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It is good against the gnawing ofthe heart, provokes appetite, takes away obstructions somebody do my homework for me of the liver, andstirs up bodily lust. But therefore too much must not be taken, becauseit makes the blood thin and wheyish, and turns it into choler, andtherefore choleric persons must abstain from it it is a safe medicinefor the biting of a mad dog, being bruised with salt and laid thereon the powder of it being dried and taken after meat, helps digestion, andthose that are splenetic taken with wine, it helps women in their soretravail in child-bearing it is good against the gravel and stone inthe kidneys, and the stranguary being smelled unto, it is comfortablefor the head and memory the decoction hereof gargled in the mouth, cures the gums and mouth that are sore, and mends an ill-savouredbreath. As also the rue and coriander, causes the palate of the mouthto turn to its place, the decoction being gargled and held in themouth the virtues of the wild or horse mint, such as grow in ditches whosedescription i purposely omitted, in regard they are well known areserviceable to dissolve wind in the stomach, to help the cholic, andthose that are short-winded, and are an especial remedy for thosethat have veneral dreams and pollutions in the night, being outwardlyapplied the juice dropped into the ears eases the pains of them, and destroys the worms that breed therein they are good against thevenemous biting of serpents the juice laid on warm, helps the kingevil, or kernels in the throat the decoction or distilled water helpsa stinking breath, proceeding from corruption of the teeth, and snuffedup the nose, purges the head pliny saith, that eating of the leaveshath been found by experience to cure the leprosy, applying essay ofthem to the face, and to help the scurf or dandriff of the head usedwith vinegar they are extremely bad for wounded people. And they say awounded man that eats mint, his wound will never be cured, and that isa long day misselto descript this rises up from the branch or arm of the tree whereonit grows, with a woody stem, putting itself into sundry branches, and they again divided into thesis other smaller twigs, interlacingthemselves one within another, very much covered with a greyish greenbark, having two leaves set at every joint, and at the end likewise, which are essaywhat long and narrow, small at the bottom, but broadertowards the end at the knots or joints of the boughs and branches growsmall yellow flowers, which run into small, round, white, transparentberries, three or four together, full of a glutinous moisture, with ablackish seed in each of them, which was never yet known to spring, being put into the ground, or any where else to grow place it grows very rarely on oaks with us. But upon sundry othersas well timber as fruit trees, plentifully in woody groves, and thelike, through all this land time it flowers in the spring-time, but the berries are not ripeuntil october, and abides on the branches all the winter, unless theblackbirds, and other birds, do devour them government and virtues this is under the dominion of the sun, ido not question. And can also take for granted, that which grows uponoaks, writingicipates essaything of the nature of jupiter, because an oakis one of his trees. As also that which grows upon pear trees, andapple trees, writingicipates essaything of his nature, because he rulesthe tree it grows upon, having no root of its own but why that shouldhave most virtues that grows upon oaks i know not, unless because itis rarest and hardest to come by. And our college opinion is in thiscontrary to scripture, which saith, god tender mercies are overall his works. And so it is, let the college of physicians walk ascontrary to him as they please, and that is as contrary as the eastto the west clusius affirms that which grows upon pear trees to beas prevalent, and gives order, that it should not touch the groundafter it is gathered.

Also helps the king evil, being applied to the place being spread over a piece of leather, andapplied to the navel, kills the worms in the belly, helps scabs anditch, running sores, cankers, tetters, and ringworms. And being appliedto the place, may haply cure venereal sores this i thought good tospeak of, as it may be safely used outwardly, for inwardly it cannot betaken without manifest danger the common white saxifrage descript this hath a few small reddish kernels of roots coveredwith essay skins, lying among divers small blackish fibres, whichsend forth divers round, faint or yellow green leaves, and greyishunderneath, lying above the grounds, unevenly dented about the edges, and essaywhat hairy, every one upon a little foot-stalk, from whencerises up round, brownish, hairy, green stalks, two or three feethigh, with a few such like round leaves as grow below, but smaller, and essaywhat branched at the top, whereon stand pretty large whiteflowers of five leaves a-piece, with essay yellow threads in the middle, standing in a long crested, brownish green husk after the flowers arepast, there arises essaytimes a round hard head, forked at the top, wherein is contained small black seed, but usually they fall awaywithout any seed, and it is the kernels or grains of the root which areusually called the white saxifrage-seed, and so used place it grows in thesis places of our land, as well in thelower-most, as in the upper dry corners of meadows, and grassy sandyplaces it used to grow near lamb conduit, on the backside of grayinn time it flowers in may, and then gathered, as well for that whichis called the seed, as to distil, for it quickly perishes down to theground when any hot weather comes government and virtues it is very effectual to cleanse the reinsand bladder, and to dissolve the stone engendered in them, and toexpel it and the gravel by urine. To help the stranguary.

The time of taking it is, in the morning fasting diamoschu amarumcollege is prepared by adding to the forenamed wormwood, driedroses, of each three drams, aloes half an ounce, cinnamon two drams andan half, castorium and lovage, of each one dram, make them into powder culpeper besides the virtues of the former, it purges the stomachof putrified humours specia dianthus college take of rosemary flowers an ounce, red roses, violets, liquorice, of each six drams, cloves, indian spikenard, nutmegs, galanga, cinnamon, ginger, zedoary, mace, wood of aloes, cardamoms theless, the seeds of dill and anis, of each four scruples, make them intopowder according to art culpeper it strengthens the heart and helps the passions thereof, it causes a joyful and cheerful mind, and strengthens such as have beenweakened by long sickness, it strengthens cold stomachs, and helpsdigestion notably the dose is half a dram, you may make it into anelectuary with honey, and take two drams of that at a time diapendion college take of penides two ounces, pine-nuts, sweet almondsblanched, white poppy seeds, of each three drams and a scruple, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, which three being omitted, it is adiapendion without spices juice of liquorice, gum tragacanth andarabic, white starch, the four greater cold seeds husked, of each adram and an half, camphire seven grains, make them into powder culpeper it helps the vices of the breast, coughs, colds, hoarseness, and consumptions of the lungs, as also such as spit matter you may mix it with any pectoral syrup, and take it with a liquoricestick, if you fancy the powder best, but if the electuary, you maytake a dram of it upon a knife point at any time when the cough comes diarrhodon abbatis college take of sanders white and red, of each two drams and anhalf, gum tragacanth, arabic, ivory of each two scruples, asarabaccaroots, mastich, indian spikenard, cardamoms, liquorice, saffron, woodof aloes, cloves, gallia moschata, annis and sweet fennel seeds, cinnamon, rhubarb, bazil seeds, barberry seeds, the seeds of succory, purslain, the four greater cold seeds cleansed, white poppy seeds, ofeach a scruple, pearls, bone of a stag-heart of each half a scruple, red roses exungulated, one ounce and three drams, camphire sevengrains, make them into powder according to art culpeper it cools the violent heat of the heart and stomach, asalso of the liver, lungs, and spleen, eases pains in the body, andmost infirmities coming to the body by reason of heat the dose of thepowder is half a dram, and two ounces of the electuary, into which withsugar dissolved in rose-water you may make it diospoliticum college take of cummin seeds steeped in vinegar and dried, longpepper, rue leaves, of each an ounce, nitre half an ounce, make theminto powder culpeper it is an admirable