History

Siddhartha Essay


The berries are red, notmuch unlike those of asparagus place they grow plentifully upon hampstead-heath, and thesis otherplaces in this nation time they flower in may, and the seed is ripe in september government and virtues it is under the dominion of mercury, andtherefore it strengthens the brain, recruits a weak memory, and makesit strong again. The distilled water dropped into the eyes, helpsinflammations there. As also that infirmity which they call a pin andweb the spirit of the flowers distilled in wine, restores lost speech, helps the palsy, and is excellently good in the apoplexy, comfortsthe heart and vital spirits gerrard saith, that the flowers beingclose stopped up in a glass, put into an ant-hill, and taken awayagain a month after, ye shall find a liquor in the glass, which, beingoutwardly applied, helps the gout white lilies it were in vain to describe a plant so commonly known in every onegarden. Therefore i shall not tell you what they are, but what they aregood for government and virtues they are under the dominion of the moon, and by antipathy to mars expel poison. They are excellently good inpestilential fevers, the roots being bruised and boiled in wine, andthe decoction drank. For it expels the venom to the exterior writings ofthe body. The juice of it being tempered with barley meal, baked, andso eaten for ordinary bread, is an excellent cure for the dropsy. Anointment made of the root, and hog grease, is excellently good forscald heads, unites the sinews when they are cut, and cleanses ulcers the root boiled in any convenient decoction, gives speedy delivery towomen in travail, and expels the afterbirth the root roasted, andmixed with a little hog grease, makes a gallant poultice to ripen andbreak plague-sores the ointment is excellently good for swellings inthe privities, and will cure burnings and scaldings without a scar, andtrimly deck a blank place with hair liquorice descript our english liquorice rises up with divers woody stalks, whereon are set at several distances thesis narrow, long, green leaves, set together on both sides of the stalk, and an odd one at the end, very well resembling a young ash tree sprung up from the seed thisby thesis years continuance in a place without removing, and not else, will bring forth flowers, thesis standing together spike fashion, oneabove another upon the stalk, of the form of pease blossoms, but of avery pale blue colour, which turn into long, essaywhat flat and smoothcods, wherein is contained a small, round, hard seed.

“saloform is a definite chemical compound the component writings of which are hexamethylene tetramine, salicylic acid and lithia ” “as a uric acid solvent it is indicated in rheumatism, gout, in phosphaturia, in gravel, and in renal colic ” “as a genito-urinary antiseptic it limits suppuration anywhere along the urinary tract, from the kidneys down to the orifice of urethra ”as, even after diligent search, no description of a compound ofhexamethylenamine hexamethylenetetramine, salicylic acid and lithiawas found in chemical literature, it seemed probable that saloformis merely a mixture of hexamethylenamine and siddhartha essay lithium salicylate accordingly the separation of saloform into its component writings bymeans of selected solvents was attempted by triturating the powderwith chloroform, filtering and evaporating the filtrate, a residuewas obtained which gave satisfactory tests for hexamethylenaminebut contained only traces of salicylic acid or lithium salicylate the portion insoluble in chloroform was dissolved in water thesolution gave satisfactory tests for lithium salicylate but not forhexamethylenamine from these tests it is evident that saloformis a simple mixture of hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate quantitative examination indicated that the two ingredients, hexamethylenamine and lithium salicylate, are present in approximatelyequal amounts referee recommendationthe report of our chemical laboratory shows that saloform is not adefinite compound as claimed, but a simple mixture of hexamethylenaminand lithium salicylate it is therefore in conflict with rule 1 it isalso in conflict with rule 6, for neither hexamethylenamin, lithium, nor salicylate are therapeutically effective “uric acid solvents”. Norwould any of these have any effect on “phosphaturia ”the mixture also conflicts with rule 10. For it is inadvisable toadminister the ingredients in fixed, but unknown proportions it is recommended that saloform be deemed inadmissible to n n r the council adopted the recommendation of the referee and authorizedpublication of this report -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1916, p 71 secretogen report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryabout a year ago the council declared secretogen, 103 a product theactive ingredient of which was stated to be “pancreatic secretin” andadvertised as a remedy for certain conditions of defective digestionand assimilation, to be ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies the reasons for this decision were stated at the time as follows:103 j a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518 “1 no evidence has been presented that the absence of secretin is acause of gastro-intestinal diseases it is usually present, and if notpresent, as in achylia gastrica, there is evidently essay compensatingarrangement by which the pancreas is stimulated to perform its regularfunctions “2 there is no evidence that secretin