapy, but also from a lack of knowledge of drugswhich may be so administered sudden death has been reported followingthe injection of an iron preparation containing peptone, and alsofollowing intravenous injection of ether intravenous injections, whileessaytimes superior to the slower methods, are distinctly inferior whena continuous, rather than a sudden, action is desired drugs leave theblood system with great rapidity, and therefore their action on thecirculation will cease promptly unless they are continuously supplied it would be undesirable to inject intravenously such drugs as iodids, nitrites, iron or salicylates with these dangers and disadvantages in mind, it seems unwise toresort to promiscuous intravenous medication until the effects ofthis method have been studied in detail for the drugs employed, andunless there are distinct advantages to be secured this is the casewhen an immediate action is necessary in emergencies, as in the use ofstrophanthin for cardiac collapse, quinin in pernicious malaria, etc , or if the drug would be destroyed in the stomach or tissues as in thecase of salvarsan, or when the drug is not adequately absorbed by anyother channel, as in the case of epinephrin intravenous therapy will be most securely advanced if its employmentis restricted to such well defined fields these fields can besatisfactorily determined only by a scientific pharmacologic study ofthe action of these drugs when so administered in animals, as well asin man, under conditions in which the results are carefully controlled the intravenous method is an impressive one, approaching in preparationalmost to that which goes with a surgical operation the patient isusually interested and impressed by this new, and to him, mysteriousmethod there is a psychic element in his reaction to the injectionwhich is not a factor in his reaction to the same drug when given bymouth the intravenous injection of a complex mixture would appear tobe writingicularly reprehensible little is known, as has been stated, of the results to be expected from intravenous therapy, even withsimple substances the use of complex mixtures will without doubt reactagainst the proper use of the method -- editorial from the journala m a , nov 11, 1916 iodin fumesone of the important factors connected with therapeutics as a scienceis the method of administration of medicinal substances drugsmay be given by mouth, by hypodermic or intravenous injection, byinhalation, by inunction or, less frequently, by the use of otherentrances into the body in choosing a method, the physical charactersof the substance to be administered and the immediate effects of thesubstance on the body tissues with which it may come in contact must beespecially taken into consideration these factors apply writingicularly in the case of substances likeiodin, arsenic, mercury or the biologic products in which the modeof administration radically modifies the action for essay time, manufacturers have urged substitutes for tincture of iodin, claimingthat their substitutes were free from the undesirable properties of thetincture, and, at the same time, possessed special virtues which thetincture could not possess more recently, attention has been directedto the administration of iodin in the form of vapor the diffusing andpenetrating powers of gases have writingicularly attracted the attentionof therapeutists, since by this method drugs may be applied to ratherinaccessible portions of the body, such as the lining of the lungs, the throat and the mucous membranes of the genito-urinary tract furthermore, it has been asserted that iodin in the form of fumes hasincreased combining powers, and is thus far more potent in effect thaniodin administered by any other route there do not seem to have beenany adequate scientific investigations of the subject, however, untilthe recently published results of luckhardt and his collaborators293at the university of chicago in their experiments, both on man and onanimals, accurately determined quantities of iodin were vaporized in aspecial device, and the fumes applied to the skin at the same time, the tincture was applied to the skin of other persons as a control iodin was also applied to the skin of dogs with hyperplastic thyroidglands. And the effects on the gland, before and after administration, studied dogs were also used to determine whether iodin fumes wereabsorbed from the lungs as a result of these investigations, which arereported in great detail, it was found that iodin, when deposited onthe skin in the form of fumes, is absorbed more iodin was recoveredfrom the urine, following the application of the tincture, than wasrecovered following the use of the fumes this result is explainedby the authors on the ground that probably more iodin was actuallyapplied, and that the iodin so deposited was held in combination withthe protein during the process of coagulation of the latter by thealcohol of the tincture, leading to a state of continuous absorption it is probable, furthermore, that the iodin deposited on the skin inthe form of fumes is revaporized to essay extent by the heat of the body 293 luckhardt, a b. Koch, f c. Schroeder, w f.