remedy for such whose meat is putrifiedin their stomachs, it helps cold stomachs, cold belchings and windy you may take half a dram after meat, either in a spoonful of muskadel, or in a syrup of mirtles or quinces, or any somebody do my homework for me cordial water whose effectsis the same species diatragacanthi frigidi college take of gum tragacanth two ounces, gum arabic an ounceand two drams, white starch half an ounce, liquorice, the seeds ofmelons and white poppies, of each three drams, the seeds of citruls, cucumbers and gourds, of each two drams, penids three ounces, camphirehalf a scruple, make of them a powder according to art also you maymake an electuary of them with a sufficient quantity of syrup ofviolets, but have a care of what was told you before of the seeds culpeper make up into an electuary it helps the faults of thebreast and lungs coming of heat and dryness, it helps consumptions, leanness, inflammations of the sides, pleurises, &c hot and drycoughs, roughness of the tongue and jaws diatrion piperion college take of the three sorts of peppers, of each six drams andfifteen grains, annis seeds, thyme, ginger, of each one dram, beat theminto gross powder culpeper it heats the stomach and expels wind half a dram inpowder, or two drams in electuary for so galen who was author of it, appoints it to be made with clarified honey, a sufficient quantity ifage and strength permit, if not, half so much, is a sufficient dose, tobe taken before meat, if to heat the stomach and help digestion. Aftermeat, if to expel wind diatrion santalon college take of all the sorts of sanders, red roses, of each threedrams, rhubarb, ivory, juice of liquorice, purslain seeds, of each twodrams and fifteen grains, white starch, gum arabic, tragacanth, theseeds of melons, cucumbers, citruls, gourds, endive, of each a dram andan half, camphire a scruple, make them into powder according to art culpeper it is very profitable against the heat of the stomach andliver, besides, it wonderfully helps such as have the yellow jaundice, and consumptions of the lungs you may safely take a dram of thepowder, or two drams of the electuary in the morning fasting, for mostof these powders will keep better by half in electuaries pulvis haly college take of white poppy seeds ten drams, white starch, gumarabic and tragacanth, of each three drams, the seeds of purslain, marsh-mallows, mallows, of each five drams, cucumbers, melons, gourds, citruls, quinces of each seven drams, ivory, liquorice, of each threedrams, penids the weight of them all, make them into powder accordingto art culpeper it is a gallant cool powder, fit for all hot imperfectionsof the breast and lungs, as consumptions, pleurisies, &c your best wayis to make it into a soft electuary with syrups of violets, and take itas diatragacanthum frigidum lætificans college take the flowers of clove-bazil, or the seeds thereof, saffron, zedoary, wood of aloes, cloves, citron pills, galanga, mace, nutmegs, styrax calamitis, of each two drams and an half, ivory, annisseeds, thyme, epithimum, of each one dram, bone of a stag heart, pearls, camphire, of each half a dram, leaves of gold and silver, ofeach half a scruple, make it into powder according to art culpeper it causes a merry heart, a good colour, helps digestion, and keeps back old age you may mix half a dram of it to take at onetime, or less if you please, in any cordial syrup, or cordial electuaryappropriated to the same uses pulvis saxonicus college take of the roots of both sorts of angelica, swallow-wort, garden valerian, polipodium of the oak, marsh-mallows, nettles, of eachhalf an ounce, the bark of german mezereon, two drams, twenty grains ofherb true-love, the leaves of the same, roots and all, thirty six, theroots being steeped in vinegar and dried, beat it all into powder culpeper it seems to be as great an expeller of poison, and asgreat a preservative against it, and the pestilence, as one shallusually read of rosate novelle college take of red roses, liquorice, of each one ounce, one dram, two scruples and an half, cinnamon two drams, two scruples, and twograins, cloves, indian spikenard, ginger, galanga, nutmegs, zedoary, styrax, calamitis, cardamoms, parsley seeds, of each one scruple eightgrains, beat them into powder culpeper it quenches thirst, and stays vomiting, and the authorsaith it helps hot and dry stomachs, as also heat and dryness of theheart, liver, and lungs, yet is the powder itself hot, it strengthensthe vital spirits, takes away heart-qualms, it provokes sweat, andstrengthens such as have laboured under long chronical diseases youmay take a dram of the electuary every morning, if with clarified honeyyou please to make it into such a body pulvus thuraloes college take of frankincense one dram, aloes half a dram, beat theminto powder culpeper and when you have occasion to use it, mix so much of itwith the white of an egg, beat the white of the egg well first aswill make it of the thickness of honey, then dip the wool of a hare init, and apply it to the sore or writing that bleeds, binding it on pulvis hermidactylorum compositus or powder of hermodactils compound college take of men bones burnt, scammony, hermodactils, turbith, sena, sugar, of each equal writings, beat them into powder pulvis senæ compositus major or powder of sena the greater composition college take of the seeds of annis, carraway, fennel, cummin, spikenard, cinnamon, galanga, of each half an ounce, liquorice, gromwell, of each an ounce, sena, the weight of them all, beat it intopowder culpeper that this receipt is gallantly composed none can deny, andis an excellent purge for such whose bodies as are troubled with thewind cholic, or stoppage either of guts or kidneys, two drams taken inwhite wine will work sufficiently with any ordinary body let weak menand children take less, keeping within doors, and warm pulvis senæ compositus minor or powder of sena, the lesser composition college take of sena two ounces, cremor tartar half an ounce, macetwo scruples and an half, ginger, cinnamon, of each a dram and an half, salgem one dram, beat it into powder according to art culpeper this powder purges melancholy, and cleanses the head diasenæ college take of sena, cremor tartar, of each two ounces, cloves, cinnamon, galanga, ammi, of each two drams, diacridium half an ounce, beat it into powder according to art diaturbith with rhubarb college take of turbith, hermodactils, of each an ounce, rhubarbten drams, diacrydium half an ounce, sanders red and white, violets, ginger, of each a dram and an half, mastich, annis seeds, cinnamon, saffron, of each half a dram, make it into powder culpeper this also purges flegm and choler once more let me desiresuch as are unskilful in the rules of physic, not to meddle with purgesof this nature unless prescribed by a skilful physician lest they dothemselves more mischief in half an hour, than they can remove in halfa year the lesser cordial powder fernelius college take of hart-horn, unicorn horn, pearls, ivory, of eachsix grains, beat them into fine powder if you mean to keep it, you mayencrease the quantity analogically the greater cordial powder fern college take of the roots of tormentil, dittany, clove-gilliflowers, scabious, the seed of sorrel, coriander prepared, citron, carduus benedictus, endive, rue, of each one dram, of the threesorts of sanders, white, red, and yellow, been, white and red or ifyou cannot get them, take the roots of avens and tormentil, in theirstead roman doronicum, a kind of wolf-bane cinnamon, cardamoms, saffron, the flowers of both sorts of bugloss, viz borrage andbugloss, red roses, and water-lilies, wood of aloes, mace, of each twoscruples, ivory, spodium, bone of a stag-heart, red coral, pearls, emerald, jacinth, granite of each one scruple, raw silk torrified, dried or roasted by the fire, bole-amoniac, earth of lemnos, of eachhalf a dram, camphire, ambergris, musk, of each six grains, beat theminto powder according to art, and with eight times their weight inwhite sugar, dissolved in rose-water, you may make them into lozenges, if you please culpeper both this and the former powder, are appropriated to theheart, as the title shew therefore they do strengthen that, and thevital spirit, and relieve languishing nature all these are cordialpowders, and seldom above half a dram of them given at a time a powder for such as are bruised by a fall the augustan physicians college take of terra sigillata, sanguis draconis, mummy of eachtwo drams, spermaceti one dram, beat them into powder according to art culpeper you must beat the rest into powder, and then add thespermaceti to them afterwards, for if you put the spermaceti and therest all together and go to beat them in that