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Should I Buy A Research Paper Online


purse ” it is claimed to be “the remedy for hemorrhages, ”to be “superior to ergot and hydrastis, ” “of writingicular advantagein menorrhagia and metrorrhagia” and to have been “found of greatvalue in vesical hemorrhages and hemorrhages from mucous membranes ingeneral ” the styptysate label bears the synonym “dialysate should i buy a research paper online herba bursapastoris”. The statement that it contains “alcohol 11 per cent ” andthat it is “made in gerthesis ” no other statement of the composition orstrength of “styptysate” is furnished nor is the name of the germanmanufacturer disclosed in an advertising circular entitled “styptysate, a new reliablehemostatic, ” it is declared that in recent years the plant, shepherdpurse capsella bursa pastoris, “has been submitted to clinicaltests in the form of a concentrated dialysate, known as styptysate, by loewy, oppenheim, krummacher and others, and that their reportscoincide in regard to styptysate as a hemostatic par excellence, writingicularly in uterine hemorrhages, even in paper where ergot andhydrastis had failed to produce satisfactory results ” the circularalso reprints essay “short clinical reports” without reference to theirauthorship. One ascribed to krummacher and two ascribed to “b h m , kansas city, mo , ” and the following references. “a krummacher, m d , monthly review for obstetrics and gynecology, berlin, vol xlix, 4, and vol lii ” “h oppenheim, m d , medical clinic, berlin, 1920, 35 ”shepherd purse is a weed common in the united states and in europe like most other herbs, it has essay reputation as a folk medicine itis used by eclectics and homeopaths, being included in the homeopathicpharmacopeia of the united states shepherd purse receives noconsideration at the hands of the authors of standard works on materiamedica, pharmacology or therapeutics from an examination of recent german medical publications, it appearsthat the use of shepherd purse was proposed as a substitute forergot and hydrastis, when the latter drugs became scarce in gerthesis these publications, in the main, emanate from those in the employ ofpharmaceutical firms and deal with proprietary preparations or they arewritten by physicians who used these proprietary preparations at thesolicitation of the manufacturers for this reason the reported resultsmust be accepted with reserve one of the proprietary preparations discussed in the germanpublications is styptysate, manufactured by isalfabrik johannesbuerger, wernigerode it is said to be produced by submitting the juiceof fresh shepherd purse to dialysis and preserving the dialysateby the addition of alcohol there is no statement as to the drugstrength or the chemical or biological standards, if any, used inits manufacture. Hence, the preparation is essentially a secret one as first produced, the preparation seems to have been fortified bythe addition of cotarnin. The dose was then given as ten to fifteendrops later, as the cost of cotarnin went up, this drug was omitted, and the drug strength increased. The dose of the new preparation isgiven as twenty-five to thirty drops just what relation, if any, thestyptysate of ernst bischoff co , inc , bears to that of the isalfabrikjohannes buerger, wernigerode, cannot be determined from the bischoffadvertising if it has any relationship the announcement that nonarcotic order is required when ordering styptysate would indicatethat the new preparation is supplied. The old one with its additionof cotarnin would require a narcotic order on the other hand, therecommended dose of the cotarnin-free preparation is twenty-five tothirty-drops, whereas the product sold by bischoff and co is to begiven in doses of ten to fifteen drops-- that is, in the amount proposedfor the cotarnin-fortified product what justification is there for the claim that styptysate has beensubmitted to clinical tests by loewy, oppenheim and krummacher andfound to be a hemostatic par excellence and efficient even whereergot had failed to give satisfactory results?.

