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And with each assault superstition in medicine, as well as inthe natural sciences, was most palpably exposed after having satisfied ourselves in this second chapter regardingtheism and its attitude with reference to the physico-mechanical theoryof life, we shall now enter upon the consideration of the variousforms of medical superstition, and it is our intention, as stated inthe first chapter, so to arrange the enormous material at hand as todiscuss medical superstition according to the sources from which it hassprung we shall begin by pointing out the intimate relations whichhave prevailed between the teachings of religion and superstition iiireligion the support of medical superstitionreligion undoubtedly plays the most conspicuous writing in the historyof medical superstition religious teaching, of whatever character, has fostered medical superstition more than any other factor ofcivilization not only has religion called forth and nourished medicalsuperstition, but it has also defended it with all the influence at itsdisposal indeed, it has not infrequently happened that those who werereluctant to believe in the blessings of a medical theory ridiculouslyperverted by religion were exposed to persecution by fire and sword and this not only from one or other religious denomination, for allreligious believers, without exception, had proved to be the mostassiduous promotors of medical superstition. So that we are probablynot wrong in designating priesthoods in general, whatever their creed, as the most prominent embodiment of medical superstition during certainperiods of the world history but the details will be learned fromthe following paragraphs:§ 1 priesthood the support of medical superstition - the principalreason for a not quite reputable activity in the chosen representativeof a deity is probably the fact that, with the appearance of aphysico-mechanical contemplation of the world, the theistic theory oflife, which until then had exclusive sway, was forced into a pitchedbattle with a newly formulated definition of nature this struggle wascarried on principally by the priesthood, who, as a matter of fact, had most to lose from the ascendency of a new theory of life whichonly reckoned with natural factors they indeed had been the means, until then, of procuring for the people the assistance of the godsin all bodily ailments, as they had been the exclusive depositoriesof physical knowledge and it could scarcely be expected that thepriesthood would at once willingly relinquish the extensive supremacyhitherto exercised by it as the oracle of divine guidance in allmedico-physical questions. For humanity has always considered thepossession of authority much more delightful than submission, and theruler has always objected most energetically to any attempt whichdisputes his rule this was precisely what was done by priests of allcreeds when the mechanico-physical theory of life began to supersedethe obsolete dreams of theistic medicine fair-minded persons willsurely allow that such action was natural but they can not approve ofthe methods resorted to, unless they belong to those who feel boundalways to discern nothing but what is sacred in every action of aservant of heaven in order to wage war most effectively against the physico-mechanicaltheory of life, the priesthood at once claimed for themselves the powerof completely controlling nature they made the people believe thatthe celestials had bestowed upon them the faculty of dominating naturein the interests of the sick, and that all powers of the universe, theobvious ones as well as those mysteriously hidden in the depths ofnature, were obedient to sacerdotal suggestions the servant of heavenprofessed that he could regulate the eternal processes of matter, withits becoming, being, and passing away, quite as irresistibly as his eyewas able to survey the course of time in the past, present, and future equipped with these extensive powers, a priest necessarily appearedto the people not only as physician, but also as a miraculous beingcrowned with the halo of the supernatural and this was the rôle heactually played in thesis ancient religions with the peoples of italythe priest appeared at a period, indeed, which was previous to thebeginning of rome as physician, prophet, interpreter of dreams, raiser of tempests, etc he held exactly the same offices among theceltic tribes in gaul and britain his position was the same in theoriental world, and by the medians and the persians especially werepriests considered to be persons endowed with supernatural powers we may notice that members of a certain median tribe formed thesacerdotal caste, and bore the name of “magi ” however, this name, which originally was confined to the priestly order, obtained, in thecourse of time, a distinctly secular meaning very soon thesis cunningfellows arrived at the conclusion that the trade of a sacerdotalphysician and conjurer might bring a profitable livelihood to itsprofessor, even if this professor were not a priest but a layman thusthere arose a special profession of sorcerers, miracle workers, andmedicine-men, who protested with solemn emphasis that they were ableto cure all physical as well as psychical ailments of their fellowmen as thoroughly as the priests had done but in order to bestowthe required consecration upon this art, these gentlemen usurped thevenerable name of the above-mentioned median sacerdotal caste andcalled themselves “magi ” thus it happened that the name “magus” magician, which originally served to designate a distinct sacerdotalcaste, deteriorated into a designation of charlatans and swindlers this could never have occurred unless the priests had prostituted theirsublime profession and degraded it to various kinds of discreditablemedico-physical deceptions this alone is