fashion, you may as soonbeat the mortar into powder, as the simples indeed your best wayis to beat them severally, and then mix them altogether, which beingdone, makes you a gallant medicine for the infirmities specified in thetitle, a dram of it taken in muskadel and sweating after it species electuarii dyacymini nicholaus college take of cummin seeds infused a natural day in vinegar, oneounce and one scruple, cinnamon, cloves, of each two drams and an half, galanga, savory, calaminth, of each one dram and two scruples, ginger, black pepper, of each two drams and five grains, the seeds of lovage, and ammi, bishop-weed, of each one dram and eighteen grains, longpepper one dram, spikenard, nutmegs, cardamoms, of each two scruplesand an half, beat them and keep them diligently in powder for your use culpeper it heats the stomach and bowels, expels wind exceedingly, helps the wind cholic, helps digestion hindered by cold or wind, is anadmirable remedy for wind in the bowels, and helps quartan agues thepowder is very hot, half a dram is enough to take at one time, and toomuch if the patient be feverish, you may take it in white wine it isin my opinion a fine composed powder species electuarii diagalangæ mesue college take of galanga, wood of aloes, of each six drams, cloves, mace, seeds of lovage of each two drams, ginger, long and white pepper, cinnamon, calamus aromaticus of each a dram and an half, calaminth, and mints dried, cardamoms the greater, indian spikenard, the seedsof smallage, annis, fennel, caraway, of each one dram, beat them intopowder according to art also it may be made into an electuary withwhite sugar dissolved in malaga wine, or twelve times the weight of itof clarified honey culpeper mesue quotes it only as an electuary, which he saithprevails against wind, sour belchings, and indigestion, gross humoursand cold afflictions of the stomach and liver you may take half adram of the powder at a time, or two of the electuary in the morningfasting, or an hour before meat it helps digestion exceedingly, expelswind, and heats a cold stomach species electuarii diamargariton calidi avicenna college take of pearls and pellitory of the wall, of each one dram, ginger, mastich, of each half an ounce, doronicum, zedoary, smallageseeds, both sorts of cardamoms, nutmegs, mace, of each two drams, beenof both sorts, if they cannot be procured take the roots of avens andtormentil black and long pepper of each three drams, beat them intopowder and keep them for your use culpeper this quoth avicenna is appropriated to women, and inthem to diseases incident to their matrix. But his reasons i know not it is cordial and heats the stomach lithontribon nicholaus, according to fernelius college take of spikenard, ginger, cinnamon, black pepper, cardamoms, cloves, mace, of each half a dram, costus, liquorice, cypress, tragacanth, germander, of each two scruples, the seeds ofbishop-weed, ammi, smallage, sparagus, bazil, nettles, citrons, saxifrage, burnet, caraway, carrots, fennel, bruscus, parsley ofmacedonia, burs, seseli, or hartwort, asarabacca, of each one dram, lapis spongiæ, lyncis, cancri, judaici, of each one dram and an half, goat blood prepared an ounce and half, beat them all into powderaccording to art culpeper it heats the stomach, and helps want of digestion comingthrough cold, it eases pains in the belly and loins, the illiacpassion, powerfully breaks the stone in the reins and bladder, itspeedily helps the cholic, stranguary, and disury the dose is froma dram to half a dram, take it either in white wine, or decoction ofherbs tending to the same purposes pleres arconticon nicholaus college take of cinnamon, cloves, galanga, wood of aloes, indianspikenard, nutmegs, ginger, spodium, schœnanthus, cypress, roses, violets of each one dram, indian leaf or mace, liquorice, mastich, styrax calamitis, marjoram, costmary, or water-mints, bazil, cardamoms, long and white pepper, myrtle berries, and citron pills, of each halfa dram and six grains, pearls, been white and red, or, if they bewanting, take the roots of avens and tormentil in their stead redcoral, torrified silk, of each eighteen grains, musk six grains, camphire four grains, beat them into powder according to art, and withten times their weight in sugar dissolved in bawm water, you may makethem into an electuary culpeper it is exceedingly good for sad, melancholy, lumpish, pensive, grieving, vexing, pining, sighing, sobbing, fearful, carefulspirits, it strengthens weak stomachs exceedingly, and help such asare prone to faintings and swoonings, it strengthens such as areweakened by violence of sickness, it helps bad memories, quickensall the senses, strengthens the brain and animal spirits, helps thefalling-sickness, and succours such as are troubled with asthmas, orother cold afflictions of the lungs it will keep best in an electuary, of which you may take a dram in the morning, or more, as age andstrength requires a preservative powder against the pestilence montagnam college take of all the sanders, white, red, and yellow, theseeds of bazil, of each an ounce and an half, bole amoniac, cinnamon, of each an ounce, the roots of dittany, gentian, and tormentil, of eachtwo drams and an half, the seeds of citron and sorrel, of each twodrams, pearls, saphire, bone of a stag heart, of each one dram, beatthem into powder according to art culpeper the title tells you the virtue of it, besides, it cheersthe vital spirits, and strengthens the heart you may take half a dramevery morning either by itself, or mixed with any other convenientcomposition, whether syrup or electuary diaturbith the greater, without rhubarb college take of the best turbith an ounce, diagridium, ginger, ofeach half an ounce, cinnamon, cloves, of each two drams, galanga, longpepper, mace, of each one dram, beat them into powder, and with eightounces and five drams of white sugar dissolved in succory water, it maybe made into an electuary culpeper it purges flegm, being rightly administered by a skilfulhand i fancy it not a powder for the worms college take of wormseed, four ounces, sena, one ounce, corianderseeds prepared, hart-horn, of each half a dram, rhubarb half anounce, dried rue, two drams, beat them into powder culpeper i like this powder very well, the quantity or to writemore scholastically, the dose must be regulated according to the ageof the patient, even from ten grains to a dram, and the manner oftaking it by their palate it is essaything purging electuaries antidotus analeptica college take of red roses, liquorice of each two drams and fivegrains, gum arabic and tragacanth, of each two drams and two scruples, sanders white and red, each four scruples, juice of liquorice, whitestarch, the seeds of white poppies, purslain, lettuce, and endive, ofeach three drams, the four greater cold seeds husked, of quinces, mallows, cotton, violets, pine-nuts, fistic nuts, sweet almonds, pulpof sebestens, of each two drams, cloves, spodium, cinnamon, of each onedram, saffron five grains, penids half an ounce, being beaten, makethem all into a soft electuary with three times their weight in syrupof violets culpeper it restores consumptions, and hectic fevers, loststrength, it nourishes much, and restores radical moisture, opens thepores, resists choler, takes away coughs, quenches thirst, and resistsfevers you may take an ounce in a day, by a dram at a time, if youplease confectio alkermes college take of the juice of apples, damask rose-water, of eacha pound and an half, in which infuse for twenty-four hours, raw silkfour ounces, strain it strongly, and add syrup of the berries ofcherms brought over to us, two pounds, sugar one pound, boil it to thethickness of honey. Then removing it from the fire whilst it is warm, add ambergris cut small, half an ounce, which being well mingled, put in these things following in powder, cinnamon, wood of aloes, ofeach six drams, pearls prepared, two drams, leaf-gold a dram, musk ascruple, make it up according to art culpeper questionless this is a great cordial, and a mightystrengthener of the heart, and vital spirits, a restorer of such asare in consumptions, a resister of pestilences and poison, a reliefto languishing nature, it is given with good success in fevers, butgive not too much of it at a time, lest it prove too hot for the body, and too heavy for the purse you may mix ten grains of it with otherconvenient cordials to children, twenty or thirty to men electuarium e sassaphras college take of sassafras two ounces, common water three pounds, boil it to the consumption of the third writing, adding, towards theend, cinnamon bruised half an ounce, strain it, and with two poundsof white sugar, boil it to the thickness of a syrup, putting