History

Stanford Hitler Essay


R a hatcher, stanford hitler essay ph g , m d , professor of pharmacology, cornelluniversity medical college, new york city. A w hewlett, m d , professor of medicine, leland stanford junior university medicalschool, san francisco. John howland, m d , professor of pediatrics, johns hopkins university dewritingment of medicine, baltimore. Reidhunt, m d , professor of pharmacology, harvard university medicalschool, boston. Henry kraemer, ph d , professor of pharmacognosy, university of michigan college of pharmacy, ann arbor, mich. W t longcope, a b , m d , bard professor of the practice of medicine, college of physicians and surgeons of columbia university, new yorkcity. G w mccoy, m d , director of the hygienic laboratory, unitedstates public health service, washington, d c. Lafayette b mendel, ph d , sc d , professor of physiologic chemistry, sheffield scientificschool, yale university, new haven, conn. F g novy, m d , sc d , professor of bacteriology, university of michigan, ann arbor, mich ;w w palmer, b s , m d , associate professor of medicine, college ofphysicians and surgeons of columbia university, new york city.

To every pound of this syrup, add four ounces of the pulp;then boil it with a very gentle fire to their right consistence, whichyou may easily know if you drop a drop of it upon a trencher. If it beenough, it will not stick to your fingers when it is cold 2 another way to preserve fruits is this. First, pare off the rind;then cut them in halves, and take out the core. Then boil them in watertill they are soft. If you know when beef is boiled enough, you mayeasily know when they are. Then boil the water with its like weight ofsugar into a syrup. Put the syrup into a pot, and put the boiled fruitas whole as you left it when you cut it into it, and let it remainuntil you have occasion to use it 3 roots are thus preserved. First, scrape them very clean, and cleansethem from the pith, if they have any, for essay roots have not, aseringo and the like. Boil them in water till they be soft, as we shewedyou before in the fruits. Then boil the water you boiled the root ininto a syrup, as we shewed you before. Then keep the root whole in thesyrup till you use them 4 as for barks, we have but few come to our hands to be done, and ofthose the few that i can remember, are, oranges, lemons, citrons, andthe outer bark of walnuts, which grow without-side the shell, for theshells themselves would make but scurvy preserves. These be they i canremember, if there be any more put them into the number the way of preserving these, is not all one in authors, for essay arebitter, essay are hot. Such as are bitter, say authors, must be soakedin warm water, oftentimes changing till their bitter taste be fled. Buti like not this way and my reason is this. Because i doubt when theirbitterness is gone, so is their virtue also.

The idolaters giveidolatrous names to herbs for their virtues sake, not for their fairlooks. And therefore essay called this an herb of the holy ghost;others, more moderate, called it angelica, because of its angelicalvirtues, and that name it retains still, and all nations follow it sonear as their dialect will permit government and virtues it is an herb of the sun in leo. Let it begathered when he is there, the moon applying to his good aspect. Letit be gathered either in his hour, or in the hour of jupiter, let solbe angular. Observe the like in gathering the herbs of other planets, and you may happen to do wonders in all epidemical diseases caused bysaturn, that is as good a preservative as grows. It resists poison, by defending and comforting the heart, blood, and spirits. It doththe like against the plague and all epidemical diseases, if the rootbe taken in powder to the weight of half a dram at a time, with essaygood treacle in carduus water, and the writingy thereupon laid to sweatin his bed. If treacle be not to be had take it alone in carduus orangelica-water the stalks or roots candied and eaten fasting, are goodpreservatives in time of infection. And at other times to warm andcomfort a cold stomach the root also steeped in vinegar, and a littleof that vinegar taken essaytimes fasting, and the root smelled unto, isgood for the same purpose a water distilled from the root simply, assteeped in wine, and distilled in a glass, is much more effectual thanthe water of the leaves. And this water, drank two or three spoonfulsat a time, easeth all pains and torments coming of cold and wind, sothat the body be not bound. And taken with essay of the root in powderat the beginning, helpeth the pleurisy, as also all other diseases ofthe lungs and breast, as coughs, phthysic, and shortness of breath;and a syrup of the stalks do the like it helps pains of the cholic, the stranguary and stoppage of the urine, procureth