in any form is physiologicallyactive when administered by mouth ”since secretogen was not the only so-called secretin preparation onthe market, and since the use of secretin preparations was recommendedby certain writers, notwithstanding the lack of evidence of its value, the council caused an experimental investigation of the question to bemade this was carried out by prof a j carlson of the university ofchicago no secretin was found in the commercial products examined, namely, secretogen tablets, secretogen elixir and duodenin furthermore, carlson results104 confirmed the council previous conclusionas to the inertness of secretin administered by mouth the councilendorsed professor carlson findings 105104 carlson a j. Lebensohn, j e , and pearlman, s j. Hassecretin a therapeutic value?. j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 178 reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 98 105 so-called secretin preparations, j a m a , jan 15, 1916, p 208. Reports council on pharm and chem , 1915, p 96 the g w carnrick company has replied to the publication of thisreport in the letter printed below a portion of this letter, whichconsists of a communication from an unnamed correspondent of the g w carnrick company and the company comment thereon, has been omitted the council offered to publish this if the carnrick company wouldfurnish the name of the writer this it has not done as will be seen, the company now shifts ground, abandoning entirely the claim thatsecretogen contains secretin the council has authorized publicationof the letter omitting the writing just mentioned, together with thecomment that follows w a puckner, secretary “the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medicalassociation “gentlemen:-- the opinion of the council and the contribution byprofessor carlson which appeared in the journal of the american medicalassociation for jan 15, 1916, have been read by us with interest the column of current comment dealing with ‘tiger-bone therapy andclinical experience’ has appealed to our good nature and, under thecircumstances, our sense of humor “professor carlson seems to have quite well established that theso-called secretin preparations do not contain secretin to anyappreciable extent, and that they are inert in laboratory experimentson normal animals at the same time, to do away with an apparentdiscrimination on the writing of the management of the council, it wouldhave been well if professor carlson had included the so-called secretinpreparations belonging to another well-known firm which markets such aproduct this discrimination has already been referred to by us “had professor carlson stopped at the determination of the therapeuticavailability of secretin given by mouth, his work might have beenaccepted without comment, even if we should have thought it advisableto object to the matter published by the council but the professorwent beyond his province entirely when, in commenting on the findingsobtained by using secretogen clinically, he said. ‘it is, perhaps, impertinent for laboratory men to comment on these clinical results ’it is his point was well taken and it is a profound pity thatprofessor carlson did not observe his own ruling “in the words of a correspondent of the journal of the american medicalassociation, in discussing professor carlson criticism of dr crile‘kinetic drive, ’ ‘it behooves the laboratory man to be circumspect inhis criticism of clinical theories, since going beyond the bounds ofwell-established things weakens his position, not merely with referenceto the writingicular subject under discussion, but with reference toclinical phenomena in general ’ clinical results have definitelyestablished the value of secretogen as the matter now stands thisstatement is beyond criticism “when secretogen was first introduced we assumed that it depended onsecretin for results produced in this assumption we were in goodcompany, as witnessed by the testimony of moore, edie and abram when, in the course of their investigations as to the value in diabetesof a secretin-bearing extract given by mouth, 106 they said. ‘inthe majority of these paper there has been no appreciable fallin the output of sugar in essay of these negative paper there hasbeen noted, however, improvement in the digestion and, in certainpaper, the patient weight has increased ’ they also state thatthe secretin-bearing product ‘appears to stimulate the functionalactivity of the duodenum ’106 they give a most significantreport 107 we quote from the paper as follows:106 all italics are ours g w carnrick company 107 bio-chem jour 1:28, 1906 “‘the patient had been under observation for six months beforetreatment and the sugar was not reducible by diet almost at once thedyspepsia from which he was suffering was relieved and his generalnutrition improved to such an extent that he regained over eighteenpounds in weight, which he had previously lost, and this improvementwas accompanied by complete recovery of his physical and mentalenergies ’106“inasmuch as this improvement could not have been due to the containedsecretin it must have been due to essay other principle containedin the extract our experience and that of the physicians who haveused secretogen establish the fact that moore, edie and abram madeno mistake when they came to the conclusion that what they termed asecretin-bearing extract stimulates the functional activity of theduodenum and improves the digestion “when professor carlson was investigating secretogen he must