Μέσος θάνατος statistics essay writing service. To the right of this. Μικρὸς θάνατος;and to the left of the vertical line. Ὁ μένας θάνατος only wordswhich point to the longer or shorter duration of life, or to thedeath-struggle, were therefore employed the four quadrants of theenclosed circle, as well as the vertical diameter, contained thenumerals from 1 to 29 in a mystical order, representing the duration ofthe moon phases the above fig 1 shows us this astrological circleof petosiris the second essentially more complicated formula consists of threeconcentric circles various words are inscribed between the first andsecond circles, as in fig 1 between the second and third circles, andin the verticals, the numerals from 1 to 30 are disposed in a mysticalarrangement furthermore, these circles are not, as in fig 1, dividedinto four quadrants, but into eight equal sections at these pointsin which the radii forming the sectors intersect the periphery of theoutermost of the three concentric circles, arched enclosures are raisedwhich also contain various words illustration. Fig 2 circle of petosiris after bouché-leclercq, p 540when it was sought, by means of the above-described figures, todetermine the medical future or the life and death of an individual, this could be accomplished with the aid of the diagram represented infig 1 in such a manner that the duration of the disease in days, thenumerical value of the name of the patient, and the phases of the moonwere added, and the sum divided by 29 the result thus obtained wasinterpreted by referring to the diagram if this figure happened to be, for instance, in the right upper quadrant, the patient, altho he wouldrecover from his illness, would live only for a very short period;if this number was found in the vertical line, below the horizontaldiameter, the patient was destined to die after a short struggle much more intricate was the use of the astrological apparatusillustrated in fig 2 here the number of the moon day, and thenumerical values of the name of the patient were not added, but eachof these figures was separately looked for in the diagram if the moonfigure was found in the lower, the figure for the name in the upper, ends of the verticals i e , where δυσις ὑπόγειος, setting, andἀνατολὴ ὑπέργειος, rising, stand the individual concerned, altho indanger, finally recovered if, on the other hand, the moon figure wasdiscovered in the upper, and the figure for the name in the lower, endsof the verticals, nothing but evil was in store for the questioner, butthe misfortune appeared under the guise of fortune if both numbers, however, were at the upper ends of the verticals, the prospects werefavorable, but bad if both figures occurred below the horizontal line a method which is similar to the simple apparatus of petosiris isrevealed to us in the so-called οφαῖρα δημοκρίτου it is contained inthe papyrus magica musei lugdunensis batavia, published by dietrich fig 3 shows the illustration belonging to this method, and alsothe greek directions for use, as given in the papyrus it will benoticed that in the method of democritus recourse is made to a tableof numerals divided by a cross-line into the upper and larger, and alower and smaller, section the upper writing contains in three verticalcolumns 18, in the lower, 12 figures to use the table, the day whenthe disease began, the numerical value of the name, and the days of themoon were added, and the sum thus obtained divided by 30 this quotientwas then looked for in the table of numbers if it was found above thecross-line, the patient recovered. If below, he succumbed illustration. Fig 3 the table of democritusthere existed a great thesis other methods besides those described above;for instance, the system of the 12 places, the circle of manilius, themethod of the mysterious hermes trismegistus, the circle of ptolemy, etc however, we can not here enter into a more detailed description ofthese forms, and refer those that wish more exhaustive information toberthelot, and, above all, to bouché-leclercq astrology, and, with it, sidereal medicine, subsequently traveled from its oriental home intoall civilized countries of the then known world as regards greek and roman antiquity, astrology in all its forms won ahigh reputation both in greece and italy even the most eminent ancientphysicians, altho they did not unreservedly adopt sidereal medicine, refrained from disavowing it thus we find in the corpus hippocraticum, the chief work of early greek medicine, passages which betray morethan a friendly feeling toward the astral art of healing it is true, expressions are not wanting which sound like a direct disowning ofastrology let us consider for a few moments the attitude of hippocratic medicinetoward astrology as to the rejection of astrologic medicine by the followers ofhippocrates, we read “ancient medicine, ” chapter i. In thetranslation of fuchs, vol i , page 19. “for this reason i believethat it medical art requires no basis of vain presumption, such asthe existence of invisible and doubtful factors, the discussion ofwhich, if it should be attempted, necessitates a hypothetic scienceof supernatural or of subterrestrial nature. For, if any one shouldcontend that he knew anything about such a matter, neither he, thelecturer, nor his hearers would clearly understand whether hisstatements were true or not, because nothing exists to which referencecould be had for purposes of verification ”this surely is a refutation as definite as can be desired of a medicinewhich depends upon witchcraft or astrologic vagaries however, variousother passages of the corpus hippocraticum take an exactly contraryposition for example, we find the following statement on “air, water, and locality, ” chapter xvii , in the translation of fuchs, vol i , page 390.