womens’ courses, and expelleth the after-birth, openeth the stoppings of the liver andspleen, and briefly easeth and discusseth all windiness and inwardswellings the decoction drank before the fit of an ague, that theymay sweat if possible before the fit comes, will, in two or threetimes taking, rid it quite away. It helps digestion and is a remedyfor a surfeit the juice or the water, being dropped into the eyesor ears, helps dimness of sight and deafness. The juice put into thehollow teeth, easeth their pains the root in powder, made up into aplaster with a little pitch, and laid on the biting of mad dogs, or anyother venomous creature, doth wonderfully help the juice or the watersdropped, or tent wet therein, and put into filthy dead ulcers, or thepowder of the root in want of either doth cleanse and cause them toheal quickly, by covering the naked bones with flesh. The distilledwater applied to places pained with the gout, or sciatica, doth give agreat deal of ease the wild angelica is not so effectual as the garden. Although it may besafely used to all the purposes aforesaid amaranthus besides its common name, by which it is best known by the florists ofour days, it is called flower gentle, flower velure floramor, andvelvet flower descript it being a garden flower, and well known to every onethat keeps it, i might forbear the description.

That in passing throughglass another portion is lost, and finally it is scarcely conceivablethat any bullet should penetrate an adult skull, especially inthe neighborhood of the mastoid processes, without losing quite aperceptible percentage of its mass by friction it was also claimed by the defence that the ball taken from mrs billings’ head had been fired from a weapon of low velocity, whichwas held to account for the fact that the ball failed to pass out ofthe skull the rifle when tested at the government arsenal showeda mean velocity of 999 feet per second had it been as high as wassupposed by the defence, namely, 1, 300 or 1, 400 feet, the argumentthat a bullet driven with this force would always go through the skullwould have more weight, but with the velocity found by actual test theenergy of the ball was lessened to nearly one-half of that supposed the bullet which killed mrs billings did not pass entirely throughthe skull it ploughed into the opposite side and broke before it atriangular piece of bone which broke the skin externally this showsthe resistance of external fascia against perforation a study of thelines of fracture in this writingicular case proved very interesting, butperhaps would be essaywhat irrelevant here a measurement of the skulland of the bullet-track through it shows the former to have been ofmore than ordinary thickness and stanford hitler essay density, and the channel ploughed inthe bone by the bullet along the base of it to have been nearly twoinches in length dr balch gives the following conclusions to his veryinteresting evidence. 1st a leaden ball passing through bone loseslead in proportion to the amount of bone traversed 2d if the petrousportion of the temporal bone be the writing struck by the ball and strucksquarely at the base, that portion of the bone is crumbled or broken insuch exceedingly fine pieces as to defy restoration 3d that if theball struck any writing of the skull the petrous portion will be broken, but can be usually recognized and generally put together again 4th that a ball of given calibre fired through glass may make a holeenough smaller than the full size of the ball before firing to preventan unfired ball of like calibre passing in all this kind of experimentation upon cadavers for the purpose ofeliciting evidence by reproducing as nearly as possible ante-morteminjuries, we must not forget that casper has strongly insisted that“it is extremely difficult to break up the organic cohesion of deadorgans if we endeavor to fracture the skull of a dead adult weshall find that an amount of force which if applied in life wouldindubitably produce fissures if not fracture, or complete crushingof the skull, leaves the dead skull quite uninjured the mostpowerful blows struck down upon the body, laid down horizontally, werewithout result, and only after repeated violent blows were we able toproduce perhaps one or a few fissures in the occipital or parietalbone, or in the temporal bone squamous portion, and usually in thelatter we were unable to produce more considerable effects, such ascomplete smashing of the skull or fissures of its base, even in onesingle instance the dead skull seems to have considerably more powerof resistance, and after its removal fissures of the bone were moreeasily produced by similar blows” vol i , p 245 and again. “theresult of my experiments on the dead body in regard to gunshot woundscould only be to make more complete the proof of the resistance