Service Essays

Being beaten, and the gums dissolved in wine, make itinto an electuary according to art culpeper it is exceeding good either in the cholic, or iliacpassion, or any other disease of the bowels coming of cold or wind, itgenerally eases pains in the bowels you may give a dram in the morningfasting, or half an ounce in a clyster, according as the disease is diacapparit college take of capers four ounces agrimony roots, nigella seeds, squils, asarabacca, centaury, black pepper, smallage, thyme of eachan ounce, honey three times their weight, make it into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper they say it helps infirmities of the spleen, and indeedthe name seems to promise so much, it may be good for cold bodies, ifthey have strength of nature in them diacinnamomum college take of cinnamon fifteen drams, cassia lignea, elecampaneroots, of each half an ounce, galanga, seven drams, cloves, longpepper, both sorts of cardamoms, ginger, mace, nutmegs, wood of aloes, of each three drams, saffron, one dram, sugar five drams, musk twoscruples, adding according to the prescript of the physician, and byadding three pounds eight ounces of clarified honey, boil it and makeit into an electuary according to art culpeper diacinnamomum, or in plain english, a composition ofcinnamon, heats the stomach, causes digestion, provokes the menses, strengthens the stomach and other writings that distribute the nourishmentof the body, a dram of it taken in the morning fasting, is good forancient people and cold bodies, such as are subject to dropsies anddiseases of flegm, or wind, for it comforts and strengthens naturemuch if you take it to help digestion, take it an hour before meat, doso in all things of like quality diacorallion college take of coral white and red, bole-amoniac, dragon-blood, of each one dram, pearls half a dram, wood of aloes, red roses, gumtragacanth, cinnamon, of each two scruples, sanders white and red, ofeach one scruple, with four times its weight in sugar dissolved insmall cinnamon water, make it into an electuary, according to art culpeper it comforts and strengthens the heart exceedingly, andrestores such as are in consumptions, it is cooling, therefore good inhectic fevers, very binding, and therefore stops fluxes, neither doi know a better medicine in all the dispensatory for such as have aconsumption accompanied with looseness it stops the menses and fluoralbus take but a dram at a time every morning, because of its bindingquality, except you have a looseness, for then you may take so much twoor three times a day diacorum college take of the roots of cicers, acorus, or calamus aromaticus, pine-nuts, of each a pound and a half, let the cicers roots, beingcleansed, cut, boiled, and pulped, be added to ten pounds of clarifiedhoney, and boiled, stirring it to its just thickness, then beingremoved from the fire, add the acorus roots beaten, the pine-nuts cut, and these following in powder take of black pepper an ounce, longpepper, cloves, ginger, mace, of each half an ounce, nutmegs, galanga, cardamons, of each three drams, mix them with the roots and honey intoan electuary according to art culpeper the electuary provokes lust, heats the brain, strengthensthe nerves, quickens the senses, causes an acute wit, eases pains inthe head, helps the falling-sickness and convulsions, coughs, catharrs, and all diseases proceeding from coldness of the brain half a dram isenough to take at one time, because of its heat peony is an herb of the sun, the roots of it cure thefalling-sickness diacydonium simple college take of the flesh of quinces cut and boiled in fair waterto a thickness, eight pounds, white sugar six pounds, boil it to itsjust thickness diacydonium with species college take of the juice of quinces, sugar, of each two pounds, white wine vinegar half a pound, added at the end of the decoction, itbeing gently boiled, and the scum taken away, add ginger two ounces, white pepper ten drams and two scruples, bruise them grossly, and boilit again to the thickness of honey diacydonium compound, magisterial college take of white sugar six pounds, spring water four pounds, clarify them well with the white of an egg, scumming them, then takeof ripe quinces cleansed from the rind and seeds, and cut in fourquarters, eight pounds, boil them in the foregoing syrup till they betender, then strain the syrup through a linen cloth, vocata anglice, boulter. Boil them again to a jelly, adding four ounces of white winevinegar towards the end. Remove it from the fire, and whilst it iswarm put in these following species in powder, ginger an ounce, whitepepper, cinnamon, nutmegs, of each two drams, keep it for use culpeper the virtues of all these three are, they comfort thestomach, help digestion, stays vomiting, belchings, &c stop fluxesand the menses they are all harmless, you may take the quantity of anutmeg of them at a time, before meat to help digestion and fluxes, after meat to stay vomiting, in the morning for the rest confectio de hyacintho college take of jacinth, red coral, bole-amoniac, earth of lemnos, of each half an ounce, the berries of chermes, the roots of tormentiland dittany, the seeds of citrons, sorrel, and purslain, saffron, myrrh, red roses exungulated, all the sorts of sanders, bone of astag heart, hart-horn, ivory prepared, of each four scruples, samphire, emerald, topaz, pearls, raw silk, leaves of gold and silver, of each two scruples, camphire, musk, ambergris, of each five grains, with syrup of lemons make it into a confection according to art culpeper it is a great cordial and cool, exceeding good in acutefevers and pestilences, it mightily strengthens and cherishes theheart never above half a dram is given at a time, very seldom somuch antidotum hæmagogum college take of lupines husked two drams, black pepper fivescruples and six grains, liquorice four scruples, long