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Stanford Roommate Essay


Examination of tablets ofbismuth, opium and phenol, the journal a m a stanford roommate essay , july 25, 1908, p 330 puckner, w a , and hilpert, w s. Tablets of bismuth, opiumand phenol, dec 17, 1910, p 2169, may 6, 1911, p 1344 unreliablepharmaceutical products, editorial, may 6, 1911, p 1335 308 puckner, w a , and warren, l e. Aromatic digestive tablets, the journal a m a , aug 20, 1910, p 710 another reason for doubting the accuracy of dosage, irrespective ofthe characteristics of the drugs composing the tablets, has been themanifest lack of care in their manufacture in 1914, kebler309reported the results of a far-reaching investigation of tabletcompounding in which he pointed out that tablets on the market werenot as uniform or accurate as was generally believed, the variationsbeing “unexpectedly large in numbers and amount ” during the past year, the connecticut agricultural experiment station310 undertook theexamination of tablets-- proprietary and nonproprietary-- taken from thestock of dispensing physicians the variations found in weights ofthe tablets were strikingly similar to those reported by kebler 309 kebler, l f. The tablet industry, jour am pharm assn , 1914, 3, 820, 937, 1062 310 bull 200, connecticut agricultural station, food and drugproducts, 1917, p 161 variation in weights of tablets kebler connecticut variation per cent per cent less than 10 per cent 43 44 more than 10 per cent 57 56 more than 12 per cent 44 35 more than 15 per cent 28 26 more than 20 per cent 9 10the determinations of the composition of the tablets when comparedwith that claimed for them showed wide variation-- from 54 per cent above to 70 5 per cent below. In almost two thirds of the tabletsexamined, the variation amounted to more than 10 per cent. In threefifths of the tablets, the variation was more than 15 per cent. In onefourth, more than 20 per cent , and in one twentieth, more than 50 percent.

The roots are a safer purge than the leaves, and not so violent, they purge by vomit, stool, and urine. They areprofitable for such as have agues, dropsies, stoppings of the liver, orspleen, green sickness asparagi of asparagus, or sperage. They are temperate in quality, opening, they provoke urine, and cleanse the reins and bladder, beingboiled in white wine, and the wine drank asphodeli, hastæ regiæ fœm of kings spear, or female asphodel iknow no physical use of the roots. Probably there is, for i do notbelieve god created any thing of no use asphodeli, albuci, muris of male asphodel hot and dry in the seconddegree, inwardly taken, they provoke vomit, urine, and the menses:outwardly used in ointments, they cause hair to grow, cleanse ulcers, and take away morphew and freckles from the face bardanæ, &c of bur, clot-bur, or burdock, temperately hot and dry helps such as spit blood and matter. Bruised and mixed with salt andapplied to the place, helps the bitings of mad dogs it expels wind, eases pains of the teeth, strengthens the back, helps the runningof the reins, and the whites, being taken inwardly dioscorides, apuleius behen alb rub of valerian, white and red mesue, serapio, andother arabians, say they are hot and moist in the latter end of thefirst, or beginning of the second degree, and comfort the heart, stirup lust the grecians held them to be dry in the second degree, thatthey stop fluxes, and provoke urine bellidis of dasies see the leaves betæ, nigræ, albæ, rubræ of beets, black, white, and red. As forblack beets i have nothing to say, i doubt they are as rare as blackswans the red beet root boiled and preserved in vinegar, makes a fine, cool, pleasing, cleansing, digesting sauce see the leaves bistortæ, &c of bistort, or snakeweed, cold and dry in the thirddegree, binding. Half a dram at a time taken inwardly, resistspestilence and poison, helps ruptures and bruises, stays fluxes, vomiting, and immoderate flowing of the menses, helps inflammationsand soreness of the mouth, and fastens loose teeth, being bruised andboiled in white wine, and the mouth washed with it borraginis of borrage, hot and moist in the first degree, cheersthe heart, helps drooping spirits dioscorides brionæ, &c of briony both white and black. They are both hot anddry, essay say in the third degree, and essay say but in the first. Theypurge flegm and watery humours, but they trouble the stomach much, they are very good for dropsies. The white is most in use, and is goodfor the fits of the mother.