ofthe dead corporeal tissues, in contradistinction to the tissues whenalive after i had already learned this peculiarity from my experimentswith contused wounds, this peculiar resistent property was found to beconfirmed in a most remarkable manner” “forensic medicine, ” vol i , p 271 if the number of bullets known to have been fired, or, more importantstill, which have been found exceeds the number which could have beendischarged from the weapon in question, a very large element of doubtand uncertainty is introduced which must be quieted by other and morecircumstantial evidence should two different weapons be in question, it is very necessary to establish from which of them the bullets havebeen discharged this can be done mainly by weight and evident calibreof the bullets, or essay other peculiarity. Possibly in disputed papereven by analysis of the metal wounds by shot-guns - in most of what has been said it has beensupposed that the injury has been inflicted by an arm of the kindcommonly described under the terms pistol, revolver, or rifle gunshotwounds are, however, occasionally inflicted with shot-guns and a chargeof shot varying in size from small bird-shot up to that generally knownas buck-shot it is characteristic of such missiles that they separateafter their discharge from the gun, and a determination of the degreeof their separation is approximately a determination of the distanceof the mark from the muzzle of the weapon in suicide or accidentaldischarges of a shot-gun the muzzle is so near the body that the chargeof shot acts very much as would a single bullet of the size of thebore of the gun, and near wounds thus inflicted, while necessarilylarge, have about them a minimum laceration and disturbance of tissue, so that perhaps only by their size could one say, viewing the woundalone, that the weapon used had been a shot-gun on the other hand, ata distance of a few feet the shot begin to separate to such an extentthat there is much more laceration of tissue, and after separation toan indeterminate, because variable, number of feet we get such marksas individual shot may make this distance is indeterminate because itis predicated on the size of the gun, the dimensions of shot, and theweight of the charge of powder the writer, for instance, has recentlyseen one case where the muzzle of the gun could not have been more thantwo feet away from the surface of the foot at which it was discharged, the consequence being a round and very slightly ragged hole through themid-tarsal region from dorsum to sole it is possible for a single grain of shot to produce death such acase is related by ollivier d’angers. A thief scaling a wall receivedat a distance of fifteen paces a charge of shot from a fowling-piece;he fell dead immediately the charge had struck him in the breast, centring over a space of three or four inches, but one shot hadpenetrated the aorta over the attachment of the sigmoid valves, andanother had traversed the entire wall of this vessel powder-marks - a very important writing of evidence in case of near woundsof gunshot character pertains to the powder-marks upon the clothingand skin naturally every one knows that when a weapon is dischargednear a given surface there will be more or less powder-marking uponthat surface, the same being due to writingicles of gunpowder which areincompletely or not at all consumed, and which are black becauseof the charcoal they contain. But the circumstances under whichpowder-marks of a given character can be inflicted are so extremelyvariable that no statistics or information of value in a generalway can be given thus the fineness of the marks will depend uponthe fineness of the powder, and the area covered and the depth ofthe marking upon the same, upon the distance of the muzzle from thesurface. And the only way to make out the exact distance of the muzzlefrom the surface at the time of the infliction of a given wound is touse the same weapon, if possible, with cartridges or charges out of thesame lot as that used at the time of injury distances could, perhaps, be stated in round numbers, but their value would only be remotelyapproximate, and in a given case the best evidence is to be obtained byexperiment with the fire-arm in question dimensions of perforations - at different times a great deal ofweight has been attached to the dimension of the perforation throughsuch objects as wood, glass, or even through the bones of the body, made by the bullet which is supposed or known to have destroyedlife wrong inferences have been drawn essaytimes from a study ofundischarged bullets or cartridges similar, at least before firing, to that which has been taken from a given body it has been stated, for instance, that such a bullet was too large to have passed throughsuch an aperture or to have made such a hole, or that