birthwort, mugwort, cassia lignea, macedonian parsley seed, pellitory of spain, rue seed, spikenard, myrrh, pennyroyal, of each two scruples andfourteen grains, the seeds of smallage, savin, of each two scruplesand thirteen grains, centaury the greater, cretish carrots, nigella, caraway, annis, cloves, alum, of each two scruples, bay leaves onescruple, one half scruple, and three grains, schænanth one scrupleand thirteen grains, asarabacca, calamus aromaticus, amomum, centaurythe less, the seed of orrach, peony, fennel, of each one scruple andsix grains, wood of aloes, a scruple and fourteen grains, cypress, elecampane, ginger, cappar roots, cummin, orobus, of each one scruple, all of them being beaten into very fine powder, let them be made intoan electuary according to art, with four times their weight in sugar, let it stand one month before you use it culpeper it provokes the menses, brings away both birth andafter-birth, the dead child, purges such as are not sufficiently purgedafter travail, it provokes urine, breaks the stone in the bladder, helps the stranguary, disury, iskury, &c helps indigestion, thecholic, opens any stoppings in the body, it heats the stomach, purgesthe liver and spleen, consumes wind, stays vomiting, but let it not betaken by pregnant women, nor such people as have the hemorrhoids thedose is from one dram to two drams diasatyrion college take of satyrion roots three ounces, dates, bitter almonds, indian nuts, pine nuts, festick nuts, green ginger, eringo rootspreserved, of each one ounce, ginger, cloves, galanga, pepper long andblack, of each three drams, ambergris one scruple musk two scruples, penins four ounces, cinnamon, saffron, of each half an ounce, malagawine three ounces, nutmegs, mace, grains of paradise, of each twodrams, ash-tree keys, the belly and loins of scinks, borax, benjamin, of each three drams, wood of aloes, cardamoms, of each two drams, theseeds of nettles and onions, the roots of avens, of each a dram and anhalf, with two pounds and an half of syrup of green ginger, make theminto an electuary according to art electuarium diaspermaton college take of the four greater and lesser cold seeds, the seedsof asparagus, burnet, bazil, parsley, winter cherries, of each twodrams, gromwell, juice of liquorice, of each three drams, cinnamon, mace, of each one dram, with eight times their weight in white sugardissolved in marsh-mallows water, make it into an electuary accordingto art culpeper it breaks the stone, and provokes urine men may take halfan ounce at a time, and children half so much, in water of any herb orroots, &c or decoction of them that break the stone micleta college take of the barks of all the myrobalans torrified, of eachtwo drams and an half, the seeds of water-cresses, cummin, annis, fennel, ammi, caraway, of each a dram and an half, bruise the seedsand sprinkle them with sharp white wine vinegar, then beat them intopowder, and add the mirobalans, and these things that follow, spodium, balaustines, sumach, mastich, gum arabic, of each one dram and fifteengrains, mix them together, and with ten ounces of syrup of myrtles, make them into an electuary according to art culpeper it gently eases the bowels of the wind cholic, wringingof the bowels, infirmities of the spleen, it stops fluxes, thehemorrhoids, as also the menses electuarium pectorale or a pectoral electuary college take of the juice of liquorice, sweet almonds, hazel-nuts, of each half an ounce, pine-nuts an ounce, hysop, maidenhair, orris, nettle seeds, round birthwort, of each a dram and an half, blackpepper, the seeds of water-cresses, the roots of elecampane, of eachhalf a dram, honey fourteen ounces, make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper it strengthens the stomach and lungs, and helps the vicesthereof take it with a liquorice stick theriaca diatessaron college take of gentain, bay-berries, myrrh, round birthwort, of each two ounces, honey two pounds, make them into an electuaryaccording to art culpeper this is a gallant electuary it wonderfully helps coldinfirmities of the brain, as convulsions, falling-sickness, deadpalsies, shaking palsies, &c as also the stomach, as pains there, wind, want of digestion, as also stoppings of the liver, dropsies, itresists the pestilence and poison, and helps the bitings of venomousbeasts the dose is from half a dram to two drams, according to the ageand strength of the patient, as also the strength of the diseases. Youmay take it either in the morning, or when urgent occasion calls for it diascordium college take of cinnamon, cassia lignea, of each half an ounce, scordium, an ounce, dittany of crete, tormentil, bistort, galbanum, gumarabic, of each half an ounce, opium one dram and an half, sorrel seedsone dram and a half, gentain half an ounce, bole-amoniac an ounce andan half, earth of lemnos half an ounce, long pepper, ginger, of eachtwo drams, clarified honey two pounds and an half, sugar of roses onepound, canary wine ten ounces, make them into an electuary according toart culpeper it is a well composed electuary, essaything appropriated tothe nature of women, for it provokes the menses, hastens labour, helpstheir usual sickness at the time of their lying in. I know nothingbetter, it stops fluxes, mightily strengthens the heart and stomach, neither is it so hot but it may safely be given to weak people, andbesides provokes sleep it may safely be given to young children tengrains at a time, ancient people may take a dram or more it is givenas an excellent cordial in such fevers as are accompanied with want ofsleep mithridate college take of myrrh, saffron, agarick, ginger, cinnamon, spikenard, frankincense, treacle, mustard seeds, of each ten drams, the seeds of hartwort, opobalsamum, or oil of nutmegs by expression, schenanth, stœchas, costus, galbanum, turpentine, long pepper, castorium, juice of hypocistis, styrax, calamitis, opopanax, indianleaf, or