in, inpowder, cinnamon, a dram, nutmegs, half a scruple, musk three grains, ambergris, two and thirty grains, ten leaves of gold, spirit of vitriolfour drops, and so make it into an electuary according to art culpeper it opens obstruction of the liver and spleen, helps coldrheums or defluxions from the head to the lungs, or teeth, or eyes, itis excellent in coughs, and other cold afflictions of the lungs andbreast, it helps digestion, expels wind and the gravel of the kidneys, it provokes the menses, warms and dries up the moisture of the womb, which is thesis times the cause of barrenness, and is generally a helperof all diseases coming of cold, raw thin humours, you may take half adram at a time in the morning electuarium de baccis lauri or electuary of bay-berries college take of the leaves of dried rue ten drams, the seeds ofammi, cummin, lovage, origanum, nigella, caraway, carrots, parsley, bitter almonds, pepper black and long, wild mints, calamus aromaticus, bay-berries, castorium of each two drams, sagapenum half an ounce, opopanax three drams, clarified honey a pound and an half, the thingsto be beaten. Being beaten, and the gums dissolved in wine, make itinto an electuary according to art culpeper it is exceeding good either in the cholic, or iliacpassion, or any other disease of the bowels coming of cold or wind, itgenerally eases pains in the bowels you may give a dram in the morningfasting, or half an ounce in a clyster, according as the disease is diacapparit college take of capers four ounces agrimony roots, nigella seeds, squils, asarabacca, centaury, black pepper, smallage, thyme of eachan ounce, honey three times their weight, make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper they say it helps infirmities of the spleen, and indeedthe name seems to promise so much, it may be good for cold bodies, ifthey have strength of nature in them diacinnamomum college take of cinnamon fifteen drams, cassia lignea, elecampaneroots, of each half an ounce, galanga, seven drams, cloves, longpepper, both sorts of cardamoms, ginger, mace, nutmegs, wood of aloes, of each three drams, saffron, one dram, sugar five drams, musk twoscruples, adding according to the prescript of the physician, and byadding three pounds eight ounces of clarified honey, boil it and makeit into an electuary according to art culpeper diacinnamomum, or in plain english, a composition ofcinnamon, heats the stomach, causes digestion, provokes the menses, strengthens the stomach and other writings that distribute the nourishmentof the body, a dram of it taken in the morning fasting, is good forancient people and cold bodies, such as are subject to dropsies anddiseases of flegm, or wind, for it comforts and strengthens naturemuch if you take it to help digestion, take it an hour before meat, doso in all things of like quality diacorallion college take of coral white and red, bole-amoniac, dragon-blood, of each one dram, pearls half a dram, wood of aloes, red roses, gumtragacanth, cinnamon, of each two scruples, sanders white and red, ofeach one scruple, with four times its weight in sugar dissolved insmall cinnamon water, make it into an electuary, according to art culpeper it comforts and strengthens the heart exceedingly, andrestores such as are in consumptions, it is cooling, therefore good inhectic fevers, very binding, and therefore stops fluxes, neither doi know a better medicine in all the dispensatory for such as have aconsumption accompanied with looseness it stops the menses and fluoralbus take but a dram at a time every morning, because of its bindingquality, except you have a looseness, for then you may take so much twoor three times a day diacorum college take of the roots of cicers, acorus, or calamus aromaticus, pine-nuts, of each a pound and a half, let the cicers roots, beingcleansed, cut, boiled, and pulped, be added to ten pounds of clarifiedhoney, and boiled, stirring it to its just thickness, then beingremoved from the fire, add the acorus roots beaten, the pine-nuts cut, and these following in powder take of black pepper an ounce, longpepper, cloves, ginger, mace, of each half an ounce, nutmegs, galanga, cardamons, of each three drams, mix them with the roots and honey intoan electuary according to art culpeper the electuary provokes lust, heats the brain, strengthensthe nerves, quickens the senses, causes an acute wit, eases pains inthe head, helps the falling-sickness and convulsions, coughs, catharrs, and all diseases proceeding from coldness of the brain half a dram isenough to take at one time, because of its heat peony is an herb of the sun, the roots of it cure thefalling-sickness diacydonium simple college take of the flesh of quinces cut and boiled in fair waterto a thickness, eight pounds, white sugar six pounds, boil it to itsjust thickness diacydonium with species college take of the juice of quinces, sugar, of each two pounds, white wine vinegar half a pound, added at the end of the decoction, itbeing gently boiled, and the scum taken away, add ginger two ounces, white pepper ten drams and two scruples, bruise them grossly, and boilit again to the thickness of honey diacydonium compound, magisterial college take of white sugar six pounds, spring water four pounds, clarify them well with the white of an egg, scumming them, then takeof ripe quinces cleansed from the rind and seeds, and cut in fourquarters, eight pounds, boil them in the foregoing syrup till they betender, then strain the syrup through a linen cloth, vocata anglice, boulter. Boil them again to a jelly, adding four ounces of white winevinegar towards the end. Remove it from the fire, and whilst it iswarm put in these following species in powder, ginger an ounce, whitepepper, cinnamon, nutmegs, of each two drams, keep it for use culpeper the virtues of all these three are, they comfort thestomach, help digestion, stays vomiting, belchings, &c stop fluxesand the menses they are all harmless, you may take the quantity of anutmeg of them at a time, before meat to help digestion and fluxes, after meat to stay vomiting, in the morning for the rest confectio de hyacintho college take of jacinth, red coral, bole-amoniac, earth of lemnos, of each half an ounce, the berries of chermes, the roots of tormentiland dittany, the seeds of citrons, sorrel, and purslain, saffron, myrrh, red roses exungulated, all the sorts of sanders, bone of astag heart, hart-horn, ivory prepared, of each four scruples, samphire, emerald, topaz, pearls, raw silk, leaves of gold and silver, of each two scruples, camphire, musk, ambergris, of each five grains, with syrup of lemons make it into a confection according to art culpeper it is a great cordial and cool, exceeding good in acutefevers and pestilences, it mightily strengthens and cherishes theheart never above half a dram is given at a time, very seldom somuch antidotum hæmagogum college take of lupines husked two drams, black pepper fivescruples and six grains, liquorice four scruples, long birthwort, mugwort, cassia lignea, macedonian parsley seed, pellitory of spain, rue seed, spikenard, myrrh, pennyroyal, of each two scruples andfourteen grains, the seeds of smallage, savin, of each two scruplesand thirteen grains, centaury the greater, cretish carrots, nigella, caraway, annis, cloves, alum, of each two scruples, bay leaves onescruple, one half scruple, and three grains, schænanth one scrupleand thirteen grains, asarabacca, calamus aromaticus, amomum, centaurythe less, the seed of orrach, peony, fennel, of each one scruple andsix grains, wood of aloes, a scruple and fourteen grains, cypress, elecampane, ginger, cappar roots, cummin, orobus, of each one scruple, all of them being beaten into very fine powder, let them be made intoan electuary according to art, with four times their weight in sugar, let it stand one month before you use it culpeper it provokes the menses, brings away both birth andafter-birth, the dead child, purges such as are not sufficiently purgedafter travail, it provokes urine, breaks the stone in the bladder, helps the stranguary, disury, iskury, &c helps indigestion, thecholic, opens any stoppings in the body, it heats the stomach, purgesthe liver and spleen, consumes wind, stays vomiting, but let it not betaken by pregnant women, nor such people as have the hemorrhoids thedose is from one dram to two drams diasatyrion college take of satyrion roots three ounces, dates, bitter almonds, indian nuts, pine nuts, festick nuts, green ginger, eringo rootspreserved, of each one ounce, ginger, cloves, galanga, pepper long andblack, of each three drams, ambergris one scruple musk two scruples, penins four ounces, cinnamon, saffron, of each half an ounce, malagawine three ounces, nutmegs, mace, grains of