Inula, represented by the camphoraceous stearoptene helenin, 20 grs. Iodized lime, 8 grs. Menthol, 1-4 grs. Aromatic syrup yerba santa, 60 minims ”it is said to be. “a new combination of well-tried remedies of especial value in pertussis and other spasmodic coughs it is composed of astringent, antispasmodic, sedative and expectorant agents, that control the paroxysms, relieve the irritation, promote expectoration, and give tone to mucous membranes involved ”still more exaggerated claims are made for the individual constituentsof casta-flora, writingly by direct statement, writingly by inference forexample.

Or rather they will do you asmuch good as if one had given you a rush rye this is so well known in all the counties of this land, and especiallyto the country-people, who feed much thereon, that if i did describeit, they would presently say, i might as well have spared that labour its virtue follows government and virtues rye is more digesting than wheat. The breadand the leaven thereof ripens and breaks imposthumes, boils, and otherswellings. The meal of rye put between a double cloth, and moistenedwith a little vinegar, and heated in a pewter dish, set over a chafingdish of coals, and bound fast to the head while it is hot, doth muchease the continual pains of the head matthiolus saith, that the ashesof rye straw put into water, and steeped therein a day and a night, andthe chops of the hands or feet washed therewith, doth heal them saffron the herb needs no description, it being known generally where it grows place it grows frequently at walden in essex, and in cambridgeshire government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, and under thelion, and therefore you need not demand a reason why it strengthens theheart so exceedingly let not above ten grains be given at one time, for the sun, which is the fountain of light, may dazzle the eyes, andmake them blind. A cordial being taken in an immoderate quantity, hurtsthe heart instead of helping it it quickens the brain, for the sun isexalted in aries, as he hath his house in leo it helps consumptions ofthe lungs, and difficulty of breathing it is excellent in epidemicaldiseases, as pestilence, small-pox, and measles it is a notableexpulsive medicine, and a notable remedy for the yellow jaundice myopinion is, but i have no author for it that hermodactyls are nothingelse but the roots of saffron dried. And my reason is, that the rootsof all crocus, both white and yellow, purge phlegm as hermodactyls do;and if you please to dry the roots of any crocus, neither your eyesnor your taste shall distinguish them from hermodactyls sage our ordinary garden sage needs no description time it flowers in or about july government and virtues jupiter claims this, and bids me tell you, it is good for the liver, and to breed blood a decoction of the leavesand branches of sage made and drank, saith dioscorides, provokes urine, brings down women courses, helps to expel the dead child, and causesthe hair to become black it stays the bleeding of wounds, and cleansesfoul ulcers three spoonfuls of the juice of sage taken fasting, witha little honey, doth presently stay the spitting or casting of bloodof them that are in a consumption these pills are much commended;take of spikenard, ginger, of each two drams. Of the seed of sagetoasted at the fire, eight drams. Of long pepper, twelve drams. Allthese being brought into powder, put thereto so much juice of sageas may make them into a mass of pills, taking a dram of them everymorning fasting, and so likewise at night, drinking a little pure waterafter them matthiolus saith, it is very profitable for all manner ofpains in the head coming of cold and rheumatic humours. As also forall pains of the joints, whether inwardly or outwardly, and thereforehelps the falling-sickness, the lethargy, such as are dull and heavyof spirit, the palsy.