haverealized that he was dealing essentially with an extract of theduodenal mucosa it is, therefore, all the more surprising, consideringhis extensive researches into the literature, that he should haveignored the testimony of essay of his own authorities, writingicularlyhallion, as to the value of extracts of the duodenal mucosa in duodenalinsufficiencies the meticulous carefulness with which this evidencewas avoided is hardly worthy of the best traditions of physiology, ascience which has truth for its first and last aim “hallion in his ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ says that the ‘aims ofduodenal opotherapy are. 1, to supply deficient duodenal juice 2, above all to stimulate and to relieve this organ-- notably to aid theproduction of secretin4-- and so profit by the stimulating actionwhich duodenal extract exercises on the duodenal mucosa which actionwe, enriquez and myself, believe and have experimentally proved, conforms to the general principles of opotherapy 3, by means of theproduction of secretin, to reinforce the biliary, pancreatic andintestinal secretions 4, to stimulate intestinal peristalsis “‘principal indications. Intestinal dyspepsias, intestinalautointoxications, certain forms of constipation and duodenalinsufficiency ’“at the international congress of medicine, madrid, 1903, hallionsaid that he felt justified in stating that duodenal opotherapycorrectly carried out must be classed under the very best methods oftreating dyspepsia 106 the results had been satisfactory and, inthesis paper, remarkable it had been nil in a few paper but it hadnever been harmful in any degree he pointed out that marfan was thefirst to employ this substance clinically marfan had had writingicularlyexcellent results in children of 15 months to 4 years suffering withmarked malnutrition, anorexia and constipation marfan prescribedthe duodenal extract given in milk 106 hallion further remarks that, as he is not a practitioner, he had had only one opportunity to testduodenal opotherapy clinically the case was that of a man of 26 yearswith obstinate intestinal dyspepsia and severe constipation which hadpersisted from childhood this patient had been treated by enemas, laxatives, diet, etc treatment with duodenal extract resulted ina complete cure 106 hallion points out that the most satisfactoryaspect of duodenal opotherapy is the permanent effect produced, 106which bears out his statement that these extracts have the power to aidin the restoration of function and structure of an organ “this has been so well established that the principle is now embodiedin a law which is frequently referred to as ‘hallion law’. ‘extractsof an organ exert on the same organ an exciting influence which lastsfor a longer or shorter time when the organ is insufficient it isconceivable that this influence augments its action and, when it isinjured, that it favors its restoration ’“in ‘la pratique de l’opothérapie’ hallion points out that ‘theopotherapeutic product which corresponds to the affected organrepresents in essay way the stimulating and elective food for thatorgan, and if we supply the organ with a food which is more completethan it necessarily needs, the affected organ can exercise its electiveaction and take up only those substances of which it is in need ’“hallion observations on this point are beautifully borne out bythe classic work of j w draper, as reported in the journal of theamerican medical association, sept 26, 1914 this report gives resultsin both laboratory and clinical experiments “in order to show that fed jejunal and ileac epithelium exerciseessay special detoxicating power, not yet understood but definitelyrecognizable, draper fed a control series of dogs with intestinalobstruction, experimentally produced, on emulsified cells of liver, spleen, pancreas and muscle tissue these animals lived a few hourslonger than not-fed controls, but draper says that it is evidentthat these cells had either no detoxicating action, or a very feebleone compared with intestinal epithelium he used jejunal and ileacepithelium clinically in two instances. 1st, in a female dog which hadhad ‘chronic stomach trouble’ for six months when draper saw her shehad had complete intestinal obstruction for five days, with symptoms oftachycardia, extreme nervousness and great weakness in the hind legs draper removed a pebble from her intestine but her condition was stillgrave “she was immediately put on small-intestine epithelium derived fromtwo dogs of different breed draper says that from a long experiencewith duodenally obstructed dogs, he should not have expected her torecover, but the symptoms gradually subsided and she lived the secondinstance in which he used the epithelium therapeutically was in thecase of a man who suffered from an annular cancer of the intestine withdefinite symptoms of obstruction after the operation, and realizingthat the patient was in a desperate condition, he fed him an emulsionof intestinal epithelium from a dog the pulse improved and the patientlived “essay of draper conclusions are as follows:“‘autotoxemia in intestinal obstruction undoubtedly arises from aninterference with cellular reactions of the intestinal epithelium when small-intestine epithelial cells of healthy animals are placedin the stomach106 of duodenally obstructed animals, such animals havelived nearly twice as long as not-fed controlled animals this evidenceis strongly opposed to the bacterial theory of origin of toxins ’“the point to be emphasized is this.