Typical advertisements of “cactina pillets” from themedical record and new york medical journal, respectively the report then proceeds to analyze the work of o h myers, r a hatcher, boinet and boy-teissier, sayre, gordon sharp, s a matthews, p w williams, aulde and ellingwood, and comes to conclusions that areset forth as follows, in brief:1 it is uncertain what writing of the plant contains the activeprinciple, if any such principle exists 2 writing of the experimental and clinical work has been published underproprietary auspices 3 the value of clinical evidence when unsupported by animalexperimentation is much diminished by the tendency of enthusiastic anduntrained observers to attribute to the drug given the effect reallydue to general remedial measures, psychic suggestion and so forth in other words, the literature does not afford a report of a singlepiece of careful painstaking work the results of which lend support tothe claims made for cactina pillets as stated above, for it is obviousthat if cactus grandiflorus contains no active principle, no activeprinciple can be extracted from it essay time after the report ofthe council was published, hatcher and bailey secured genuine cactusgrandiflorus directly from a competent botanist, dr c a purpus, of vera cruz, mexico, and studied it experimentally they reported j a m a 56:26 jan 7 1911 in writing as follows. “we have been unable to obtain any evidence that the true mexican cactus grandiflorus possesses any pharmacologic action whatever. But, on the contrary, it appears to be a singularly inert substance when administered either by the mouth or by the vein ”when colossal doses of cactus grandiflorus are given by the vein, they essaytimes-- but not always-- appear to exert an extremely feebleaction on the heart. But this action is so slight that its naturecould not be determined even the most colossal doses of cactusgrandiflorus administered by the mouth to cats, dogs and frogs exertno perceptible effect sollmann thus satirizes the absurd claims made by the exploiters ofproprietary forms of cactus. “should the heart be too slow, cactusquickens it. If the heart is too fast, cactus slows it. Should theheart be too weak, cactus strengthens it. If the heart is too strong, cactus weakens it. Does the heart wobble, cactus steadies it. If theheart is normal, cactus does not meddle with it” j a m a 51:52july 4 1908 will physicians continue to accept the statements of an interestednostrum vender-- who submits not a shred of evidence to support hisclaims, but who has a financial interest in convincing them-- even whenhis statements are diametrically opposed to all the evidence that thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry has been able to secure?. -- from thejournal a m a , jan 19, 1918 article v ammonol and phenalginat the time that synthetic chemical drugs were coming into fame andwhen every manufacturer who launched a new headache mixture claimedto have achieved another triumph in synthetic chemistry, ammonol andphenalgin were born of course, these twins of analgesic pseudotherapywere claimed to be synthetics and were duly christened with “formulas ”they were among the first of the nostrums examined for the council onpharmacy and chemistry, and the false claims made for them were exposed the analyses made for the council showed that ammonol and phenalginwere simple mixtures, having the following composition. Acetanilid sodium bicarbonate ammonium carbonate ammonol 50 25 20 phenalgin 57 20 10the reports of the council on, and numerous references to, these twonostrums may be found in the journal of various dates 245 the reportswill prove interesting to those who are not familiar with, or haveforgotten, the methods of nostrum exploiters at the time the councilwas formed following the council exposure of the false claims madeby the manufacturers of phenalgin, the medical record published anadvertisement of that nostrum in which an attempt was made to discreditthe council report the editor of the medical record was requestedby the council to publish the facts in the case but he refused to do so 245 j a m a 44.