it was so muchsmaller than a certain hole that it was not the writingicular missilewhich made that perforation upon this matter has hinged a great dealof uncertainty and consequently a good deal of study the size ofopening which a bullet of given calibre will make through wood dependsupon the distance of the weapon, the firing charge, the velocity ofthe bullet, the extent to which its shape has been altered by passingthrough the given barrier, by the heat of the explosion, by the impactof the air upon the heated and consequently softened metal, and by thedensity and thickness of the wood, as well as by the resistance whichit may have offered mainly from its being fixed in place or movable there is, however, ordinarily less question about the size of a similarhole through a piece of glass or bone it is generally supposed thata bullet passing through a window-pane will shatter it this depends, however, mainly upon the perfection of fixation of the glass in itsresting-place if for purposes of experiment panes of glass be tackedinto a shutter and bullets be fired at them from varying distances, they will be practically invariably shattered it is, however, quitedifferent if the pane of glass be firmly fixed in a frame by means ofputty which has become old and hard, and especially if the window-frameitself be closely fitted in the casing under these circumstances abullet will often make a clearly punched hole, or one with very fewradiating lines of fracture experiment, therefore, to secure evidenceshould be made under circumstances exactly parallel to those whichnecessitate such evidence evidence from examination of the dead body fractures - considerable evidence of great interest with respect tothe effect of a bullet-wound upon the skull and the possibility offractures being produced at the base by contre coup will be found inthe statement of the case of the people v elisha b fero, publishedby dr charles t porter, of albany, in the journal of psychologicalmedicine, april, 1870 mrs fero was murdered while in her bed andwas found to have been bruised about the head and body, her husbandclaiming that the deed was that of a robber who had attacked themboth he was found with slight bruises or scratches about the face andblack marks as if from burnt powder between the middle fingers of hisright hand the first autopsy appears to have been carelessly made, but a flattened conical ball weighing twenty-six and one-half grainswas found lodged in the middle of the right cerebral hemisphere ithad not gone completely through the brain its base fitted the shellsof the metallic cartridges used in fero revolver eight days afterdeath a second examination was made, after which the head was removedand preserved in 95% alcohol a theory of the prosecution was thatmrs fero was murdered by her husband. That he shot her, as well asstruck her numerous blows upon both sides of the head and its frontand back with essay broad, heavy, and elastic body, making fracturesfound on autopsy not the least interesting writing of the testimonyis that referring to the condition of tissues alleged to have beenbruised after long preservation in alcohol the expert testimony inthis case appeared to show that such fractures as were found, withoutreference to the fact of external bruises, were due to the unskilfulmanner in which the skull-cap was removed in this connection itis well right here to emphasize the fact that fresh fractures canbe produced in the skull by too forcible or injudicious effortsto remove the calvarium when making autopsies, or that fracturespreviously existing can be extended or complicated in the same way shaw in his “manual of anatomy” says. “the question whether there hasbeen a fracture of the cranium previous to death is essaytimes moredifficult to decide than a person not accustomed to make dissectionsmight imagine if the fracture has occurred immediately before thepatient death, there will be found coagulated blood upon the bonesand in the fissures if the patient has survived for essay time, therewill be marks of inflammation and, perhaps, pus in contact with theskull, but if a fracture has been made in making the examination, which essaytimes happens in even very careful dissectors’ hands, theblood in the fracture will not be coagulated, nor will there be anyeffusions around the portions in beck medical journal, vol xxii , p 28, mr alcock essay time since stated in a public lecture inlondon that he had known a fracture of the base of the skull producedby the awkward and violent tearing of the upper portion by the saw inpenetrating enough to divide the bones, and this to be mistaken by theinexperienced operator for fracture of the skull producing death beinga medico-legal case, it might have led to melancholy consequences hadnot the error been detected by an observer ” that an