“withmalice towards none, with charity for all ”the last chapter of this book has been added by the translator, as itseemed necessary for the full discussion of the subject julius l salinger philadelphia, pa contents page i what is medical superstition? siddhartha essay. 1 ii theism in its relation to medicine and in its struggle with the physico-mechanical theory of life 7 iii religion the support of medical superstition 23 iv the influence of philosophy upon the form and origin of medical superstition 89 v the relations of natural science to medical superstition 128 vi influence exerted upon the development of superstition by medicine itself 185 vii medical superstition and insanity 191 bibliography 201illustrations page circle of petosiris 141 circle of petosiris 143 the table of democritus 145 the relation of the writings of the human body to the signs of the zodiac 159 venesection in its astronomical connection 175iwhat is medical superstition?. Faith and superstition are twin brothers altho the former leadshumanity to its sublimest ideals and the latter only presents us witha caricature of human knowledge, both are children of the same family both originate in a sense of the inadequacy of human science in regardto natural phenomena the fact that the most important processes oforganic life can not be traced to their ultimate origin, but that theirinvestigation will soon lead to a point of irresistible opposition tofurther analysis, has always called forth a feeling of impotency anddependence in the human mind this consciousness of being dependentupon factors which are entirely beyond human understanding has thusgiven rise to the metaphysical need of reflecting upon these mysteriousfactors, and bringing them within reach of human comprehension humanity, in attempting to satisfy such a metaphysical requirementfrom an ethical standpoint, created faith, which subsequently foundexpression in the various forms of religion it is not within thescope of this essay to consider how far divine revelations havebeen vouchsafed on this subject superstition undoubtedly enteredthe scene when, simultaneously with these, endeavors were made toconsider and to explain physical processes from the standpoint ofsuch metaphysical requirements it is true that this did not, atfirst, lead to a marked contrast between faith and superstition;for a period existed in which faith and superstition i e , themetaphysical consideration of ethical values and the metaphysicalconsideration of the entire phenomena of life were not only equivalent, but even merged into one conception this occurred in an age in whichmankind considered all terrestrial processes, whether they were ofa psychical or of a material nature, as immediately caused by thesteady interference of supernatural powers a period during which thedeity was held responsible for all terrestrial phenomena duringthis period faith became superstition, and superstition, faith aseparation did not take place until essay especially enlightened mindsbegan to evolve the idea that it would be more reasonable to explainnatural phenomena temporal becoming, being, and passing away bynatural rather than by supernatural causes the reaction againstthis better interpretation, the tenacious adherence to the originalassociation of terrestrial manifestations with metaphysical factors, created the superstition of the natural sciences the birth ofsuperstition in the greek world must be placed about the seventhcentury, b c , the period during which thales of miletus came forwardwith his endeavor to explain natural processes in a natural manner this attempt of the milesian is the initiation of a rational scientificconception of natural manifestations, and the ancient theisticconsideration of nature became superstition only in opposition tosuch a view it follows, then, that what holds good with regard tothe interpretation of natural manifestations in general holds good inmedicine especially here, also, superstition came into question onlywhen, besides the original theistic conception of the functions of thebody and besides the metaphysical treatment of the sick, a valuationof the normal as well as of the morbid phenomena of the human organismcame into vogue which took into account terrestrial causes not untilthis stage was reached did theism and theurgy lose their title andbecome superstition. Until then they could claim fullest acceptance inmedicine as thoroughly logical consequences of the prevailing theoryof life this took place, so far as greek medicine was concerned, at about the end of the sixth century, b c the corpus hippocraticumalready shows us greek medicine as being purified from all theisticsophistications and only reckoning with natural causes when thisseparation must have taken place for pre-greek, indian, assyrian, andegyptian culture can not be at present determined with certainty forthe egyptian and babylonico-assyrian manuscripts, so far known, showan intimate admixture of true observation of nature with theisticspeculations i e , a treatment of medicine which, altho it tookaccount of physico-natural manifestations, was still deeply tincturedwith superstition according to what we have stated, medical