“albolene will never fail to bring a free, easy stool, no matter what condition may be present, from obstinate atony of the bowel to fissure, fistula, or even malignant disease, and in spite of the failure of ordinary purgatives to which the patient may have become habituated “aromatic liquid albolene is actually the first laxative presented to the medical profession that seems to have no drawback “it will not have been lost upon the physician who has read the remarks on the use of aromatic liquid albolene to regulate the bowels in surgical paper, that there are thesis instances where it would prove equally valuable during the treatment of acute diseases in the exanthemata, in pneumonia, for example, to cite only a few of the conditions where it may be used to advantage, an absolutely reliable laxative that will not in any way weaken or distress the patient, presents obvious superiority to any of the agents heretofore in common use ”the council held liquid albolene ineligible because the product ismarketed in a way to encourage its indiscriminate and irrational use bythe public rule 4 and because unwarranted therapeutic claims are madefor it rule 6 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 65 naphey medicated uterine wafers report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynaphey medicated uterine wafers were submitted to the council by themanufacturers, naphey & co , essay years ago and were rejected naphey &co has recently requested reconsideration of the preparation, and hassubmitted advertising matter, trade packages and sample packages thelabel of the trade package contains the following. “naphey wafers for the local treatment of diseases of women, indicated in catarrhal conditions of the vagina, and of the uterine cervix as a sic!. adjuvant for the physician to use in carrying out treatment of disease of the uterus ” “zinc sulphate, 3-3/4 gr , sodium sulphate, 3-1/2 gr , sodium borate, 4 gr , boric acid, 3/4 gr ” “naphey & co , warren, pa , u s a ” “each box contains 25 wafers, sufficient for three months’ treatment price per box, 25c ”in name, composition, and general appearance of the package, napheymedicated uterine wafers bear a strong resemblance to micajahmedicated uterine wafers the journal, a m a , march 26, 1910, p 1070 an advertising pamphlet reads. “in every form of leucorrhea naphey medicated uterine wafers are indicated ” “what is true of leucorrhea is also true of all other functional troubles affecting the female genital canal. They are all treated best by astringents and antiseptics and these, to be effective, must be applied in prolonged contact ”the implication that all “functional troubles affecting the femalegenital canal” are best treated by astringent tablets like napheymedicated uterine wafers is an absurdity the naming of diseaseconditions on the label, the manifestly unwarranted and exaggeratedtherapeutic claims, the name, which is non-descriptive of compositionbut suggestive of use, and the fixed formula, which cannot rationallybe expected to give uniformly satisfactory results in the wide rangeof conditions for which the product is recommended, render napheymedicated uterine wafers ineligible for new and nonofficial remediesunder rules 4, 6, 8 and 10 the report having been sent to naphey & co , the manufactureroffered, on condition that the preparation be accepted, to revise theadvertising matter in minor writingiculars, to remove disease names fromthe trade package and to adopt the name naphey wafers or napheytablets the council advised naphey & co that the proposed names donot conform to the requirements for acceptance in new and nonofficialremedies because they do not indicate the composition of thispharmaceutical mixture, and moreover, that the routine use of a complexformula such as that of these tablets is irrational -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 66 nujol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrynujol, a liquid petrolatum standard oil company of new jersey, bayonne, n j , was submitted to the council by the manufacturers the council advised the company that, before nujol could be madeeligible for new and nonofficial remedies, the advertising claims madefor it must be revised to conform to the rules of the council and theterm “liquid petrolatum” must be used in connection with the branddesignation and given equal prominence on the labels, advertisementsand all circulars the company thereupon submitted a label on whichthe name “nujol” appeared in large red letters and under it in smallletters the words “liquid petrolatum ” this did not meet the councilrequirement with regard to the name moreover, nujol continued to beadvertised to the public under exaggerated and unwarranted claims the foregoing report was sent to the standard oil company of newjersey, which thereupon submitted revised advertising copy thiscopy was decidedly less objectionable than the previous advertisingbut still contained exaggerated statements the copy for use inlay journals writingicularly evidenced exaggeration observation onthesis occasions of a similar fact has convinced the council of theinexpediency of admitting to new and nonofficial remedies any articlewhich is advertised to the public 101101 since publication of this report the council on pharmacy andchemistry has revised its rule against recognition of articlesadvertised to the public so that this shall not apply a todisinfectants, germicides and antiseptics, provided the advertising belimited to conservative recommendations for their use as prophylacticapplications to superficial cuts and abrasions of the skin and to themucous surfaces of the mouth, pharynx and nose, and provided they arenot advertised as curative agents, and b to non-medicinal foodpreparations, except when advertised in an objectionable manner the council held that conflict with rules 3, 6 and 8 preventedthe acceptance of nujol and authorized the publication of thisreport -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1916, p 68 pulvoids natrium compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrypulvoids natrium compound was submitted to the council by the drugproducts company, inc , new york, with the statement that each pulvoid coated tablet, said to be made to dissolve in the intestinal tractrepresents the equivalent of.