for want of it mace, of each an ounce, cassia lignea, poleymountain, white pepper, scordium, the seeds of carrots of crete, carpobalsamum or cubebs, troch, cypheos, bdelium, of each sevendrams, celtic spikenard, gum arabic, macedonian parsley seeds, opium, cardamoms the less, fennel seed, gentian, red rose leaves, dittanyof crete, of each five drams, annis seeds, asarabacca, orris acorus, the greater valerian, sagapen, of each three drams, meum acacia, thebellies of scinks, the tops of st john wort, of each two drams andan half, malaga wine, so much as is sufficient to dissolve the juicesand gums, clarified honey the treble weight of all, the wine excepted, make them into an electuary according to art culpeper it is good against poison and such as have done themselveswrong by taking filthy medicines, it provokes sweat, it helps continualwaterings of the stomach, ulcers in the body, consumptions, weaknessof the limbs, rids the body of cold humours, and diseases coming ofcold, it remedies cold infirmities of the brain, and stopping of thepassage of the senses, viz hearing, seeing, smelling, &c by cold, it expels wind, helps the cholic, provokes appetite to one victuals, it helps ulcers in the bladder, if galen say true, as also difficultyof urine, it casts out the dead child, and helps such women as cannotconceive by reason of cold, it is an admirable remedy for melancholy, and all diseases of the body coming through cold, it would fill awhole sheet of paper to reckon them all up writingicularly you may takea scruple or half a dram in the morning, and follow your business, twodrams will make you sweat, yea one dram if your body be weak, for thentwo drams may be dangerous because of its heat phylomum persicum college take of white pepper, the seeds of white henbane, of eachtwo drams, opium, earth of lemnos, of each ten drams, lap, hematitus, saffron, of each five drams, castorium, indian spikenard, euphorbiumprepared, pellitory of spain, pearls, amber, zedoary, elecampane, troch, ramach, of each a dram, camphire a scruple, with their trebleweight in honey of roses, make it into an electuary according to art culpeper it stops blood flowing from any writing of the body, theimmoderate flowing of the menses, the hemorrhoids in men, spitting ofblood, bloody fluxes, and is profitable for such women as are subjectto miscarry. See the next receipt phylonium romanum college take of white pepper, white henbane seeds, of each fivedrams, opium two drams and an half, cassia lignea a dram and an half, the seeds of smallage a dram, parsley of macedonia, fennel, carrots ofcrete, of each two scruples and five grains, saffron a scruple and anhalf, indian spikenard, pellitory of spain, zedoary fifteen grains, cinnamon a dram and an half, euphorbium prepared, myrrh, castorium, ofeach a dram with their treble weight in clarified honey, make it intoan electuary electuarium de ovo or electuary of eggs college take a hen egg new laid, and the white being taken outby a small hole, fill up the void place with saffron, leaving the yolkin, then the hole being stopped, roast it in ashes till the shell beginto look black, take diligent heed the saffron burn not, for then isthe whole medicine spoiled, then the matter being taken out dry, ifso that it may be beaten into powder and add to it as much powder ofwhite mustard seed as it weighs then take the roots of white dittanyand tormentil, of each two drams, myrrh, hart-horn, petasitis roots, of each one dram, the roots of angelica and burnet, juniper berries, zedoary, camphire of each half an ounce, mix them all together in amortar, then add venice treacle the weight of them all, stir them aboutwith a pestle three hours together, putting in so much syrup of lemons, as is enough to make it into an electuary according to art culpeper a dram of it given at a time, is as great a help in apestilential fever as a man shall usually read of in a galenist itprovokes sweat, and then you shall be taught how to use yourself ifyears do not permit, give not so much theriaca andromachi or venice treacle college take of troches of squils forty-eight drams, troches ofvipers, long pepper, opium of thebes, magma, hedycroi dried, of eachtwenty-four drams, red roses exungulated, orris, illirick, juice ofliquorice, the seeds of sweet navew, scordium, opobalsamum, cinnamon, agerick, of each twelve drams, myrrh, costus, or zedoary, saffron, cassia lignea, indian spikenard, schenanth, pepper white and black, olibanum, dittany of crete, rhapontic, stœchas, horehound, macedonianparsley seed, calaminth, cypress, turpentine, the roots of cinquefoyland ginger, of each six drams, poley mountain, chamepitis, celticspikenard, amomus, styrax calamitis, the roots of meum, the topsof germander, the roots of rhapontic, earth of lemnos, indian leaf, chalcitis burnt, or instead thereof roman vitriol burnt, gentianroots, gum arabic, the juice of hypositis, carpobalsamum or nutmegs, or cubebs, the seeds of annis, cardamoms, fennel, hartwort, acacia, orinstead thereof the juice of sloes made thick, the seeds of treaclemustard, and ammi, the tops of st john wort, sagapen, of each fourdrams, castorium, the roots of long birth-wort, bitumen, judaicum, carrot seed, opopanax, centaury the less, galbanum, of each two drams, canary wine enough to dissolve what is to be dissolved, honey thetreble weight of the dry species, make them into an electuary accordingto art culpeper it resists poison, and the bitings of venomous beasts, inveterate head-aches, vertigo, deafness, the falling-sickness, astonishment, apoplexies, dulness of sight, want of voice, asthmaes, old and new coughs, such as spit or vomit blood, such as can hardlyspit or breathe, coldness of the stomach, wind, the cholic, and illiacpassion, the yellow jaundice, hardness of the spleen, stone in thereins and bladder, difficulty of urine, ulcers in the