That in consequence this riflecould not have been that from which the shot was fired, for it onlycalled for a 44 ball, and that it would have thrown a bullet withsuch force that it must have gone entirely through the head theyfurther claimed that powder-marks and grains of powder were found inthe window-sash, showing that the weapon was fired near the window, andthat the hole in the glass was not large enough to admit a full-sized 44 ball the verdict was mainly won upon these statements a questionfor the medical experts to answer was, what would be the effect uponthe skull of a 44-calibre ball fired from a ballard rifle, the ballweighing 220 grains and the charge of powder being 28 grains?. also whatwould be the effect upon the ball?. experts from the ordnance corps andfrom the rifle factories were able to testify that the bullet foundin mrs billings’ head was originally a 44-calibre ball. Also thatits markings showed the peculiar left-handed twist used in riflingthis writingicular arm the defence maintained that it could not havebeen a 44, claiming that the hole in the window-pane showed that theoriginal window produced in court was no criterion, since from repeatedhandling the hole made by the bullet had become enlarged and changedin shape both of the experts for the defence believed that the ballcould not make a hole smaller than itself when passing through glass this necessarily supposes that the ball after being fired is the samecalibre as before, which, as shown above, is not always the case sodr balch fired forty-five rounds from the billings rifle with 220grains of lead and 28 grains of powder the shots were fired throughglass set in sashes, the glass being 28×13¼, double thick and americanmake the rifle was discharged at varying angles and at distancesvarying from two to seventy feet, and he obtained one shot where thehole made would not admit a full-sized ball his summary was as follows. Balls unable to pass through 1 balls writingly passed 3 balls passed 18 cartridge passed 21 glass broken out 2 total 45other rounds were fired from a colt navy revolver, old style, 36calibre, at distances varying from ten to twenty feet the holes madewere so large that the barrels and ramrods could be passed withouttouching the examination of the one instance noted above where theaperture in the glass was smaller than the ball is explained by balchas follows. “a ball conoidal in form, passing with great velocity, strikes glass, penetrates, but does not break the glass at the point ofentrance the point struck is instantly disintegrated, and so rapid isthe stroke that it has not time to call upon the surrounding writingiclesfor support. Hence the smallness of the hole as glass is made itvaries in elasticity. Essay writings which are to be cut into panes coolfaster than others a bullet striking the portion of the glass whichhas cooled quickly strikes an object which will yield essaywhat to theforce. In doing this a hole will be made smaller than if that morebrittle had been struck furthermore, all rifles taper more or lessfrom breech to muzzle, that is, the muzzle will measure one or morethousandths or hundredths less than the breech the bullet being forcedthrough the narrow aperture yields to the pressure and becomes smaller the gun under consideration was measured at the new york armory, andfound to be 44 at the breech or chamber and 423 at the muzzle considering these various facts, statements that a ball of known sizewill make a hole through glass smaller than the size of the ball whenfired do not admit of doubt as to their verity essay statements bearingon this same point contained in a recent letter from captain shaler, ofthe united states army, deserve mention here the following experimentwas made in washington by captain lyon in october, 1880:“noticing a statement in a newspaper to the effect that a ball firedfrom a rifle would, in passing through glass, make a round hole smallerthan the diameter of the ball used, the following experiment was made:“service ammunition used, in a calibre 45 springfield rifle topenetrate glass ═════════════════════╤═══════════════════╤════════════════════════ time fired │ size of hole made │ remarks │ in glass, inches │ ─────────────────────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────── 1 │ 0 570 │ 2 │ 0 550 │ 3 │ 0 600 │ 4 │ 0 600 │ 5 │ 0 575 │ 6 │ 0 575 │ the frame holding the 7 │ 0 590 │ glass was placed 25 8 │ 0 620 │ yards from the muzzle 9 │ 0 600 │ of the gun │ │ average size of hole │ 0 586 │ calibre of bullet │ 0 458 │ │ ────── │ difference │ 0 125 │ ─────────────────────┴───────────────────┴────────────────────────“from the above it will be noted that there is no uniformity in thesize of the holes and that they all exceed the diameter of the bullet “these experiments were supplemented by essay made recently in whicha sash containing six panes of ordinary window-glass was placedat twenty-five yards from the firer and the glass was successivelypenetrated a separate pane being used in each case by bullets from aservice 45-calibre springfield rifle, a 30-calibre springfield rifle, a 45-calibre colt revolver and a 22-calibre revolver in every casethe hole made was much larger than the bullet making it ”with reference also to the effect of a ball being smaller than itsoriginal diameter after it leaves the piece, captain shaler states:“all very compressible bullets forced by inertia lose a certain amounteven though they also gain force by slugging forcing by inertia tendsto shorten the bullet and increase the diameter, while slugging tendsto lengthen the bullet and reduce its diameter whether the bullet issmaller after it leaves the piece depends upon the bullet used and themethod of forcing employed ”to return to the billings case, it was claimed that the bullet wasalso too small it weighed 165 grains, 55 less than when it was firedfrom the rifle balch found in firing at human skulls, the subjects inall the trials but two being placed in a sitting posture, essaytimeswith a sash like the billings window in front of the subject, that theball lost lead in accordance with the resistance it met with and theamount of bone ploughed in its passage these experiments conclusivelyprove that the weight of a ball taken from a body after being fired, it having traversed a bone in its flight, is by no means evidence ofits weight before firing.

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Drying and binding, stops blood, the menses and fluxes, opens stoppings of the liver and spleen, anddiseases thence arising the like quantity of hart-tongue, knotgrassand comfrey roots, being boiled in water, and a draught of thedecoction drunk every morning, and stanford roommate essay the materials which have boiledapplied to the place, is a notable remedy for such as are bursten limonium sea-bugloss, or marsh-bugloss, or sea-lavender. The seedsbeing very drying and binding, stop fluxes and the menses, help thecholic and stranguary lotus urbana authors make essay flutter about this herb, i conceivethe best take it to be trisolium odoratum, sweet trefoyl, which is ofa temperate nature, cleanses the eyes gently of such things as hinderthe sight, cures green wounds, ruptures, or burstness, helps such asurine blood or are bruised, and secures garments from moths lupulus hops opening, cleansing, provoke urine, the young sproutsopen stoppings of the liver and spleen, cleanse the blood, clear theskin, help scabs and itch, help agues, purge choler. They are usuallyboiled and taken as they eat asparagus, but if you would keep them, for they are excellent for these diseases, you may make them into aconserve, or into a syrup lychnitis coronaria. Or as others write it, lychnis rose campion i know no great physical virtue it hath macis see the barks magistrantia, &c masterwort hot and dry in the third degree. It isgood against poison, pestilence, corrupt and unwholeessay air, helpswindiness in the stomach, causeth an appetite to one victuals, veryprofitable in falls and bruises, congealed and clotted blood, thebitings of mad-dogs. The leaves chewed in the mouth, cleanse the brainof superfluous humours, thereby preventing lethargies, and apoplexes malva mallows the best of authors account wild mallows to be best, and hold them to be cold and moist in the first degree, they areprofitable in the bitings of venomous beasts, the stinging of bees andwasps, &c inwardly they resist poison, provoke to stool. Outwardlythey assuage hard swellings of the privities or other places.