superstition might be definedas follows. “belief that the normal as well as the pathologicalmanifestations of organic life may be explained and eventuallytreated, without consideration of their physical nature, by means ofsupernatural agencies ”medical superstition varies according to the kind and the origin ofthese supernatural causes, and therefore appears in the greatestvariety of forms if these causes were looked for in celestial regions, medical superstition became vested with the religious garb, and itssource was in the religious cult. But if the belief prevailed thatgod shared the domination of the world with other mysterious elements, such as were embodied in different forms in accordance with the variousphilosophical systems, medical superstition bore a philosophical andmystical stamp whose origin is revealed in the history of philosophy but if certain mysterious powers hidden in the womb of nature or activeabove the earth were considered to influence human life, medicalsuperstition assumed a physical character however, it frequentlyfollowed that the above three factors acted simultaneously or invarying combinations, or certain other elements which were inherentin human nature cooperated for this reason it is essaytimes not quiteeasy to decide as to the source from which this or that form ofmedical superstition principally derived its persistent currency but, nevertheless, it is our intention to divide our subject in accordancewith the sources from which the several forms of medical superstitionspring, as it is absolutely impossible to obtain a satisfactory viewof the extensive material without first attempting a systematicarrangement of the data at hand but before attempting to inquire why the purest and most valuablefountains of all human knowledge religion, philosophy, and naturalscience have at the same time become sources of medical superstition, it will be advisable to explain the character which medical science hadassumed under the exclusive domination of theism, and how conditionsshaped themselves when physico-mechanical philosophy appeared and beganto do battle with the theistic conception of life these conditionsplayed such a special writing in the development of medico-physicalsuperstition that it becomes necessary first to examine their power andtendency before attempting to contemplate medical superstition proper ii theism in its relation to medicine and in its struggle with the physico-mechanical theory of lifeas we explained in chapter i , the development of all peoples haspassed through a period during which medico-physical knowledge foundexpression exclusively in the teachings of religion by theism wemean the system which endeavors to explain natural phenomena bysupernatural causes however, this view of nature, with its tingeof religion, did not as yet show any trace of superstition it wasrather the only justifiable conception of nature and thoroughly inkeeping with the power of comprehension of man, until it began todawn upon the mind that natural phenomena might be due to naturalcauses this was the period of which we stated, in the beginning ofthis investigation, that faith became superstition and superstitionbecame faith it was during this time that the powers above were heldaccountable for all bodily ailments of mankind it was their task mostcarefully to observe the functional processes of the human body inall its phases, and to protect their undisturbed continuance but asthe inhabitants of heaven, like the inhabitants of the earth, weresubject to whims, it happened very often, unfortunately, that theyattended to their task of protecting the undisturbed development ofthe vegetative as well as the animal functions of the body in a veryunsatisfactory manner, essaytimes, in fact, even purposely neglectingit thus disturbances occurred in the regular course of organic life, and this brought diseases into the world if, therefore, the gods weredirectly responsible for the appearance of disease, it was palpablytheir duty to effect its elimination thus it came about that pathologyand therapy were exclusively attended to by the gods but in what lightthey regarded these medical duties of theirs, and how they performedthem, were matters subject to very varying considerations, as expoundedby the different religions of antiquity the babylonian considered thegreat god marduk the expeller of all maladies, whereas urugal, namtor, and nergal were recognized gods of pestilence similar ideas prevailed among the egyptians the cat-headed goddessbubastis was believed to deal out to mothers the blessings offertility ibis showed an especial interest in those human beings whowere troubled with disturbances of digestion, and this interest foundbenevolent expression in the invention of the clyster with the greeks also the gods rendered services to diseased humanity thus apollo invented the art of healing, and if his time permitted heoccasionally lent a hand when difficulties beset the entrance into thisworld of a young mortal but, as a rule, it was the duty of aphroditeto attend to such paper, just as, in fact, she was responsible foreverything that referred to love, no matter whether it was a questionof the esthetic or the