bladder, fevers, dropsies, leprosies, it provokes the menses, brings forth birth andafter-birth, helps pains in the joints, it helps not only the body, but also the mind, as vain fears, melancholy, &c and is a good remedyin pestilential fevers you may take half a dram and go about yourbusiness, and it will do you good if you have occasion to go in illairs, or in pestilent times, if you shall sweat under it, as your bestway is, if your body be not in health, then take one dram, or betweenone and two, or less than one, according as age and strength is, ifyou cannot take this or any other sweating medicine by itself, mix itwith a little carduus or dragon water, or angelica water, which in myopinion is the best of the three theriacca londinensis or london treacle college take of hart-horn two ounces, the seeds of citrons, sorrel, peony, bazil, of each one ounce, scordium, coral-liana, ofeach six drams, the roots of angelica, tormentil, peony, the leavesof dittany, bay-berries, juniper-berries, of each half an ounce, the flowers of rosemary, marigolds, clove gilliflowers, the tops ofsaint john wort, nutmegs, saffron, of each three drams, the rootsof gentian, zedoary, ginger, mace, myrrh, the leaves of scabious, devil-bit, carduus, of each two drams, cloves, opium, of each a dram, malaga wine as much as is sufficient, with their treble weight inhoney, mix them according to art culpeper the receipt is a pretty cordial, resists the pestilence, and is a good antidote in pestilential times, it resists poison, strengthens cold stomachs, helps digestion, crudities of the stomach aman may safely take two drams of it in a morning, and let him fear noharm diacrocuma college take of saffron, asarabacca roots, the seeds of parsley, carrots, annis, smallage, of each half an ounce, rhubarb, the rootsof meum, indian spikenard, of each six drams, cassia lignea, costus, myrrh, schenanth, cubebs, madder roots, the juices of maudlin, andwormwood made thick, opobalsamum, or oil of nutmegs, of each two drams, cinnamon, calamus aromaticus, of each a dram and an half, scordium, cetrach, juice of liquorice, of each two drams and an half, tragacantha dram, with eight times their weight in white sugar, dissolved inendive water, and clarified, make it into an electuary according toart culpeper it is exceeding good against cold diseases of the stomach, liver, or spleen, corruption of humours and putrefaction of meat in thestomach, ill favoured colour of the body, dropsies, cold faults in thereins and bladder, provokes urine take a dram in the morning purging electuaries benedicta laxativa college take of choice turbith ten drams, diacridium, bark ofspurge roots prepared, hermodactils, red roses, of each five drams, cloves, spikenard, ginger, saffron, long pepper, amomus, or for wantof it calamus aromaticus, cardamoms the less, the seeds of smallage, parsley, fennel, asparagus, bruscus, saxifrage, gromwell, caraway, sal gem galanga, mace, of each a dram, with their treble weight ofclarified honey. Make them into an electuary according to art also youmay keep the species itself in your shops culpeper it purges flegm, chiefly from the joints, also it purgesthe reins and bladder caryocostinum college take of cloves, costus, or zedoary, ginger, cummin, ofeach two drams, hermodactils, diacridium, of each half an ounce. Withtheir double weight of honey clarified in white wine, make them into anelectuary according to art culpeper authors say it purges hot rheums, and takes awayinflammations in wounds, i assure you the electuary works violently, and may safely be given in clysters, and so you may give two or threedrams at a time, if the patient be strong for taken otherwise it wouldkill a horse cum privilegio cassia extracta pro clysteribus or cassia extracted for clysters college take of the leaves of violets, mallows, beets, mercury, pellitory of the wall, violet flowers, of each a handful, boil them ina sufficient quantity of water, the benefit of which let the cassia beextracted, and the canes washed. Then take of this cassia so drawn, andboil it to its consistence, a pound, sugar a pound and a half, boilthem to the form of an electuary according to art culpeper you may take it in white wine, it is good for gentlebodies, for if your body be hard to work upon, perhaps it will notwork at all.

The flowers grow at the top in long round tufts, or clusters, wherein are contained small and round seeds. The root isvery full of threads or strings the red blite is in all things like the white but that its leaves andtufted heads are exceeding red at first, and after turn more purple there are other kinds of blites which grow different from the twoformer sorts but little, but only the wild are smaller in every writing place they grow in gardens, and wild in thesis places in this land time they seed in august and september government and virtues they are all of them cooling, drying, andbinding, serving to restrain the fluxes of blood in either man orwoman, especially the red. Which also stays the overflowing of thewomen reds, as the white blites stays the whites in women it is anexcellent secret. You cannot well fail in the use they are all underthe dominion of venus there is another sort of wild blites like the other wild kinds, buthave long and spiky heads of greenish seeds, seeming by the thicksetting together to be all seed this sort the fishers are delighted with, and it is good and usualbait. For fishes will bite fast enough at them, if you have wit enoughto catch them when they bite borage and bugloss these are so well known to the inhabitants in every garden that i holdit needless to describe them to these i may add a third sort, which is not so common, nor yet sowell known, and therefore i shall give you its name and description it is called langue de bœuf. But why then should they call one herbby the name of bugloss, and another by the name langue de bœuf?.