paradise, of each twodrams, ash-tree keys, the belly and loins of scinks, borax, benjamin, of each three drams, wood of aloes, cardamoms, of each two drams, theseeds of nettles and onions, the roots of avens, of each a dram and anhalf, with two pounds and an half of syrup of green ginger, make theminto an electuary according to art electuarium diaspermaton college take of the four greater and lesser cold seeds, the seedsof asparagus, burnet, bazil, parsley, winter cherries, of each twodrams, gromwell, juice of liquorice, of each three drams, cinnamon, mace, of each one dram, with eight times their weight in white sugardissolved in marsh-mallows water, make it into an electuary accordingto art culpeper it breaks the stone, and provokes urine men may take halfan ounce at a time, and children half so much, in water of any herb orroots, &c or decoction of them that break the stone micleta college take of the barks of all the myrobalans torrified, of eachtwo drams and an half, the seeds of water-cresses, cummin, annis, fennel, ammi, caraway, of each a dram and an half, bruise the seedsand sprinkle them with sharp white wine vinegar, then beat them intopowder, and add the mirobalans, and these things that follow, spodium, balaustines, sumach, mastich, gum arabic, of each one dram and fifteengrains, mix them together, and with ten ounces of syrup of myrtles, make them into an electuary according to art culpeper it gently eases the bowels of the wind cholic, wringingof the bowels, infirmities of the spleen, it stops fluxes, thehemorrhoids, as also the menses electuarium pectorale or a pectoral electuary college take of the juice of liquorice, sweet almonds, hazel-nuts, of each half an ounce, pine-nuts an ounce, hysop, maidenhair, orris, nettle seeds, round birthwort, of each a dram and an half, blackpepper, the seeds of water-cresses, the roots of elecampane, of eachhalf a dram, honey fourteen ounces, make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and lungs, and helps the vicesthereof take it with a liquorice stick theriaca diatessaron college take of gentain, bay-berries, myrrh, round birthwort, of each two ounces, honey two pounds, make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper this is a gallant electuary it wonderfully helps coldinfirmities of the brain, as convulsions, falling-sickness, deadpalsies, shaking palsies, &c as also the stomach, as pains there, wind, want of digestion, as also stoppings of the liver, dropsies, itresists the pestilence and poison, and helps the bitings of venomousbeasts the dose is from half a dram to two drams, according to the ageand strength of the patient, as also the strength of the diseases. Youmay take it either in the morning, or when urgent occasion calls for it diascordium college take of cinnamon, cassia lignea, of each half an ounce, scordium, an ounce, dittany of crete, tormentil, bistort, galbanum, gumarabic, of each half an ounce, opium one dram and an half, sorrel seedsone dram and a half, gentain half an ounce, bole-amoniac an ounce andan half, earth of lemnos half an ounce, long pepper, ginger, of eachtwo drams, clarified honey two pounds and an half, sugar of roses onepound, canary wine ten ounces, make them into an electuary according toart culpeper it is a well composed electuary, essaything appropriated tothe nature of women, for it provokes the menses, hastens labour, helpstheir usual sickness at the time of their lying in. I know nothingbetter, it stops fluxes, mightily strengthens the heart and stomach, neither is it so hot but it may safely be given to weak people, andbesides provokes sleep it may safely be given to young children tengrains at a time, ancient people may take a dram or more it is givenas an excellent cordial in such fevers as are accompanied with want ofsleep mithridate college take of myrrh, saffron, agarick, ginger, cinnamon, spikenard, frankincense, treacle, mustard seeds, of each ten drams, the seeds of hartwort, opobalsamum, or oil of nutmegs by expression, schenanth, stœchas, costus, galbanum, turpentine, long pepper, castorium, juice of hypocistis, styrax, calamitis, opopanax, indianleaf, or for want of it mace, of each an ounce, cassia lignea, poleymountain, white pepper, scordium, the seeds of carrots of crete, carpobalsamum or cubebs, troch, cypheos, bdelium, of each sevendrams, celtic spikenard, gum arabic, macedonian parsley seeds, opium, cardamoms the less, fennel seed, gentian, red rose leaves, dittanyof crete, of each five drams, annis seeds, asarabacca, orris acorus, the greater valerian, sagapen, of each three drams, meum acacia, thebellies of scinks, the tops of st john wort, of each two drams andan half, malaga wine, so much as is sufficient to dissolve the juicesand gums, clarified honey the treble weight of all, the wine excepted, make them into an electuary according to art culpeper it is good against poison and such as have done themselveswrong by taking filthy medicines, it provokes sweat, it helps continualwaterings of the stomach, ulcers in the body, consumptions, weaknessof the limbs, rids the body of cold humours, and diseases coming ofcold, it remedies cold infirmities of the brain, and stopping of thepassage of the senses, viz hearing, seeing, smelling, &c by cold, it expels wind, helps the cholic, provokes appetite to one victuals, it helps ulcers in the bladder, if galen say true, as also difficultyof urine, it casts out the dead child, and helps such women as cannotconceive by reason of cold, it is an admirable remedy for melancholy, and all diseases of the body coming through cold, it would fill awhole sheet of paper to reckon them all up writingicularly you may takea scruple or half a dram in the morning, and follow your business, twodrams will make you sweat, yea one dram if your body be weak, for thentwo drams may be dangerous because of its heat phylomum persicum college take of white pepper, the seeds of white henbane, of eachtwo drams, opium, earth of lemnos, of each ten drams, lap, hematitus, saffron, of each five drams, castorium, indian spikenard, euphorbiumprepared, pellitory of spain, pearls, amber, zedoary, elecampane, troch, ramach, of each a dram, camphire a scruple, with their trebleweight in honey of roses, make it into an electuary according to art culpeper it stops blood flowing from any writing of the body, theimmoderate flowing of the menses, the hemorrhoids in men, spitting ofblood, bloody fluxes, and is profitable for such women as are subjectto miscarry. See the next receipt phylonium romanum college take of white pepper, white henbane seeds, of each fivedrams, opium two drams and an half, cassia lignea a dram and an half, the seeds of smallage a dram, parsley of macedonia, fennel, carrots ofcrete, of each two scruples and five grains, saffron a scruple and anhalf, indian spikenard, pellitory of spain, zedoary fifteen grains, cinnamon a dram and an half, euphorbium prepared, myrrh, castorium, ofeach a dram with their treble weight in clarified honey, make it intoan electuary electuarium de ovo or electuary of eggs college take a hen egg new laid, and the white being taken outby a small hole, fill up the void place with saffron, leaving the yolkin, then the hole being stopped, roast it in ashes till the shell beginto look black, take diligent heed the saffron burn not, for then isthe whole medicine spoiled, then the matter being taken out dry, ifso that it may be beaten into powder and add to it as much powder ofwhite mustard seed as it weighs then take the roots of white dittanyand tormentil, of each two drams, myrrh, hart-horn, petasitis roots, of each one dram, the roots of angelica and burnet, juniper berries, zedoary, camphire of each half an ounce, mix them all together in amortar, then add venice treacle the weight of them all, stir them aboutwith a pestle three hours together, putting in so much syrup of lemons, as is enough to make it into an electuary according to art culpeper a dram of it given at a time, is as great a help in apestilential fever as a man shall usually read of in a galenist itprovokes sweat, and then you shall be taught how to use yourself ifyears do not permit, give not so much theriaca andromachi or venice treacle college take of troches of squils forty-eight drams, troches ofvipers, long pepper, opium of thebes, magma, hedycroi dried, of eachtwenty-four drams, red roses exungulated, orris, illirick, juice ofliquorice, the seeds of sweet navew, scordium, opobalsamum, cinnamon, agerick, of each twelve drams, myrrh, costus, or zedoary, saffron, cassia lignea, indian spikenard, schenanth, pepper white and black, olibanum, dittany of crete, rhapontic, stœchas, horehound, macedonianparsley seed, calaminth, cypress, turpentine, the roots of