But in violent hanging, dislocation or fracture may occur andalso rupture of the ligaments harvey gives 5 paper of dislocation ofvertebra and 4 of fracture of vertebra in suicides three of the latterwere doubtful tardieu says these fractures have no significance asto the hanging should i buy a research paper online having occurred during life they can be produced onthe cadaver. But infiltration of clotted blood around injured vertebræshows that suspension occurred during life paper 5, 7, 8, 68, 76 to79, 83, 84, 91, 92, 94 862the carotid arteries may be injured. Usually the inner and middlecoats are torn. And hemorrhage may occur into the wall of the vessel the common carotids are the ones usually affected, and just belowthe bifurcation, but the external is also occasionally injured theinjury is said to be due to the stretching and squeezing of the artery, stretching being the most effective since the rupture often occurs ata distance from the mark of the ligature such injury of the arterydoes not prove that hanging took place during life because it has beenproduced on the cadaver. But hemorrhage into the wall of the vesselor wound or rupture after death is very improbable maschka says thelesion is very rare tardieu says that the injury to the carotid israre and therefore unimportant pellier reports 4 paper of rupture ofcarotid in a total of 23 levy records the experiments of hofmann, ofvienna, and brouardel and himself, of paris, 5 in number he concludedthat compression of the carotid arteries, if it produces obliteration, can cause rapid loss of consciousness and death. And explains why inincomplete suicide the subject is unable to help himself coutagnefound rupture of carotids 10 times in 24 paper he insists on theimportance of the lesion hofmann863 says the rupture is always transverse, may be simple or multiple and may occur in suicides. More apt to occur when the ligature is thin lesser864 tabulated 50 fatal paper of suicidal hanging. In 29, he was satisfied that the hanging occurred during life in 3 of these the skin of the neck alone showed any lesion. There was a double mark, the skin being otherwise bloodless in 5 the deeper soft writings were the only ones affected in 3 the skin showed lesions, the deeper soft writings none, but either the hyoid bone, larynx, or vertebræ were involved in 12 the skin showed no mark, but the deeper soft writings and either the larynx or hyoid bone were involved. And in 6 the hyoid bone only or the bone and larynx were injured in the remaining paper it was not possible to say that the hanging occurred during life in 2 paper there were no marks at all. In 9 there were changes in the skin. In 4, changes in the skin and deeper writings. In 2, changes in the skin, deeper writings, and hyoid bone or larynx.

Afterward it should i buy a research paper online gradually progresses from abovedownward, affecting the muscles of the abdomen and lower limbs therigidity disappears in the same sequence the period after deathwhen rigor mortis manifests itself, together with its duration, ischiefly dependent upon the previous degree of muscular exhaustion brown-séquard has demonstrated that the greater the degree of muscularirritability at the time of death, the later the cadaveric rigiditysets in and the longer it lasts he has also shown that the laterputrefaction sets in, the more slowly it progresses the more robust the individual and the shorter the disease, the moremarked and persistent is this muscular rigidity it has been noticedthat the bodies of soldiers killed in the beginning of an engagementbecome rigid slowly, and those killed late quickly this explains thereason why bodies are essaytimes found on the battle-field in a kneelingor sitting posture with weapons in hand if the rigidity of rigor mortis after it is once complete is overcome, as in bending an arm, it never returns. But if incomplete it mayreturn this will serve at times to distinguish real death fromcatalepsy and its allied conditions while the average duration ofrigor mortis has been given as sixteen to twenty-four hours, it mustbe remembered that in essay paper it has been known to last only a fewhours, as in death by lightning or by electrocution in other paper ithas persisted for seven and fourteen days this long continuance of rigor mortis has been noted in death fromstrychnine and other spinal poisons, in suffocation, and in poisoningby veratrum viride atmospheric conditions modify to a large extent the duration of rigormortis dry, cold air causes it to last for a long time, while warm, moist air shortens its duration also immersion in cold water brings onrigor mortis quickly and lengthens its duration cadaveric ecchymosis cadaveric lividity or hypostasis within a few hours after death the skin of the body, which is of apale, ashy-gray color, becomes covered by extensive patches of a bluishor purple color, which are most pronounced and are first seen on theback writing of the trunk, head extremities, ears, face, and neck, and aredue to the blood, before coagulating, settling