And 3 at the lower portionof the rectum. And an incision should be made with a pair of scissorsbetween these ligatures the jejunum and ilium should first be removedtogether by seizing the gut with the left hand, keeping it on thestretch, and cutting with a pair of scissors through the mesenteryclose to its intestinal attachment the cæcum, colon, and rectum shouldthen be removed in a similar manner the intestines being placed in large absolutely clean dishes, whichhave previously been rinsed with distilled water, are opened. Greatcare being taken that none of the intestinal contents are lost thesmall intestines should be opened in one dish and the large intestinein another a portion of the intestines where morbid appearances aremost likely to be seen in paper of poisoning are the duodenum, thelower writing of the ilium, and the rectum the comparative intensity ofthe appearances of irritation should be especially noted for example, if the stomach appears normal and the intestines are found inflamed thepossibility of poison from an irritant may be denied the intestines are opened along their detached border by theenterotome care should be taken to distinguish the post-mortemdiscolorations which are usually seen along the intestines from thoseproduced by disease the former are most marked in the dependentportions they are apt to occur in patches which can be readilyrecognized by stretching the wall of the gut the darkish brown orpurple discolorations which are essaytimes seen as the result ofdecomposition are due to the imbibition from the vessels of decomposedhæmoglobin much care and experience are necessary to tell the amountof congestion which is within normal limits and to recognize changes ofcolor produced by decomposition the pathological lesions ordinarily looked for in the examinationof the intestines are ulcers, perforation, hemorrhages, strictures, tumors, and the evidences of various inflammations to obtain anaccurate idea of the various portions of the mucous membrane of theintestines, it is essaytimes necessary to remove their contents whenvery adherent this should be done by allowing as small a portionof distilled water as possible to flow over their surface if anyabnormalities are noticed along the intestinal tract, an accuratedescription should be given of their situation and extent. As also theamount of congestion seen in different portions of the intestinal tract if possible the different portions of the intestines, as well as thestomach, should be examined immediately after being exposed to view, as under the influence of the air those writings which are pale maybecome red, and slight redness may become very pronounced in this wayonly can we estimate the degree of vascularity of the various writingsafter death however, in paper of suspected poisoning, when it isimpossible for the chemist to be present at the autopsy, the medicalexaminer should not open the stomach and intestines, but place themin sealed jars as soon as possible afterward, the chemist beingpresent, they should then be examined in the manner indicated whatmay be lost by waiting, in changes of color which have taken place, will be more than counterbalanced by the data which the chemist willobtain from observing the contents and mucous membrane of the stomachand intestines when they are first exposed the characteristic odorsof certain poisons are so evanescent that they quickly disappear afteropening of the stomach and intestines after a thorough examination of the intestines, they are to be put withtheir contents into wide-mouthed vessels, each writing by itself, andthe basins in which they were opened washed with distilled water andthe washings put into the same bottle as soon as the intestines aretransferred to the jars they should be sealed the stomach - the stomach and duodenum are removed together theyare opened by passing the enterotome into the duodenum and dividingit along its convex border, the incision being continued along thegreater curvature of the stomach as far as the œsophageal opening theyshould be opened in a large glass dish which has been carefully washedwith distilled water the chemist and medical examiner will carefullynote the quantity, odor, color, and reaction of the stomach contents;also whether luminous or not in the dark. The presence or absence ofcrystalline matter, foreign substances, undigested food or alcohol portions of the contents should be placed in a small glass bottle andsealed, so that at a future time they may be examined microscopically only in this way can an absolute knowledge of the character of thestomach contents be obtained in certain medico-legal paper the abilityto decide the character of the stomach contents is of the utmostimportance the mucous membranes of the stomach and duodenum must benext carefully examined for evidences of hemorrhages, erosions, tumors, and of acute or chronic inflammations the appearance of the rugæ andtheir interspaces, principally in the region of the greater curvature, should be noted. Because here traces of poison and its effects aremost frequently seen if the stomach is inflamed, the seat of theinflammation should be exactly specified, as also that of any unusualcoloration the condition of the blood-vessels are also noted vascularity orredness of the stomach after death should not be confounded with theeffects of poison or the marks of disease it may occur in everyvariety of degree or character and still be within normal limits vascularities which we might call normal are seen in the posterior writingof the greater end and in the lesser curvature, and may cover spacesof various extent rigot and trosseau have proven by experiment thatvarious kinds of pseudo-morbid redness may be formed which cannot bedistinguished from the varieties caused by inflammation. That theseappearances are produced after death and often not until five or eighthours afterward, and that they may be made to shift their place andappear where the organ was previously healthy, merely by altering theposition of the stomach ulcers, or perforations of the stomach as theresults of disease, as also the digestion of the stomach after death, have been mistaken for the effects of irritant poisons when perforation of the stomach is the result of caustic poisons, theedges of the opening are very irregular, and are of the same thicknessas the rest of the organ the writings not perforated are more or lessinflamed, and traces of the action of the caustic are found in themouth, pharynx, and œsophagus this is the opposite condition to thatseen in spontaneous perforation in considering perforation of the stomach the following points given bytaylor are well to remember. 1 a person may have died from perforation of the stomach and not frompoisoning 2 a person laboring under disease may be the subject of poison 3 a person laboring under disease may have received blows orinjuries on the abdomen, and it will be necessary to state whether theperforation did or did not result from the violence 4 the perforation of the stomach from post-mortem changes may bemistaken for perforations from poison corrosives, if they do not produce perforation of stomach, willgenerally cause intense inflammation accompanied by softening of theinner coat, essaytimes ending in gangrene the inflammation varies as toits extent and intensity, essaytimes affecting principally the mouth andœsophagus, but generally the changes are more pronounced in the stomachand duodenum, while in rare paper the inflammatory process may extendthrough the whole alimentary canal the mucous membranes are essaytimesbright red with longitudinal or transverse patches of a blackish color, formed by extravasated blood between the coats carbolic acid oftenproduces in the stomach and œsophagus white patches when these patchesare carefully examined, an ulcerated surface beneath them is generallyseen narcotic poisons - it is a common but mistaken idea that thesepoisons produce essay mark or characteristic effect upon the stomachwalls. That they induce a rapid tendency to putrefaction. That theblood is in a fluid state. That hemorrhages are seen in variouswritings.