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If you have notthe distilled water, make use of statistics essay writing service the decoction 4 diseases that lie in the writings of the body remote from the stomachand bowels, it is in vain to think to carry away the cause at once, andtherefore you had best do it by degrees. Pills, and such like medicineswhich are hard in the body, are fittest for such a business, becausethey are longest before they digest 5 use no strong medicines, if weak will serve the turn, you had bettertake one too weak by half, than too strong in the least 6 consider the natural temper of the writing of the body afflicted, andmaintain it in that, else you extinguish nature, as the heart is hot, the brain cold, or at least the coldest writing of the body 7 observe this general rule. That such medicines as are hot in thefirst degree are most habitual to our bodies, because they are just ofthe heat of our blood 8 all opening medicines, and such as provoke urine or the menses, orbreak the stone, may most conveniently be given in white wine, becausewhite wine of itself is of an opening nature, and cleanses the veins 9 let all such medicines as are taken to stop fluxes or looseness, betaken before meat, about an hour before, more or less, that so they maystrengthen the digestion and retentive faculty, before the food comeinto the stomach, but such as are subject to vomit up their meat, letthem take such medicines as stay vomiting presently after meat, at theconclusion of their meals, that so they may close up the mouth of thestomach. And that is the reason why usually men eat a bit of cheeseafter meat, because by its sourness and binding it closes the mouth ofthe stomach, thereby staying belching and vomiting 10 in taking purges be very careful, and that you may be so, observethese rules 1 consider what the humour offending is, and let the medicine besuch as purges that humour, else you will weaken nature, not thedisease 2 take notice, if the humour you would purge out be thin, thengentle medicines will serve the turn, but if it be tough and viscous, then such medicines as are cutting and opening, the night before youwould take the purge 3 in purging tough humours, forbear as much as may be such medicinesas leave a binding quality behind them 4 have a care of taking purges when your body is astringent. Yourbest way, is first to open it by a clyster 5 in taking opening medicines, you may safely take them at night, eating but a little supper three or four hours before, and the nextmorning drinking a draught of warm posset-drink, and you need notfear to go about your business in this manner you may take lenitiveelectuary, diacatholicon, pulp of cassia, and the like gentleelectuaries, as also all pills that have neither diagrydium norcolocynthus, in them but all violent purges require a due orderingof the body. Such ought to be taken in the morning after you are up, and not to sleep after them before they are done working, at leastbefore night. Two hours after you have taken them, drink a draughtof warm posset-drink, or broth, and six hours after eat a bit ofmutton, often walking about the chamber. Let there be a good fire inthe chamber, and stir not out of the chamber till the purge have doneworking, or not till next day lastly, take sweating medicines when you are in bed, covered warm, andin the time of your sweating drink posset-drink as hot as you can ifyou sweat for a fever, boil sorrel and red sage in your posset-drink, sweat an hour or longer if your strength will permit, then the chamberbeing kept very warm shift yourself all but your head, about which the cap which you sweat in being still kept on wrap a napkin veryhot, to repel the vapours back i confess these, or thesis of these directions may be found in one placeof the book or other, and i delight as little to write tautology asanother, but considering it might make for the public good, i insertedthem in this place. If, notwithstanding, any will be so mad as to dothemselves a mischief, the fault is not mine roots acanths, brancæ ursinæ of bearsbreech, or brankursine, it is meanlyhot and dry, helps aches and numness of the joints, and is of a bindingquality, good for wounds and broken bones dioscorides saith, theyare profitable for ruptures, or such as are bursten, or burnt withfire, a dram of the root in powder being taken in the morning fasting, in a decoction made with the same root and water acori, veri, perigrini, vulgaris, &c see calamus aromaticus ishall not speak concerning the several sorts of it, one of which iswater-flag, or flower-de-luce, which is hot and dry in the seconddegree, binds, strengthens, stops fluxes of the belly, and immoderateflowing of the menses, a dram being taken in red wine every morning allium garlic it is hot and dry in the fourth degree, breedscorrupt blood, yet is an enemy to all poisons, and such as are bittenby cold venomous beasts, viz adders, toads, spiders, &c it provokesurine, and expels wind alcannæ of privet see the leaves althææ of marsh mallows, are meanly hot, of a digesting, softeningnature, ease pains, help bloody fluxes, the stone, and gravel. Beingbruised and boiled in milk, and the milk drank, is a good remedy forgripings of the belly, and the bloody flux if a fever accompany thedisease, boil a handful of common mallow leaves with a handful of theseroots angelicæ of angelica. Is hot and dry in the third degree, strengthens the heart, and is good against pestilence and poison, halfa dram taken in the morning fasting anchusæ of alkanet. Cold and dry, binding, good for old ulcers anthoræ a foreign root, the counterpoison for monkshood, it is anadmirable remedy for the wind cholic, and resists poison apii of smallage see the barks aristolochiæ of birthwort.