in the most dependentwritings of the body, producing a mottling of the surface with irregularlivid patches there is also a stagnation of blood in the capillaryvessels, especially in those in the upper layer of the true skin or inthe space between the cuticle and cutis the discoloration continues toincrease until the body is cold, when it is entirely arrested lateron, just before putrefaction begins, the color deepens, and the changeappears to proceed from an infiltration of blood pigment into thedependent writings of the body at the same time the discolorations are appearing on the surface of thebody, internal hypostasis is also taking place, most marked in thedependent portions of the brain, lungs, intestines, kidneys, and spinalcord this condition in the brain may be mistaken for so-called congestiveapoplexy. In the lungs, for pulmonary apoplexy or the first stageof lobar pneumonia. In the intestines and spinal meninges, for thebeginning of inflammatory changes the position of these hypostases will afford the best correction forthis possible error the appearances presented by cadaveric ecchymoseshave often been mistaken for the effects of violence applied duringlife innocent persons have been accused and tried for murder ormanslaughter on charges afterward proved to be groundless therefore itis of the utmost importance that the medical jurist should be able todistinguish between ante-mortem and post-mortem ecchymoses the following are the points of difference:1 situation post-mortem ecchymoses are seen on that portion of thebody which has been most dependent, generally the posterior aspect, and they involve principally the superficial layers of the true skin;ante-mortem ecchymoses may occur anywhere, and generally the deepertissues are discolored 2 in cadaveric lividity there is no elevation of the skin and thediscoloration terminates abruptly 3 after cutting into the tissues where an ecchymosis has been producedby violence, the blood without the vessels is free in the tissue. Thisis not so in cadaveric ecchymosis 4 post-mortem ecchymoses are very extensive, ante-mortem generallylimited in area a peculiar appearance of cadaveric lividity is observed in bodieswhich have been wrapped in a sheet and allowed to cool or that havecooled in their clothing it occurs in the form of bands or stripesover the whole surface, and often gives an appearance as of a personflogged the explanation of this appearance is that the congestion ofthe vessels takes place in the interstices of the folds, while thewritings compressed remain whole the unbroken condition of the cuticle, together with the other characteristics just mentioned, are sufficientto distinguish these ecchymoses from those produced by violence whilecadaveric lividity is seen in all bodies after death, it is especiallypronounced in those persons who have died suddenly in full health orby violence, as from apoplexy, hanging, drowning, or suffocation itis very slight in the bodies of those who have died from hemorrhage oranæmia the time at which cadaveric lividity appears varies greatly casper, who has investigated the subject thoroughly, sets the time at fromtwelve to fifteen hours after death putrefaction at a period varying from a few hours to three days after death, certainchanges are seen in the human body which show that putrefaction hascommenced a change of color appears first upon the middle of theabdomen and gradually spreads over the rest of the body. It is firstpale green, which gradually deepens, and finally becomes purplish orbrown this change in color is due to the action on the hæmoglobin ofthe gases developed by decomposition similar discoloration makes itsappearance on the chest, between the ribs, on the face, the neck, thelegs, and lastly on the arms, where it is more marked along the largevenous trunks, and has essaytimes been mistaken for marks of violence the eyeballs become flaccid, and if exposed to the air the conjunctivaand cornea become dry and brown gases are formed, not only in thehollow organs of the abdomen but also in the skin those developed inthe cavities of the head and face force frothy, reddish fluid or mucusfrom the mouth and nostrils, and may cause swelling of the features andprotrusion of the eyes and tongue it must be remembered that the gaseswhile producing distention of the abdomen may also cause changes in theposition of the blood and slight displacement of the organs. They mayalso force undigested food into the mouth and into the larynx, and solead to suspicion of death from suffocation as putrefaction advances, after a period of five or six days the entiresurface of the body becomes green or brown, the cuticle becomes looseand easily detached. The tissues flaccid and often bathed in a reddishserum in such situations as the neck, the groin, and the back writing ofthe scalp the thorax and abdomen become enormously distended, thefeatures distorted and scarcely recognizable, and the hair and nailsloosened beyond this, it is impossible to follow the changes leadingto disintegration with any