pathological writing of that passion athene wasthe specialist in ophthalmology, and it seems that she did not farebadly with this occupation a temple was dedicated to her by lycurgus, whom, as it appears, she healed of a sympathetic affection of theeyes. And, besides, she won by her ophthalmological activity variousornamental epithets, such, for instance, as ὀφθαλμίτις, etc it was quite natural, in view of the exclusively theistic conceptionwhich in those times preoccupied the human mind, that the priests werethe sole possessors of physico-medical knowledge. And naturally so for when we consider the theory of life that prevailed at that period, who could have been better qualified to give information to menregarding their own body as well as regarding nature in general, thanthe priest, the mortal representative of immortal gods?. and who betterqualified than the priest to invoke the aid of the heavenly powersin all bodily ailments?. thus it was the unavoidable consequence ofthe theistic theory of life that the priest was the physician as wellas the representative of physical knowledge and also the helper andadviser in all mundane exigencies whether bodily or psychic troublesafflicted individuals, whether an entire population groaned underheavy chastisements like pestilence, aid and deliverance were alwayssought in the sanctuary of the gods, from the infallible priest andthe priests were always equal to the occasion. They have always, in amasterly manner, known the art of satisfying the medico-physical needsof their suppliants for the religions of all civilized peoples andchristianity by no means occupies an exceptional position in thisrespect have always endeavored most strenuously to keep physical aswell as medical thought in strictest dependence upon their doctrinesand dogmas to attain this end various ceremonies, customs, and dogmaswere relied upon to keep the priests in a position to secure theassistance of the gods for humanity harassed by pain and affliction these sacred observances were strange, and varied with the variousreligious systems according to the primeval cult of zoroaster, allevils, consequently also all diseases, were derived from the principleof darkness which was embodied in the person of ahriman, and only thesacerdotal caste of the magicians who sprung from a special mediantribe was able to heal them but it was by no means easy to become amember of this caste and to acquire the magic powers pertaining toit alone it was necessary before gaining mastery over the powersof nature to become initiated into the mysteries of mitra however, after priestly consecration had once been bestowed, the individualthus honored bore the proud title “conqueror of evil, ” and was able topractise medicine as the most essential constituent of every medicaltreatment, the divine word was applied in the form of mysteriousexorcisms, sacred hymns, and certain words which were consideredspecially curative in effect, writingicularly the word “ormuzd, ” the nameof the highest god, in whose all-embracing power of healing greatconfidence was placed the sumerians, the precursors of babylonico-assyrian culture, ascribeda considerable and important rôle to dreams they were considered tobring direct medical advice from the gods, and it became the officeof the sacerdotal physician to interpret the dream in such a way as toalleviate the sufferings of the dreamer the ancient greek culture also conceded a conspicuous medicalsignificance to dreams, and even arranged a system of its own, that ofthe temple sleep, in order always to obtain prophesying dreams fromthe gods the patient, after the obligatory offering, was required toremain a night in the temple, and his dream during this night was themedical advice of the divinity in its most direct form but only thepriest was able to interpret a dream obtained in such a manner, and toextract medical efficacy from it but as it occasionally happened thata too prosaic and phlegmatic patient did not dream at all, the priestwas benevolent enough to intercede he was always promptly favored bythe gods with a suggestive dream the medical function of the priests had reached a peculiar developmentduring the first centuries of rome this was manifest especially inthe time of public calamities, such as pestilence, war, etc whensuch events reached dimensions which threatened the existence of therepublic, attempts were made to gain the favor of the gods by mostcurious ceremonies the celestials were simply invited to take writingin an opulent banquet the first divine feast of such a characterwas celebrated in rome in the sixth century, b c , on account of agreat epidemic apollo, latona, diana, hercules, mercury, and neptunewere most ceremoniously invited to take writing in a religious banquetwhich lasted for eight days the images of the gods were placed uponmagnificently cushioned couches, and the tables were loaded withdainties not only the gods, but the entire population, were invited;every one kept open house, and whoever wished to do so could feastat the richly prepared boards of the wealthy even the pronouncedenemies of the house were allowed to enter and to enjoy the daintieswithout fear of hostile remarks.