cinquefoyland ginger, of each six drams, poley mountain, chamepitis, celticspikenard, amomus, styrax calamitis, the roots of meum, the topsof germander, the roots of rhapontic, earth of lemnos, indian leaf, chalcitis burnt, or instead thereof roman vitriol burnt, gentianroots, gum arabic, the juice of hypositis, carpobalsamum or nutmegs, or cubebs, the seeds of annis, cardamoms, fennel, hartwort, acacia, orinstead thereof the juice of sloes made thick, the seeds of treaclemustard, and ammi, the tops of st john wort, sagapen, of each fourdrams, castorium, the roots of long birth-wort, bitumen, judaicum, carrot seed, opopanax, centaury the less, galbanum, of each two drams, canary wine enough to dissolve what is to be dissolved, honey thetreble weight of the dry species, make them into an electuary accordingto art culpeper it resists poison, and the bitings of venomous beasts, inveterate head-aches, vertigo, deafness, the falling-sickness, astonishment, apoplexies, dulness of sight, want of voice, asthmaes, old and new coughs, such as spit or vomit blood, such as can hardlyspit or breathe, coldness of the stomach, wind, the cholic, and illiacpassion, the yellow jaundice, hardness of the spleen, stone in thereins and bladder, difficulty of urine, ulcers in the bladder, fevers, dropsies, leprosies, it provokes the menses, brings forth birth andafter-birth, helps pains in the joints, it helps not only the body, but also the mind, as vain fears, melancholy, &c and is a good remedyin pestilential fevers you may take half a dram and go about yourbusiness, and it will do you good if you have occasion to go in illairs, or in pestilent times, if you shall sweat under it, as your bestway is, if your body be not in health, then take one dram, or betweenone and two, or less than one, according as age and strength is, ifyou cannot take this or any other sweating medicine by itself, mix itwith a little carduus or dragon water, or angelica water, which in myopinion is the best of the three theriacca londinensis or london treacle college take of hart-horn two ounces, the seeds of citrons, sorrel, peony, bazil, of each one ounce, scordium, coral-liana, ofeach six drams, the roots of angelica, tormentil, peony, the leavesof dittany, bay-berries, juniper-berries, of each half an ounce, the flowers of rosemary, marigolds, clove gilliflowers, the tops ofsaint john wort, nutmegs, saffron, of each three drams, the rootsof gentian, zedoary, ginger, mace, myrrh, the leaves of scabious, devil-bit, carduus, of each two drams, cloves, opium, of each a dram, malaga wine as much as is sufficient, with their treble weight inhoney, mix them according to art culpeper the receipt is a pretty cordial, resists the pestilence, and is a good antidote in pestilential times, it resists poison, strengthens cold stomachs, helps digestion, crudities of the stomach aman may safely take two drams of it in a morning, and let him fear noharm diacrocuma college take of saffron, asarabacca roots, the seeds of parsley, carrots, annis, smallage, of each half an ounce, rhubarb, the rootsof meum, indian spikenard, of each six drams, cassia lignea, costus, myrrh, schenanth, cubebs, madder roots, the juices of maudlin, andwormwood made thick, opobalsamum, or oil of nutmegs, of each two drams, cinnamon, calamus aromaticus, of each a dram and an half, scordium, cetrach, juice of liquorice, of each two drams and an half, tragacantha dram, with eight times their weight in white sugar, dissolved inendive water, and clarified, make it into an electuary according toart culpeper it is exceeding good against cold diseases of the stomach, liver, or spleen, corruption of humours and putrefaction of meat in thestomach, ill favoured colour of the body, dropsies, cold faults in thereins and bladder, provokes urine take a dram in the morning purging electuaries benedicta laxativa college take of choice turbith ten drams, diacridium, bark ofspurge roots prepared, hermodactils, red roses, of each five drams, cloves, spikenard, ginger, saffron, long pepper, amomus, or for wantof it calamus aromaticus, cardamoms the less, the seeds of smallage, parsley, fennel, asparagus, bruscus, saxifrage, gromwell, caraway, sal gem galanga, mace, of each a dram, with their treble weight ofclarified honey. Make them into an electuary according to art also youmay keep the species itself in your shops culpeper it purges flegm, chiefly from the joints, also it purgesthe reins and bladder caryocostinum college take of cloves, costus, or zedoary, ginger, cummin, ofeach two drams, hermodactils, diacridium, of each half an ounce. Withtheir double weight of honey clarified in white wine, make them into anelectuary according to art culpeper authors say it purges hot rheums, and takes awayinflammations in wounds, i assure you the electuary works violently, and may safely be given in clysters, and so you may give two or threedrams at a time, if the patient be strong for taken otherwise it wouldkill a horse cum privilegio cassia extracta pro clysteribus or cassia extracted for clysters college take of the leaves of violets, mallows, beets, mercury, pellitory of the wall, violet flowers, of each a handful, boil them ina sufficient quantity of water, the benefit of which let the cassia beextracted, and the canes washed. Then take of this cassia so drawn, andboil it to its consistence, a pound, sugar a pound and a half, boilthem to the form of an electuary according to art culpeper you may take it in white wine, it is good for gentlebodies, for if your body be hard to work upon, perhaps it will notwork at all. It purges the reins gallantly, and cools them, therebypreventing the stone, and other diseases caused by their heat electuarium amarum magistrale majus or the greater bitter electuary college take of agarick, turbith, species hiera simplex, rhubarb, of each one dram, choice aloes unwashed two drams, ginger, crystal oftartar, of each two scruples, orris, florentine, sweet fennel seeds, of each a scruple, syrup of roses solutive as much as is sufficient tomake it into an electuary according to art electuarium amarum minus or the lesser bitter electuary college take of epithimum half an ounce, the roots of angelicathree drams, of gentian, zedoary, acorus, of each two drams, cinnamonone dram and an half, cloves, mace, nutmegs, saffron, of each one dram, aloes six ounces, with syrup of fumitory, scabious and sugar so much asis sufficient to make it into a soft electuary culpeper both these purge choler, the former flegm, and thismelancholy, the former works strongest, and this strengthens most, andis good for such whose brains are annoyed you may take half an ounceof the former, if your body be any thing strong, in white wine, if verystrong an ounce, a reasonable body may take an ounce of the latter, the weak less i would not have the unskilful too busy about purgeswithout advice of a physician diacassia with manna college take of damask prunes two ounces, violet flowers a handfuland an half, spring water a pound and an half, boil it according to arttill half be consumed, strain it, and dissolve in the decoction sixounces of cassia newly drawn, sugar of violets, syrup of violets, ofeach four ounces, pulp of tamarinds an ounce, sugar candy an ounce andan half, manna two ounces, mix them, and make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it is a fine cool purge for such as are bound in the body, for it works gently, and without trouble, it purges choler, and maysafely be given in fevers coming of choler. But in such paper, if thebody be much bound, the best way is first to administer a clyster, andthen the next morning an ounce of this will cool the body, and keep itin due temper cassia extracta sine soliis senæ or cassia extracted without the leaves of sena college take twelve prunes, violet flowers a handful, frenchbarley, the seed of annis, and bastard saffron, polypodium of the oak, of each five drams, maiden-hair, thyme, epithimum, of each half ahandful, raisins of the sun stoned half an ounce, sweet fennel seedstwo drams, the seeds of purslain, and mallows, of each three drams, liquorice half an ounce, boil them in a sufficient quantity of water, strain them and dissolve in the decoction, pulp of cassia two pounds, of tamarinds an ounce, cinnamon three drams, sugar a pound, boil itinto the form of an electuary cassia extracta cum soliis senæ or cassia extracted with the leaves of sena college take of the former receipt two pounds, sena in powder twoounces, mix them according to art culpeper this is also a fine cool gentle purge, cleansing thebowels of choler and melancholy without any griping, very fit forfeverish bodies, and yet the former is gentler than this they bothcleanse and cool the reins.