degree of certainty the changes which ihave just described as produced by putrefaction are the ordinaryones seen in a body exposed to the air at a moderate temperature, butit must be remembered that the time and rapidity of the development ofthese changes may be influenced by a large number of factors, and thatthey are of very little importance in estimating the time of death ihave seen bodies buried two months that have shown fewer of the changesproduced by putrefaction than others dead but a week the appearance of a body buried in a coffin will be as follows after aperiod varying from a few months to one or two years the soft tissueswill have become dry and brown and the face and limbs covered with asoft white fungus hard white crystalline deposits of calcium phosphatewill be found on the surface of the soft organs, and when found onthe surface of the stomach care should be taken not to confound themwith the effects of poison in time the viscera become so mixedtogether that it is difficult to distinguish them for the most writingthe changes that take place in a body buried in a coffin are similar, but much slower, to those that occur if the body is exposed to the airor buried in soil even under apparently identical circumstances themost varied results have been observed, so it is not possible for amedical jurist to fix a definite period of death or the time of burialfrom the appearance of an exhumed body for example, taylor records acase where after thirty-four years’ interment an entire and perfectskeleton was discovered, surrounded by traces of shroud and coffin, while in an adjoining grave all that remained of a body that had beendead twenty-five years were the long bones and base of the skull, inone case a body was found well preserved after six years’ burial and inanother after even thirty years’ interment this brings us next to a consideration of those factors that favor orretard decomposition circumstances favoring putrefaction 1 temperature - putrefaction advances most rapidly at a temperaturebetween 70° and 100° f it may commence at any temperature above 50°f , but it is wholly arrested at 32° f so one day exposure of abody in summer may effect greater changes than one week in winter after freezing, putrefaction takes place with unusual rapidity uponthe thawing out of the body a temperature of 212° f stops allputrefactive changes 2 moisture - putrefaction takes place only in the presence ofmoisture an excess of moisture, however, seems to retard the process, possibly by cutting off the excess of air the viscera according tothe amount of water they contain decompose at different times afterdeath for instance, the brain and eye rapidly, the bones and hairslowly 3 air - exposure to air favors decomposition by carrying to the bodythe micro-organisms which bring about putrefaction. Absence of air soonarrests the changes. This is seen in bodies hermetically sealed inlead coffins, which remain unchanged for a long period of time moistrather than dry air favors putrefaction by lessening evaporation airin motion retards while still air favors the change it is to be remembered that a body decomposes more rapidly in air thanin water or after burial given similar temperatures, the amount ofputrefaction observed in a body dead one week and exposed to the airwill about correspond to one submerged in water for two weeks or buriedin a deep grave for eight weeks 4 age - the bodies of children decompose much more rapidly thanthose of adults. Fœtuses still more rapidly aged bodies decomposeslowly, probably on account of a deficiency of moisture fat and flabbybodies decompose quickly for the same reason 5 cause of death - in paper of sudden death, as from accident orviolence, the body decomposes more rapidly than when death resultsfrom disease putrefaction sets in early in death from the infectiousfevers, such as typhus, pyæmia, and typhoid fever, also in death fromsuffocation by smoke or coal gas, by strangulation or after narcoticpoisoning those writings of a body which are the seat of bruises, wounds, or fractures, decompose rapidly. This is especially seen inwritings after a surgical operation 6 manner of burial - when a body is buried in low ground in a damp, swampy, clay soil, decomposition advances rapidly, as also when thegrave is shallow so the body can be exposed to constant variations oftemperature a porous soil impregnated with animal and vegetable matterfavors putrefaction, as also burying a body without clothes or coffin;this is especially seen where infants have been thrown into the groundand loosely covered with earth circumstances retarding putrefaction 1 the temperature - below 32° f and above 212° f putrefaction isentirely arrested the rapidity of the change considerably lessens asthe temperature advances above 100° f a remarkable instance of thepreservative power of cold is given by adolph erman, who states thatthe body of prince menschikoff, a favorite of peter the great, exhumedafter ninety-two years’ burial in frozen soil, had undergone hardly anychange buried in