Fragmentary protocols are given the assistant pathologist of st francis’ hospital carried on theexperimental work, adding salicylic acid to the camphor no bloodcultures are reported the conclusion reached by dr seibert is thatsalicylic acid up to 3 per cent , added to the camphorated oil, iseffective in preventing pleural service essays infection in the article by dr seibert, there appear most sketchy reports of paper, recovery beingreported without crisis in from three to nine days the referee has made a careful search of the literature, with thefollowing results. Boehnke berl klin wchnschr 50:818, 1913, using white mice, failed to confirm the experiments reported inseibert paper, unless camphorated oil were given before thepneumococci, and even then, he felt that the results were too irregularto be of great significance when given with anti-pneumococcic serum, however, he felt that there was essay benefit to be seen by theadministration of camphor. His protocols, however, are not detailed there is no report of blood cultures, etc another worker, h leo deutsch med wchnschr 39:690, 1913, reported that camphor water given intravenously prolonged the lives ofthirty-eight rabbits inoculated with pneumococci here again there wereno adequate protocols and very little evidence of careful experimentalwork appears in the literature of the past ten years, there appear sketchy clinicalarticles on the value of huge doses of camphor in pneumonia markevitch russk vrach, june 27, 1914. Abstr , the journal, dec 5, 1914, p 2081 treated 226 paper of pneumonia with 5 c c of camphorated oilhypodermically four times daily, at the same time giving digitalis amount not stated, with a mortality of 6 6 per cent , whereas, in 322paper untreated, there was a mortality of 13 3 per cent he reports133 grave paper. Sixty-six received no camphor. 48 per cent died ofsixty-seven treated with camphor, only 22 per cent died he reportstemperature falling by lysis when camphor is used, and comments on thesymptomatic improvement following its use with the great variation inthe clinical course of pneumonia, the above figures, though suggestive, certainly need further support before the routine use of camphor asrecommended by seibert can be sanctioned later articles found on the subject refer to it in a very cursory way, giving no protocols and no paper, and giving the referee the feelingthat the conclusions were very impressionistic résuméafter a careful search of the literature, the referee concludes that:huge doses of camphor, to 250 grains in twenty-four hours, may be givento man without serious results no satisfactory evidence, however, appears that camphor has a specific germicidal action on pneumococci similar to that of ethylhydrocuprein the clinical evidence, asfound in the literature, is certainly of very little value it appearsthat the sale of a simple solution of camphor in oil under the guiseof “anti-pneumococcic oil” is to be deplored a 20 per cent solutionof camphor in cottonseed oil is official in the u s pharmacopeiaas camphor liniment it is recommended that the preparation be heldinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because exaggeratedtherapeutic claims are advanced for it, and because the name is notdescriptive of the composition, but is, instead, therapeuticallysuggestive -- from the journal a m a , jan 3, 1920 dial “ciba” report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrydial “ciba” has not been accepted for “new and nonofficial remedies”because, as the report which follows shows, unwarranted claims aremade for the product it is a definite new chemical compound whichmight be made eligible for n n r if misleading therapeutic claimswere eliminated the council directed that dial “ciba” be includedwith articles described but not accepted, so that physicians might beinformed with regard to its character and properties w a puckner, secretary dial “ciba” is a hypnotic manufactured by the society of chemicalindustry of basle, switzerland, and is sold in the united states bya klipstein and company, inc , new york chemically, dial “ciba”is diallylbarbituric acid and is, therefore, closely related todiethylbarbituric acid or barbital “veronal” the claims made for dial “ciba” are 1, that the “allyl” group in itsmolecule makes it more readily decomposed by oxidizing agents thanbarbital, which contains the “ethyl” group. 2 that because of thisease of oxidation, it is more readily decomposed in the body and morerapidly and completely eliminated, and 3 that because of its allegedrapid elimination, it is devoid of the after effects of barbital andother hypnotics the council took up the substance in february, 1918, and referred thematter to the referee in charge of barbital preparations the refereeconsidered unwarranted the claim that dial “ciba” did not have theafter-effects of other hypnotics due to its alleged total decompositionin the body the american agents, a klipstein and company, wereinformed of the referee objections their attention was also calledto the fact that, notwithstanding the claimed absence of after-effectsin one writing of the advertising, other writings of the same advertisingadmitted certain post-hypnotic effects of the product it waspointed out also that while it was claimed in one of the advertisingcirculars that lowering of the blood pressure is never observed afteradministration of dial “ciba, ” yet two of the authors quoted in thesame circular definitely stated that a lowering of the blood pressurefollowed even small doses of the drug and these authors warn againstthis very danger in certain conditions a year later, a circular letter sent out by a klipstein and companyreiterated the claim that the asserted decomposition of dial “ciba”in the body prevents after-effects, the drug being still contrastedwith barbital “veronal” in view of the reiteration of this highlyimprobable claim, the referee undertook to study the comparative actionof dial “ciba” as compared with other hypnotics it was found thatthe actions of dial “ciba” are not distinguishable, qualitatively, from those of barbital, there being no perceptible difference in theafter-effects or in the nature of the side actions in toxic doses, both caused profound depression with the temperature falling tothat of the room or about one degree above, the respiration beingextraordinarily slow and shallow as one would expect with lowering ofthe temperature there were also the same evidences of nausea thatare so frequently seen after toxic doses of the various hypnotics ofthis group in view of these results, the council declared that it isunwarranted to claim freedom from after-effects for dial “ciba ”the council held that the following statement is unwarranted. “the therapeutic field for dial ‘ciba, ’ as shown by tests on rabbits, is just as broad as the field for diethylbarbituric acid ”tests on rabbits do not and cannot show the breadth of the therapeuticfield for a hypnotic the council also declared the following statementimprobable, and contrary to the evidence obtained by the referee. “in dogs, the increase of dosage beyond the therapeutic dose to the point of death is decidedly in favor of dial ‘ciba, ’ which required a larger dose than diethylbarbituric acid to produce death ”the referee experiments on cats show that dial “ciba” is severaltimes