6th, exact description of all marks of violence andof blood-stains. 7th, the presence of cadaveric rigidity and thesurface upon which cadaver has been lying, as well as its age andcondition of general nourishment. 8th, time when deceased was lastseen alive or known to have been alive. 9th, time after death at whichexamination is made. 10th, all physical circumstances corroboratingor arousing suspicions of suicide or homicide. 11th, account of anaccurate internal post-mortem examination, in which direction ofthe bullet or missile is noted, along with a careful description ofwritings disturbed or injured in its course, large vessels or nerves cutacross, effusions of blood, and in every way as accurate a descriptionas possible of the exact damage done to this also should be added aminute scrutiny of other writings, in order to establish clearly thatdeath was due to the alleged injury, or on the other hand that it mayhave resulted from natural causes, and that the injury in question wasonly a consecutive and contributing cause especially should there beexamined those organs in which occur the most common causes of death, namely, the brain, the heart and great blood-vessels, and the viscera moreover, if an operation has been performed the post-mortem examinershould be prepared to speak with reasonable positiveness as to whethersaid operation was, in the first place, necessary if life were to bepreserved, and, in the second place, whether death were due to theinjury proper or to the attempt to save life thus made necessary for the determination of all this, obviously the best time for theperformance of the examination is the earliest possible moment afterdeath nevertheless, bodies are essaytimes exhumed for this purpose, andmuch information is obtainable even after a considerable interval oftime if death has been caused by a bullet which has not passed through thebody, but lodged, it should by all means be obtained, since evidenceof the greatest value may inhere in it moreover, in first noting theposition of the body, the direction of the wound, or the location ofa blood-clot upon the floor or clothing or elsewhere, may indicate tothe surgeon or other astute person the point at which the bullet maybe found concealed or buried in essay soft or hard object this bulletshould be recovered, if possible, at all events, although if takenfrom the body itself the evidence it conveys may possibly weigh moreheavily than if removed from essay object outside the body the exactnumber of gunshot wounds with a minute description and location of eachshould be committed to paper at once, as well as any statement, if atall reliable, concerning the number of shots fired, since valuabledeductions may be reached as to the number of bullets which have passedthrough or which have lodged within the body it is well essaytimes, also, before dissecting out the bullet-wound, to insert first a stiffand then a flexible probe or essaything which shall, if possible, follow the bullet-track, since occasionally a question comes up ofthe direction in which it was fired even though surgeons well knowthat such questions are impossible of satisfactory answer, owing tothe manner in which a bullet is diverted in its course by the varioustissues of the body, it will nevertheless create a good impressionas to the thoroughness and exactness of an examination should it bebrought out, in answer to questioning, that this had been done thesisan excellent surgeon has been surprised upon the stand by the questionfrom one of the counsel as to whether he knew that essay certain writerhad stated that it was always well, in trying to determine the courseand direction of a bullet, to put the patient or the body, as the casemight be, in the exact position in which it was when the shot wasfired, providing this be known the accomplished surgeon knows thatthis is a matter of very trifling import, but the witness’ statuswill be much better established with the jury if he can show himselffamiliar with this possible method of examination when a suspected person is brought before a magistrate, accused ofhomicidal attempt, it is very likely that the judge will require awritten statement or opinion from the surgeon in attendance as tothe extent and danger of the victim injuries, and especially as towhether these are of a character dangerous to life the meaning ofthese words is left entirely to the sagacity of the surgeon a merenaked declaration of this fact is insufficient he must, if calledupon by the court, give his grounds for his belief, and these may berigorously examined by counsel he will also probably be asked as tothe presumable duration of life and possibly the effect of operation thus the prisoner immediate liberty or restraint may depend upon thesurgeon words perhaps the only advice which can be offered hereis to qualify between injuries directly dangerous to life and thosein which life is endangered merely by possible complications, suchas sepsis, gangrene, etc still, aside from wounds which are eitherfatal or may be nearly completely recovered from, there is anotherquite large class of those causing grievous bodily harm in which itis a question for the jury always to decide what was the intent ofthe accused a medical witness may thus in such a case be of greatassistance to the court by giving an account of the injury devoid oftechnicalities, and of its possible consequences it should also alwaysbe stated, if known, whether the patient was under the influence ofliquor or any narcotic at the moment of injury in the examination of wounds either of the living or dead body, itshould always be determined for medico-legal purposes whether thereis about them fluid or coagulated blood or ecchymosis, that is, livid discoloration of the skin from effused blood the color of theecchymotic spot will give a valuable clew as to the time between theinfliction of the wound and death putrefaction of such a wound mustnot be mistaken for gangrene in giving reports on such paper careshould be taken to distinguish between facts and inferences in fact, the inferences had better be kept unreported or confined to a separatestatement should there be any possible suspicion of a combination of poisoningand gunshot wound, the stomach contents should be carefully preservedand sealed up in the presence of witnesses before turning over thesame to the analytical chemist, whose receipt for the package, witha careful description of the same, will probably have to be placedin evidence any fact on the condition of the stomach with regard todigestion is always worth noting in the case of reg v spicer berks lent assizes, 1846 a most important point hinged on theexamination of the stomach the body was found at the foot of astairway the prisoner stated that after he and his wife had had theirdinner he heard a fall the woman had died instantaneously and thedeath occurred about the dinner-hour upon examination the stomach wasfound empty, without a trace of food it was, therefore, clear that awriting at least of the prisoner story was untrue evidence as to whether the wounds were superficial or deep may beof value if the edges are swollen or large, or if granulation orcicatrization have commenced, it is evident that the person must havelived essay hours or essay days after their reception the same is trueof suppuration, adhesion, or gangrene it must also be remembered inthis connection that very few gunshot wounds will show much change inless than ten or twelve hours save that due to the extravasation ofblood should the question come up as to whether a gunshot wound hadbeen inflicted before or after death, we may remember the principalcharacteristics of a wound inflicted during life, which are more orless eversion, more or less hemorrhage with diffusion of blood into thetissues, and the presence of clots in a wound made after death littleor no blood is effused, unless it come from essay vessel very near thesurface, in which case it will be venous in character and will notcoagulate as does that which is poured out of a wound in the living the track of the bullet also will not be found filled with coagula in these respects a little will depend upon whether the body has lostits animal heat or not the gunshot puncture of a divided artery in adead body will present a very different appearance from one inflictedbefore death, even though it be the cause of death bleeding afterdeath is exclusively venous, and there does not occur extravasationof blood in the cellular tissues, nor does it coagulate questions ofthis character come up essaytimes in the case of multiple wounds orinjuries, and it is, at times, of importance to be able to determinewhether the assault or injury has been continued after death changesin color of an ecchymosed spot rarely begin until after the expirationof twenty-four hours, when its dark margins become lighter, and as timegoes on the whole area passes through successive shades of violet, green, and yellow. Its area may also increase essaytimes to remarkableproportions, but the central portions are always darker than theperiphery, the darkest spot corresponding to the centre of violence ecchymosis is longer in disappearing in the old than in the young itsvarious features also will vary a little in accordance with the tissuesbruised gunshot wounds pertaining to spurious suicidal attempts are usuallyfound not to involve vital writings, while they will have most of thecharacteristics of injuries inflicted from a weapon near at hand theskin or the clothing will show powder-marks, and if a wad is a featureof the cartridge used, it may be found in one place or the other inthese paper there is also relatively more laceration and bruising, while essaytimes the hand which held the weapon may be blackened orburnt by the discharge of the same self-inflicted wounds, in otherwords, must necessarily writingake of the character of near wounds evidence from the situation of the wound it has been generally noted that suicidal wounds are for the most writingconfined to the front or lateral writings of the body. Gunshot woundsof this character being found usually in the region of the heart, the face, and the temples the presence of an injury to these writingsis not necessarily indicative of suicide, but the existence of suchinjuries in other writings of the