hot sand as is seen in the desert, a body putrefiesvery slowly and generally becomes mummified 2 moisture - absence of moisture retards decomposition in the dryair of the desert bodies have been preserved for a long period of time 3 air - if access of air to a body be prevented in any way by itsinclosure in a coffin, by closely fitting clothes, or by completeimmersion in water, putrefaction is retarded 4 age - adults and old people decompose more slowly than children males are said to change less rapidly than females, lean people thanfleshy ones 5 cause of death - putrefaction is delayed after death from chronicdiseases unless they are associated with dropsy poisoning by alcohol, chloroform, strychnine, and arsenic retard putrefaction in the lattercase the putrefactive changes seem to stop after they have oncecommenced, and often a result very similar to mummification is seen death from the mineral acids, especially sulphuric, appears to delayputrefaction 6 manner of burial - putrefaction is retarded by burial a shorttime after death. By interment on high ground, in dry, sandy, orgravelly soil. By having the grave deep, over six feet in depth ifpossible by the body being well wrapped and secured in a tight coffin, a lead one being the best in this respect lime or charcoal appliedfreely about a body will retard decomposition, as will also injectionof the body through the arteries with such substances as arsenic, chloride of zinc, or antimony the ultimate effect of putrefactionis to reduce all bodies to inorganic compounds, chiefly water, ammonia, and carbon dioxide three conditions are necessary for itsestablishment, 1 a given temperature, 2 moisture, 3 free accessof air the order in which the various organs and tissues undergodecomposition, as given by casper, who has investigated the subjectcarefully, is as follows. Trachea and larynx, brain of infants, stomachand intestines, spleen, omentum and mesentery, liver, brain of adults, heart and lungs, kidney, bladder and œsophagus, pancreas, largevessels, and last of all the uterus as the result of putrefaction, fluids, generally blood-stained, collectin the serous cavities of the body, and should not be confoundedwith serous effusions occurring during life so also the softeningof the organs and tissue resulting from decomposition should becarefully distinguished from those resulting from inflammation thesecadaveric softenings are most frequently found in the brain, spleen, and gastro-intestinal mucous membrane inflammatory softenings aredifferentiated by being rarely general but almost always limited, bythe substance of the inflamed writing being infiltrated with serum orpus and showing traces of vascular injection in doubtful paper thepathologist should have recourse to the microscope as the result of putrefaction, various changes take place in the mucousmembrane of the stomach and intestines which simulate the effectsof poisons the color of the stomach varies from red, which becomesbrighter on exposure to the air, to a brown, slate, or livid purple wecan only presume that these color-changes are the result of irritantpoisons when they are found in non-dependent writings and writings not incontact with organs engorged with blood, when they are seen soon afterdeath, and when the membrane is covered with coagulated blood, mucus, or flakes of membrane effects on putrefaction of submersion in water there are certain modifications of the putrefactive changes when bodieshave been submerged in water in the first place, the changes are muchless rapid. They often do not show themselves until about the twelfthday, and then as discolorations appearing generally first about theears and temples, then on the face, from which they spread to the neck, shoulders, chest, abdomen, and finally to the legs this is almost theinverse order of the putrefactive changes in bodies exposed to the air as a result of the formation of gases, the body in a short time becomesbuoyant. After floating on the surface of the water for a time, thegases escape and the body sinks, rising a second time when fresh gashas formed the rapidity of decomposition in water varies, being most rapid whenthe temperature is from 64° to 68° f stagnant as well as shallow waterfavors putrefaction if a body becomes coated with mud the change isdelayed submersion in a cesspool also retards it, and the conditionsare such as to favor the formation of adipocere after a body has been removed from the water an exposure of a very fewhours to the air causes rapid decomposition, so that in twenty-fourhours more marked changes may occur than would have resulted from afortnight longer submersion the face soon becomes bloated and black, so that identification is well-nigh impossible it is quite importantin medico-legal paper to estimate the time which has elapsed sincedeath in bodies found submersed in water the following are the variouschanges ordinarily seen at different periods of time, as estimated bydevergie, who has especially investigated the subject:first four or five days - little change.