as toxic as hydrated chloral, and more than twice as toxic asdiethylbarbituric acid barbital since the circular to which objection was made in 1918 was still beingsent out in december, 1919, the council held dial “ciba” inadmissibleto n n r and voted that report of its action in the matter beauthorized for publication the council further directed that dial“ciba” be included with articles described but not accepted -- fromthe journal a m a , jan 24, 1920 apothesine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryapothesine is a synthetic drug for producing local anesthesia, madeby parke, davis & company in the fall of 1917 the council wrote toparke, davis & company offering its aid in establishing the identity, purity and therapeutic efficiency of this synthetic local anestheticwith the ultimate object of accepting the product for inclusion in newand nonofficial remedies should the facts warrant such acceptance the council letter was never acknowledged after apothesine wasput on the market the council desired to accept it for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies but, unfortunately, was unable to do sobecause essay of the claims made for the product were not justified byacceptable evidence the manufacturers were notified of the councildesire to admit this product to n n r and the wish was expressedthat the company would either so modify its claims as to make theproduct acceptable under the council rules or else would submitevidence to the council in proof of the claims made and thus permitthe council to revise its conclusions parke, davis & company were, apparently, either unwilling or unable to submit evidence that wouldsustain their claims. Neither did they offer to modify the claimsthemselves the product, therefore, is ineligible to inclusion in newand nonofficial remedies. It will, however, be listed in the “describedbut not accepted” dewritingment of new and nonofficial remedies thereport on apothesine that follows has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary apothesine, “the hydrochlorid of diethyl-amino-propyl-cinnamate, ” isan efficient local anesthetic it belongs to the procain rather thanto the cocain type, that is, it belongs to that type which, whileeffective for injection anesthesia especially when combined withepinephrin is relatively inefficient when applied to mucous membranes apothesine may also be used for spinal anesthesia its absolutetoxicity is less than that of cocain as 20 is to 15, see table belowbut about twice that of procain as 20 is to 40, see table below itis non-irritant, is easily soluble and makes a stable solution so thatit may readily be sterilized the council took exception to certain claims made by parke, davis &company for their product on the ground that these claims were notsupported by acceptable scientific evidence one of the claims wasthat apothesine is applicable in any case in which any other localanesthetic is used this statement, made in thesis advertisements, is distinctly misleading as used when applied to mucous membranesapothesine is far inferior to cocain and to essay other localanesthetics, yet the claim obviously suggests that apothesine is anefficient substitute for any local anesthetic the manufacturers claimed, too, that apothesine is as potent as cocain the claim would lead the physician to think that apothesine had thesame anesthetic potency as cocain in solution of equal strength thisstatement, so far as it refers to the drug when applied to mucousmembranes, is not in accord with the facts and is true for injectionanesthesia only when stronger solutions are used the only supportfor the claim of equal efficiency appears to be the experiments withintracutaneous injections made by h c hamilton130 in parke, davis &company laboratory these differed considerably from the results ofsollmann 131 a further series of experiments were made by sollmannto compare still further the diverse results previously reportedby him and hamilton the latest series, while showing considerablevariations in the susceptibility of different skin areas, especiallytoward apothesine, demonstrated in every case that the efficiency ofapothesine is unmistakably lower than that of cocain, being at best onehalf the series also showed that the potency of apothesine was nevergreater than procain and averaged considerably below it 130 the comparative values of essay local anesthetics by h c hamilton, detroit, mich , from the research laboratory of parke, davis& co , j lab & clin m 4:60 nov 1918 131 comparative efficiency of local anesthetics, v, by t sollmann, from the pharmacological laboratory of the school of medicine, westernreserve university, j pharmacol & exper therap 11:69 feb 1918 another claim made for apothesine which the council holds is notsupported by evidence is that of superior safety this claim is madeon the basis of hypodermic injections in guinea-pigs carried out inthe laboratory of parke, davis & company such experiments provelittle because of the fact-- well known to laboratory workers-- that theuse of rodents in toxicity tests made by injecting a drug into thesubcutaneous tissues does not give a reliable index of the relativetoxicity of such a drug for man this is due writingly to the peculiarresistance of rodents to poisons and writingly to the great importance ofthe rate of absorption the organism destroys most local anesthetics sorapidly that the rate of absorption is more important than the absolutedose the absorption from hypodermic injections into guinea-pigsdiffers, of course, from that in clinical accidents, especially wherethe drug has been applied to mucous membranes one cannot, therefore, reliably estimate the degree of clinical danger on animals it has been shown that when toxicity tests of local anesthetics aremade on cats these animals seem to respond to the drugs in a mannermore closely approximating humans and it is a suggestive fact that themore toxic of local anesthetics, as shown by tests on cats, have beenfound the most dangerous in clinical use the absolute toxicity ofapothesine has been measured by eggleston and hatcher132 by theintravenous injection in cats the fatal doses, in terms of milligramsper kilogram ranged as follows. Alypin, holocain 10 beta eucain 12 5 cocain 15 apothesine 20 tropacocain 20-25 stovain 25-30 nirvanin 30-35 procain 40-45132 a further contribution to the pharmacology of the localanesthetics by eggleston and hatcher, from the dewritingment ofpharmacology, cornell university medical college, new york city, j pharmacol & exper therap 13:433 aug 1919 the absolute toxicity of apothesine is, therefore, only a littlelower than that of cocain, and is twice as great as that of procain the clinical dangers cannot be predicted by either method, sinceclinical accidents depend, in most instances, on idiosyncrasies, or thetechnic of application -- from the journal a m a , jan 24, 1920 eumictine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted and authorized publication of the report whichappears below this report declares “eumictine” ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies because 1 it conflicts with rule 10 in that itis unscientific, 2 it conflicts with rule 6 in that it is sold underunwarranted therapeutic claims, 3 it conflicts with rule 4 againstindirect advertising to the public in