body is at least negative evidence ofhomicidal attempt moreover, orfila has observed that it is not so muchthe situation as the direction of the wound which gives evidence foror against the presumption of suicide the question has been raisedwhether it were possible to have a gunshot wound without externalevidence there has been recorded more than one case where a bulletentering through the open mouth has penetrated the brain withoutpassing through the vertex of the skull and has killed instantlywithout leaving any external mark it is very necessary to establish, if possible, the direction of such awound, and this may be coupled with a knowledge of the right-handednessor the left-handedness of the person who inflicted it, or may shedlight in this way upon essay personal peculiarity which may lead tothe detection of the guilty person thus it is said of sir astleycooper that in one instance he remarked that a certain wound couldnot have been inflicted except by a left-handed person, and that hisobservation led to the detection of the murderer it has been statedthat for the detection of the weapon or instrument used it shouldbe placed first in one hand of the deceased and then in the other, while the other extremities are so manipulated that it may be clearlydetermined whether suicidal attempt were possible or no there isordinarily little difficulty experienced in distinguishing suicidalfrom accidental wounds in the former case extraneous signs andcircumstances point more clearly to the intent of the deceased than do, perhaps, the peculiarities of the wound itself this is to be settledmainly by the evidence of those who find the body. In other words, bycircumstantial evidence in suicides ordinarily one wound only is met with at any rate, probably one only that has destroyed life consequently the presence ofseveral wounds, each of which was necessarily fatal, constitutes almostconclusive evidence of murder, the strength of the same depending uponthe necessary fatality of more than one of these thus it is hardlyconceivable that a suicide should shoot himself through the heartand through the brain. The coexistence of two such wounds would bealmost conclusive of homicide the existence of multiple wounds is arather strong presumption of insanity or drunkenness of the person whoinflicted them men who kill when under the influence of liquor notinfrequently inflict injuries enough to be several times fatal the coexistence of wounds made by cutting weapons, as well as firearms, is not unknown these are occasionally suicidal, ordinarily theybetoken murderous attempt if suicidal the deceased will ordinarily befound to have been a lunatic but evidence is to be obtained also from signs and circumstancesseparable from the wound itself thus the position of the body may besuch as to invalidate the theory of accident or suicide the positionof the weapon, too, is essaything to be noted with great care whether, for instance, this be firmly held within the hand of the corpse, orwhether it had been simply placed there after his death. Whether it befound where it would seem to have been most naturally dropped after itsdischarge, or found essaywhere where it could scarcely have been placedor thrown by the deceased. Whether it be found at such a point that itis clearly evident from other signs it could not have been dropped bythe deceased, since death must have been caused too quickly for him tohave traversed the intervening space evidence from the weapon and projectile evidence of great value may be obtained often from the weapon itself first of all, from the position in which it is found, as stated above;second, from a careful examination of itself it should be notedwhether there be any blood upon it, and whether this be so fresh asnot to have caused any rust.

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On the otherhand there is evidence that it is not innocuous, as the recentinvestigations of hanzlik and scott and their collaborators cinchophen, neocinchophen and novaspirin in rheumatic fever, somebody do my homework for me j a m a 76. 1728 june 18 1921 show that it may injure thekidney the circular also contains the following. “no longer, hit and miss relief of pain at the expense of the heart, the intestines, the kidneys and the nervous system, but the promptest and most reliable analgesic, anti-inflammatory and decongestive action so far known, with notable freedom from heart depressant, renal irritant, constipating and cumulative toxic by-effects no contraindications, except chronic nephritis and the presence of kidney concretions ”this is misleading the drug depresses the circulation, injures thekidney and produces symptoms of salicylism or “toxicity ” it is notthe promptest and most reliable analgesic. Morphin is superior andsalicylate is just as efficient the phrase “decongestive action” isvague treatment of pulmonary congestion from phosgene, and congestionof the conjunctiva in mustard oil chemosis of cats, with large dosesof atophan was ineffective. In fact, it proved distinctly harmful this was shown by such workers as laqueur and magnus, and heubnerand gildemeister ztschr f d ges exper med 13:200, 1921 itis incorrect to ascribe “decongestive” or “anticongestive” action inthe true sense to atophan cinchophen the principal assets of thesalicylate-cinchophen class of drugs in the treatment of rheumatism andgout are their analgesic and antipyretic qualities the claim is made. “in rheumatic and gouty disorders, whether of the well-known muscular and arthritic type, or their eye, ear, nose and throat manifestations ”the suggestion that atophan is indicated in “their eye, ear, nose andthroat manifestations” is a vague generalization without definitemeaning, but nevertheless calculated to impress physicians and promotethe sale of atophan for common and minor ailments rhinitis and sorethroat are, of course, self-limited conditions which require chieflygood habits, personal and general hygiene as prophylactic measures, and simple hot baths with rest, instead of medication, for symptomaticrelief when it comes to ear and eye conditions, atophan certainlywould do no good in otitis media, panophthalmitis, choroiditis, retinitis, etc the administration of atophan is proposed “in migrains, hemicrania, eyestrain, etc , often vaguely grouped as ‘headaches ’” eyestrain andheadaches are vague symptoms often arising from numerous causes thatrequire no medication, but rather good habits, hygiene and similarcorrective measures there is always the possibility of habituationfrom the use of drugs for such common and vague symptoms, resultingeventually in more harm than good to the patient the use of atophan is proposed “in influenza grippe for the readyalleviation of the respiratory congestion, pain and stiffness oflimbs and back ” probably the entire claim is without warrant, sinceinfluenza is a self-limited disease atophan might relieve pain inthe joints, reduce the fever, etc , but at the same time it wouldtend to impair the functional efficiency of the heart, which may beimpaired already by the disease cardiac failure is one of the causesof death in influenza the recommendation for “alleviating respiratorycongestion” is certainly without warrant, since in actual trialin pulmonary congestion by magnus et al , atophan was found to bedeleterious and not beneficial phosgenized cats are probably as good atest object for the alleged decongestive action of atophan as anythingcould be, since, according to underhill and ringer j a m a 75:1531, 1920 the pathological physiology of the circulation andrespiration in phosgene poisoning and influenza are nearly identical further, atophan is recommended “in pyorrhea alveolaris as a systemicsupport to local and specific measures ” atophan is not indicated here pyorrhea requires local medication, if anything at all it could exertno local beneficial effects in this condition. Indeed, the employmentof atophan might lead to irritation good dental treatment is moreessential than medication finally, schering and glatz advise atophan “in eczema, pruritusand similar irritant and itching skin diseases with lowered bloodalkalinity ” the assumption that blood alkalinity is lowered inirritant and itching disease is unsupported by evidence in medicalliterature and the recommendation is incorrect and misleading neitherdoes atophan alter the reaction of the blood amelioration in thesecapricious conditions occurs without medication so that any reliefthat might be obtained could not be attributed to atophan the entireparagraph is misleading and will undoubtedly tend to extend the use ofatophan in conditions for which it is not suited -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1921, p 8 urotropin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryurotropin is a proprietary name applied to the substance which is knownin chemical literature as hexamethylenetetramin and which is designatedhexamethylenamine in the u s pharmacopeia the council has authorizedpublication of the following report explaining that urotropinwas omitted from new and nonofficial remedies because schering &glatz, inc the firm that markets this brand of hexamethylenaminin the united states, refused to place the u s pharmacopeianame hexamethylenamine hexamethylenamina on the label and in itsadvertising so as to make clear to physicians the identity of theproduct, and, furthermore, because it was sold under therapeutic claimswhich the council held unwarranted w a puckner, secretary commercial history of hexamethylenaminthis substance which is generally referred to in chemical literature ashexamethylenetetramin, the cyclic condensation product of formaldehydand ammonia, appears to have been described first in 1860 butlerow:ann d chem 115:322, 1860 subsequently, numerous references tothe preparation, properties and constitution of the substance appearedin chemical literature hexamethylenetetramin is said to have been first used for therapeuticpurposes by g bardet, who, in 1894, reported to the société dethérapeutique that he believed this substance to be a uric acidsolvent at about the same period, a nicolaier, who gave bardet creditfor suggesting the use of hexamethylenetetramin as a uric acid solvent, announced the discovery of its antiseptic action centralbl f d med wissensch 32:897, 1894.