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It formerly cut off the safest means of ascertaining themental condition and competency of a testator;487 it now precludes aphysician from disclosing the condition of his patient who is a lunaticor habitual drunkard, 488 though it be the most satisfactory evidence;it shuts out much testimony tending to show fraud in insurancepaper;489 it precludes a physician from stating the cause of hispatient death, 490 though there is no longer any secrecy connectedwith it, for the law makes it the duty of the physician to make, forfiling with the local board of health, a certificate of the probablecause of the death of a patient 491 it has been the subject of muchadverse criticism, 492 but all such considerations are properly to beaddressed to the legislature and not to the courts it seems to be themost far-reaching in its exclusion, and though it has been the longestin existence, was modified at the legislative sessions of 1891, 1892, and 1893, a fact which tends to show that there was sound reason in thecriticisms a synopsis of the laws of the several states and territories of the united states of america, and of great britain and ireland, and of the north american provinces of great britain, regulating the practice of medicine and surgery, prepared from the latest statutes by william a poste, late first deputy attorney-general of the state of new york, and charles a boston, esq , of the new york city bar synopsis of the existing statuteswhich regulate the acquirement of the right to practise medicine and surgery in the united states, great britain and ireland, and the canadian provinces note - this synopsis is designed to contain especially thoseprovisions of the statutes which regulate the right to practisemedicine and surgery it is not intended to include provisionsregulating apothecaries, druggists, chemists, and dentists, or the saleof drugs, medicines, and poisons. Nor provisions for the organizationand procedure of boards of medical examiners, except so far as theyregulate the requirements demanded from applicants for permission topractise. Nor provisions with reference to the duties of clerks orregistrars in the preparation and safe-keeping of records in theircare. Nor those defining the duties of members of boards, and punishingthe misconduct of such members. Nor those prescribing qualificationsfor appointment to the public medical service. Nor former laws not nowapplicable to candidates. Nor regulations of the form of certificatesor licenses, where the issuing of them is committed to essay publicfunctionary or body. Nor provisions with reference to the powers anddisabilities of local institutions to confer diplomas or degrees, norwith reference to medical students except as candidates for admissionto practise in the synopsis words of the masculine gender areuniformly used except when the law by its terms makes a distinctionbetween men and women, in which case the distinction is indicated alabama qualification - the board of censors of the medical association ofthe state of alabama and the board of censors of the county medicalsocieties in affiliation with the said association are boards ofmedical examiners code 1887, s 1, 301 in the absence of such boardof medical examiners in any county, the county commissioners mayestablish a board of from three to seven physicians of good standing, resident in the county, whose authority shall terminate whenever aboard is organized in accordance with the constitution of and inaffiliation with said association 1, 296 where the boardof examiners is constituted as provided in sec 1, 296, it must issue alicense to practise medicine in any one or more of its branches in thecounty, if on examination the applicant is found duly qualified, and isof good moral character 1, 297 in a county having only the medical board provided for in sec 1, 296, a regular graduate of a medical college in the united states, havinga diploma, is entitled to practise medicine without a license, uponrecording his diploma in the office of the judge of probate of thecounty 1, 298 a license issued by the last-mentioned board must be recorded in theoffice of the judge of probate of the county 1, 299 thelicense or diploma, after record, is evidence of authority. If theoriginal be lost, a certified copy of the record is sufficient evidence1, 300 without a certificate of qualification from theboard provided for in sec 1, 301, except as above provided, no personcan lawfully practise medicine in any of its branches or dewritingmentsas a profession or means of livelihood 1, 302 the standardof qualification, method or system, and subjects of examination areprescribed by the medical association of the state 1, 303 the board of medical examiners, on application, must examine anapplicant for a certificate of qualification as a practitioner ofmedicine, and if he be found qualified, and of good moral charactermust issue a certificate 1, 304 physicians having a license as above before the organization in acounty of a board, are on application thereto entitled to a certificatewithout examination and to be registered as licensed practitioners ofmedicine 1, 305 the certificate is a license throughout the state it must be recordedin the office of the judge of probate of the county in which the personresides at the time of issue upon recording it, the judge must indorsea certificate of record and sign it and affix the seal of the court1, 306 such certificate, or, if lost, a certified copy ofthe record, is evidence 1, 307 penalty - a contract for the services of a physician or surgeon is voidunless he has authority to practise. Proof of authority is not requiredat trial except on two days’ notice 1, 318 practising medicine or surgery without a certificate is a misdemeanorunder a penalty of a fine of from $25 to $100 this provision is notapplicable to physicians practising medicine in alabama in 1890, whoare graduates of a respectable medical college and have complied withthe law by having their diplomas recorded by the judge of probate inthe county where they practise.