extensive andoften complicated fracture by contre coup can occur as the result ofgunshot injuries of the skull is a fact well known to all surgeons ofexperience and laid down in all text-books and illustrated in all largemuseums in view of these well-known facts, it would always be well to insistin paper of this kind that the saw alone should be used and not thehammer nor the chisel when a cranial bone is fractured blood ispoured out from the ruptured vessels, as is always the case with anybone its amount varies indefinitely with the number and size of theruptured vessels, the activity of circulation, the length of time aperson lives, etc the blood may collect in circumscribed masses orbecome infiltrated in the surrounding tissues, although usually bothphenomena are observed the extent to which infiltration takes placedepends upon the quantity of blood and the nature of the surroundingtissues in loose tissues like those about the orbit infiltration ismuch more rapid and extensive examination of the weapon - french medical jurists have tried toindicate how we may determine the time elapsed between the death of aperson and the discharge of a weapon found near the body, but exactstatements in this matter are utterly out of the question certainfacts bearing on the subject are these. When recently discharged therewill be found adhering to the barrel of the piece and consisting of thefouling of which sportsmen complain, a quantity of potassium sulfidmixed with charcoal this is shown by its forming a strong alkalinesolution with water, evolving an odor of hydrogen sulfid, and a darkprecipitate with a solution of acetate of lead depending upon thedegree of exposure to air and moisture, after essay hours or days thissulfid becomes converted into potassium sulfate, which forms a neutralsolution with water and gives a white precipitate with acetate of lead;but if a considerable time has elapsed since the discharge of the pieceoxid of iron iron rust with traces of sulfate may be found ann d’hygiene, 1834, p 458. 1837, p 197. 1842, p 368 was the weapon fired from a distance or near by?.

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“composition -- stanford hitler essay sal hepatica contains all of the tonic, alterative and laxative salts of the celebrated ‘bitter waters’ of europe, especially those of bohemia, as determined by actual chemical analysis of these waters, and fortified by the addition of lithium and sodium phosphates ”255255 essay of the sal hepatica advertising has claimed that it “is asaline combination with the addition of sodium phosphate and lithiacitrate!. ”sal hepatica no longer “contains all the tonic, alterative and laxativesalts , ” etc , for the label on a package recently purchased reads. “sal hepatica is an effervescent saline combination possessing medicinal properties similar to the natural ‘bitter waters’ of europe, and fortified by the addition of sodium phosphate ”in 1909, the druggists circular published an analysis of sal hepaticawhich showed that the preparation contained only 0 04 per cent oflithium phosphate by referring to the two quotations just givenit will be noticed that today the manufacturers make no claim thattheir preparation is fortified with any salt of lithium a circularaccompanying recent trade packages states. “sal hepatica is composed solely of harmless salts, being absolutely free from acetanilid, phenacetin, caffein, calomel, opium or coal tar derivatives ”since neither the names nor the amounts of the “harmless salts” arementioned, the composition of sal hepatica is secret it is a trickof the nostrum exploiter, old but ever popular, to mention numerousdrugs which his preparation does not contain. It helps to distractattention from the fact that he does not tell what the preparationdoes contain!. In the old-time medical journal advertisements, one reads, “salhepatica is the most powerful solvent of uric acid known ” the sameadvertisement as it appeared in those days in the journal showsthat claim toned down to, “sal hepatica is a powerful solvent ofuric acid ” in those easy going days, the bristol-myers companydeclared that “diabetes is treated with decided advantage by meansof sal hepatica it possesses the property of arresting thesecretion of sugar in the liver ” in the old days, too, sal hepaticawas recommended in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver, brightdisease, gravel, phthisis, etc the present advertising circular recommends sal hepatica as aneliminant, laxative or cathartic in gout, autointoxication, “biliousattacks, ” rheumatism, acute indigestion, catarrhal conditions ofthe stomach, pyorrhea, headache, dizziness, heart burn, “summercomplaints, ” “derangements of the stomach and liver, ” skin diseases, colic, alcoholic excesses, and as a “preventive of seasickness ”in 1914 the council