that the name “eumictine” isblown in the bottle for the obvious purpose of bringing the productto the attention of the public when it is prescribed in the originalpackage, and 4 because the name is therapeutically suggestive and notin any way descriptive of its composition w a puckner, secretary eumictine is a preparation from the laboratory of maurice le prince, paris, france, and is marketed in this country by george j wallau, inc , new york it is claimed that the product is “a balsamo-antisepticpreparation composed of santalol, salol, and hexamethylene-tetramine, in the form of gluten-coated capsules ” nowhere in the advertisingare the amounts of the ingredients given according to theamerican agent, however, “each capsule is supposed to contain 20centigrams of santalol, 5 centigrams of salol, 5 centigrams ofhexamethylene-tetramine ”eumictine is advised “in treating genito-urinary diseases urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, pyelitis, etc ” it is claimed to be “both anantiphlogistic modifying agent, a well-tolerated diuretic” which “maybe administered for long periods without ill effects ”the council declares eumictine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies because it is exploited in conflict with the following rules:it is unscientific rule 10 eumictine is composed ofhexamethylenamin, salol and sanalol in fixed proportions hexamethylenamin may serve a useful purpose in essay forms of infectionof the urinary tract, but neither it nor salol is of any considerablevalue in gonorrhea it is now known that the balsamic preparations, formerly so widely used, do not have the curative effects in gonorrheaand associated conditions that used to be ascribed to them to combinethree substances, none of which has any distinct therapeutic value inthe conditions for which eumictine is proposed, does not enhance theirvalue there is nothing original in the combination used in eumictine, or in the manner of dispensing it it is sold under unwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 theseclaims are made not only for the components of eumictine but for thecombination itself though santalol has certain advantages over theessaywhat variable oil of santal and other balsamic resins, it is nottrue that santalol “does not cause congestion of the renal epithelium”or that it does not “produce exanthema as do copaiba, cubebs, andthe ordinary santal oil ” it is not true that salol is “devoid oftoxicity ” neither is it correct to say that salol “asepticizes anddisinfects the bladder, the prostate and the urethra ” the claim thathexamethylenamin “is of value when any acute symptoms or tendency toinflammation subsist” is not justified the claim that hexamethylenamin“renders soluble the uric acid and urates” is also without foundation the following paragraph is characteristic of the claims made foreumictine. “anti-gonorrhoic by its santalol, diuretic, urolytic and analgetic by its hexamethylenetetramin urotropin antiseptic and antipyretic by its salol, eumictine represents a real therapeutic advance in the scientific treatment of diseases of the urinary passages ”instead of being “a real therapeutic advance” in the treatment ofdiseases of the urinary passages, eumictine presents one of thecomplex combinations that have long retarded the scientific treatmentof these diseases eumictine also conflicts with rules 4 and 8 of thecouncil -- from the journal a m a feb 21, 1920 platt chlorides report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report on“platt chlorides ” it also declares the preparation inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies because its composition is uncertainand indefinite and because the claims made for it are exaggerated andmisleading w a puckner, secretary“platt chlorides, ” marketed by henry b platt, new york, is soldas a disinfectant and germicide only incomplete and contradictorystatements have been made in regard to its composition thesis yearsago about 1899 the composition of platt chlorides was given as“the chlorids of zn 40 per cent , pb 20, ca 15, al 15, mg 5, k 5 ” thestatement that the preparation contained 20 per cent of lead chloridis interesting, in view of the fact that lead chlorid is soluble inwater at ordinary temperatures to the extent of less than 1 per cent in a booklet, also issued a number of years ago, the following “formulaof platt chlorides” was given. “a saturated solution of metallic chlorids combined in the following proportions. “sol zinc chlorid 40 per cent “sol aluminum chlorid 15 per cent “sol lead chlorid 20 per cent “sol calcium chlorid 15 per cent “sol magnesium chlorid 5 per cent “sol potassium chlorid 5 per cent ”the label on a bottle purchased in 1911, describes platt chlorides as. “a highly concentrated solution of the chlorids of aluminum, calcium, lead, zinc, etc ”the label of a bottle purchased in 1919 reads. “contains inert material.

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Arch internat de physiol , 10:206, 1910 36 service essays matuso. Jour physiol 45:477, 1913 37 huston. Ann et bull soc roy de sc méd et nat 70:178, 1912 properties of secretinprosecretin -- secretin is soluble in water, yet a watery extract ofintestinal scrapings is without action, 32 even after being submittedto acid treatment 38 starling therefore holds that secretin existsin the intestinal mucosa in an inactive form, as “prosecretin ” thecontent of the intestine in prosecretin decreases from the duodenumdown, so that one is unable to demonstrate any prosecretin in the last2-1/2 feet of the ileum prosecretin is insoluble in water, acetone, absolute alcohol or ether secretin, on the other hand, is readilysoluble in water, normal salt solution and diluted alcohol 70 percent , but likewise insoluble in absolute alcohol and ether 38 starling. Lancet, london 2:433, 1905 preparation -- all of the more dissociated acids liberate secretinfrom intestinal mucosa on boiling their action is dependent onthe degree of dissociation, 39 carbonic and boric acids beinginactive 40 secretin can also be prepared with strong soaps from10 to 30 per cent sodium oleate, alcohol 70 per cent , 41 0 6 percent sodium chlorid36 the acid and soap in the duodenum producesecretion. There is no necessary correspondence between the action of asubstance in the intestine and that obtained by injection after boilingmucosa with it the sodium chlorid, bile, maltose and glucose produceessay secretion by the latter method yet none by the former 36 on theother hand, ether, chloral and oil of mustard excite secretion whenin the intestine, but no secretin can be prepared from boiled mucosaby their action the irritation of the lining cell has produced thenecessary hydrolysis 38 in well-controlled experiments, wertheimerand lepage42 found that after the introduction of acid, secretion issecreted into the lumen of the intestine matuso36 confirmed theirresults, and found this a satisfactory method for the preparation ofsecretin it is said that secretin can be obtained by merely boilingthe mucosa with water, but the results are inconstant 4339 frouin and lalou. Compt rend soc de biol , 71:189, 1911 40 camus. Compt rend soc de biol , 1902, 54:442, 1902 41 fleig. Jour de physiol et de path gén 6:32, 50, 1904 42 wertheimer and lepage. Jour de physiol et de path gén 4:1061, 1070, 1902 43 stepp.