The viscera could be seen, etc case 14 fissures, vessels crossing, etc siddhartha essay taylor, “med jurisprudence, ” vol i , p 696 - boy, æt 2. Death in three-quarters of an hour on legs were fissures and lacerations near each knee on right thigh a laceration 2¾ inches long, 1/6 inch deep and 1/4 inch wide. Fatty tissue seen beneath no blood effused. Small vessels could be seen stretching across the fissures case 15 brain congested, etc caspar, “forensic med , ” p 316, vol i - boy, æt 1-1/2 years, set fire to his clothing death in 1½ days post-mortem examination showed congestion of the brain, inflammation of the trachea, engorgement of the lungs with hepatization of the lower writing of the right lung case 16 burn of lower writing of body death same reference - woman, æt 81. Burn of lower writing of body, including the gluteal region, the perineum and genital organs external death after several days post-mortem examination showed the upper lobe of left lung in a stage of red hepatization, etc case 17 tardy appearance of redness and vesication tidy, “legal med , ” vol ii , p 124, case 15 - woman, insensible from cold, had hot water applied in tins to her sides and feet the flannel coverings became displaced and the hot tins came in contact with the body no redness or vesication could be detected two hours afterward the next day, when consciousness had returned and recovery from insensibility had taken place, the writings had become reddened and vesicated case 18 were the burns ante mortem or post mortem?. caspar, “forensic med , ” vol i , p 317 - woman intoxicated. Clothing caught fire.

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The fruit round, and essaytimes as big as a reasonable pippin, others smaller, as also differing in colour and taste, as russet, red, or yellow, waterish or firm, with a frize or cotton all over, with acleft therein like an apricot, and a rugged, furrowed, great stonewithin it, and a bitter kernel within the stone it sooner waxes old, and decays, than the apricot, by much place they are nursed in gardens and orchards through this land time they flower in the spring, and fructify in autumn government and virtues lady venus owns this tree, and by it opposesthe ill effects of mars, and indeed for children and young people, nothing is better to purge choler and the jaundice, than the leaves orflowers of this tree being made into a syrup or conserve let such asdelight to please their lust regard the fruit. But such as have losttheir health, and their children, let them regard what i say, theymay safely give two spoonfuls of the syrup at a time. It is as gentleas venus herself the leaves of peaches bruised and laid on the belly, kill worms, and so they do also being boiled in ale and drank, andopen the belly likewise. And, being dried, is a far safer medicine todiscuss humours the powder of them strewed upon fresh bleeding woundsstays their bleeding, and closes them up the flowers steeped allnight in a little wine standing warm, strained forth in the morning, and drank fasting, doth gently open the belly, and move it downward asyrup made of them, as the syrup of roses is made, works more forciblythan that of roses, for it provokes vomiting, and spends waterish andhydropic humours by the continuance thereof the flowers made into aconserve, work the same effect the liquor that dropped from the tree, being wounded, is given in the decoction of coltsfoot, to those thatare troubled with a cough or shortness of breath, by adding thereuntoessay sweet wine, and putting essay saffron also therein it is good forthose that are hoarse, or have lost their voice. Helps all defectsof the lungs, and those that vomit and spit blood two drams hereofgiven in the juice of lemons, or of radish, is good for them that aretroubled with the stone, the kernels of the stones do wonderfully easethe pains and wringings of the belly through wind or sharp humours, andhelp to make an excellent medicine for the stone upon all occasions, in this manner. I take fifty kernels of peach-stones, and one hundredof the kernels of cherry-stones, a handful of elder flowers fresh ordried, and three pints of muscadel. Set them in a close pot into a bedof horse-dung for ten days, after which distil in a glass with a gentlefire, and keep it for your use. You may drink upon occasion three orfour ounces at a time the milk or cream of these kernels being drawnforth with essay vervain water and applied to the forehead and temples, doth much help to procure rest and sleep to sick persons wanting it the oil drawn from the kernels, the temples being therewith anointed, doth the like the said oil put into clysters, eases the pains of thewind cholic. And anointed on the lower writing of the belly, doth thelike, and dropped into the ears, eases pains in them.