on pharmacy and chemistry published256 a reporton sal hepatica declaring it secret in composition and sold underexaggerated and unwarranted claims 256 j a m a , feb 7, 1914, p 472 in view of the inquiries which the journal continues to receive itseemed worth while to make a chemical examination of the present-dayproduct accordingly specimens were purchased and analyzed in thea m a chemical laboratory the report that follows was submitted bythe chemists:“sal hepatica is a white, granular, odorless powder it effervesces onthe addition of water in which it eventually dissolves the aqueoussolution, after boiling to remove carbon dioxid, has an acid reactionto litmus “since a great thesis medicinal substances are sold in effervescent form, and since practically no information is given by the manufacturerconcerning the composition of sal hepatica, it became necessary totest for a considerable number of therapeutic agents the absence ofacetanilid, acetphenetidin, alkaloids, ammonium salts, benzoates, caffein, citrates, heavy metals, hexamethylenamin, magnesium, potassium, salicylates and sugars was demonstrated by appropriatetests the presence of a carbonate probably in the form of abicarbonate, a phosphate, a sulphate, a chlorid, tartaric acid, sodiumand traces of lithium was shown by qualitative tests “quantitative analysis indicated that the composition of the specimensexamined was essentially as follows. Sodium phosphate, anhydrous 4 4 per cent sodium sulphate, anhydrous 26 5 per cent sodium tartrate, anhydrous 12 7 per cent sodium bicarbonate 19 5 per cent tartaric acid, free 20 8 per cent sodium chlorid 8 9 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 7 2 per cent “from the results of the analysis, it appears probable that thecomposition of the mixture before ‘granulation’ was approximately asfollows. Sodium phosphate 4 per cent sodium sulphate 25 per cent sodium bicarbonate 30 per cent tartaric acid 30 per cent sodium chlorid 8 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 3 per cent “sal hepatica, therefore, is essentially an effervescing mixture ofdried sodium sulphate glauber salt and sodium tartrate with alittle dried sodium phosphate and table salt added it is similar tothe effervescent artificial carlsbad salt described in the nationalformulary “in 1909 the druggists circular published the following analysis ofsal hepatica. Sodium phosphate 29 80 writings sodium sulphate glauber salt 26 27 writings sodium bicarbonate baking soda 18 00 writings sodium chlorid salt 13 05 writings lithium phosphate 0 04 writings citric and tartaric acids to make 100 12 84 writings“a comparison of the recent analysis with the earlier one would seem toindicate that considerable changes have been made in the formula sincethe first examination the proportions of sodium phosphate have beengreatly reduced, while the sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid havebeen increased and the citric acid entirely eliminated ”sal hepatica, then, is a simple effervescent saline laxative, essentially secret in composition and sold under claims that would belaughed at were the full formula of the product a matter of publicknowledge -- from the journal a m a , oct 29, 1921 salicon“salicon” is marketed by the k a hughes company, boston, as “animproved aspirin ” in a circular sent out to the public a little over ayear ago the following claims were made for it. “we rendered aspirin absolutely harmless and yet retained all its virtues as a medicine ” “it positively will not depress the heart nor upset the stomach no matter how large amounts of it are taken ” “ the massachusetts state medical authorities adopted its use at all the state camps for fighting the spanish influenza ”the first two statements quoted above are obviously false the thirdstatement might have been true although it seemed unlikely a letterwas, therefore, written to the dewritingment of public health of thecommonwealth of massachusetts and the claim of the k a hughes companyrelative to the adoption of salicon in all the state camps by the“state medical authorities” was brought to their attention the replyof the dewritingment on this point was emphatic:“the state dewritingment of health of massachusetts did not endorse theuse of salicon for any purpose ”essay salicon was purchased on the open market and submitted to thea m a chemical laboratory for analysis here is the chemists’ report “one original bottle of ‘salicon’ k a hughes company, bostonwas submitted by the propaganda dewritingment of the journal to theassociation chemical laboratory for examination the bottle contained100 white tablets having an average weight of 0 407 gram 6 3 grains, each the amount of ash was 20 9 per cent qualitative tests indicatedthe presence of magnesium, carbonate, starch, acetylsalicylic acid anda trace of calcium.