why priesthood is responsiblefor the rise of the magicians, of these worthless fakirs but if pliny book 30, chapter i , § 2 attempts to rank magic as an offshoot ofmedicine, he is justified in doing so only in so far as the priest, during the theistic period, was also the physician, as is well known only from this point of view is it possible to trace a genetic relationbetween medicine and magic but medicine in itself has not takenthe slightest writing in the promotion of magic and the success of itsunsavory reputation indeed, our science has suffered too much throughthe practise of magic to burden itself with the paternity of thisdisreputable child of civilization it appears that the name of the celtic priests “druids” had becomesubject to the same abuse as the name of the median priests ofsacerdotal caste thus we learn of female fortune-tellers of thethird century, a d , who call themselves “druidesses ” but it seemsthat this application of the word “druid” has remained a localone and strictly limited, whereas the expression “magician, ” quitegenerally employed, became, in the course of time, the designation ofcharlatans and medical impostors for these swindlers, who carried onmedico-physical hocuspocus, and who claimed to exercise supernaturalpowers, were called “magicians” during the entire period of classicantiquity, and we find the same use of the word in the middle ages, andessaytimes also in more modern times but this profession of magician, which sprang from priesthood, haslargely promoted superstition in medicine, and was writingicularlyinstrumental in bringing it into extraordinary repute it is ourintention to concern ourselves a little more minutely with magiciansand magic §2 the spread of the word “magic ” how and when magic wastransplanted from its oriental home to the occident can not bedetermined with certainty. For the greeks, as well as all antiquepeoples, probably all nations, had a belief in ghosts and demons, infortune-telling, and in sorcery but it appears, nevertheless, thatthe ancient civilized peoples of the orient, and writingicularly thepersians, cultivated the magic arts with especial devotion, and itis more than probable that it was from the east that the prevailingcult of magic had been imported into the west pliny, for one, tellsus book 30, chapter i , § 8 that magic was brought to europe bya certain osthanes, who accompanied king xerxes on his militaryexpedition against greece this man osthanes, as pliny reports further, is said to have disseminated the seeds of this supernatural art velutsemina artis portentosæ insparsit wherever he went, and with suchsuccess that the hellenic peoples were actually mad after it, andprominent men traveled through writings of the orient, there to acquirepersonally and thoroughly these magic arts, thus, as was the case withpythagoras, empedocles, democritus, and plato in fact, it is said ofdemocritus that he opened the tomb of a celebrated magician dardanus ofphœnicia that he might restore to publicity the mysterious writings ofthe latter it appears, moreover, that alexander the great entertainedan implicit belief in magic at least, pliny reports that during hiswars he was always accompanied by a celebrated magician magic arts were likewise in favor among the romans even nero attemptedto master the secrets of magic, altho unsuccessfully pliny, book 30, chapter ii , § 5 a writingicular impetus was given to magic toward theend of the last century before christ and during the first centuryof the christian era, when the rise of thesis fantastic philosophicalsystems greatly promoted and supported the belief in the supernaturalpowers of magic subsequently, in the middle ages, magic experienced anaccepted and systematic development these conditions, however, will bemore explicitly referred to later on the treatment of the sick through supernatural agencies assumedquite astonishing dimensions under the roman emperors the beliefin magicians was so generally disseminated that even the emperorsthemselves and the imperial authorities were almost completely devotedto it thus, for instance, the emperor hadrian 117-138, a d causedhimself to be treated by physicians who claimed miraculous powers, and he is said to have written a book on theurgy in fact, suidas 62julianus reports that hadrian, on account of a severe outbreak ofpestilence in rome, sent for the son of the chaldean, julian, who, simply by the power of his miracles, arrested the progress of thedisease under antoninus pius official proclamations were made in theforum, directing the attention of the people to the importance ofmagicians philostratus, 43, and the emperor marcus aurelius evenrelates that, when in caieta, the gods in a dream prescribed a remedyfor the hemorrhagic cough and vertigo from which he was suffering “marcus aurelius, ” chapter i , § 17, page 11 but it appears that the magicians finally went too far with theirtricks, and endangered human life by their treatment. So that severalemperors decided upon adopting more rigorous measures against theirknaveries the emperor septimius severus 193-211, altho himselforiginally devoted to magic, prohibited, when on a visit in egypt, all books which taught curious arts aelius swritingianus, “hadrianus, ”chapter xv , § 5, page 146 later the emperor diocletian tookenergetic steps toward abating the mischief done by magical treatmentof the sick, and the magicians were permitted to carry on such artsonly so far as would not be detrimental to the health of the people however, this order did not check the magicians any more than itbenefited those who were still tortured and brought to the pointof death by magic quackery neither did medical science derive anyadvantage whatever from this well-meant but completely abortive effortof the emperor, for the magic physicians persisted in carrying ontheir hocuspocus, and unconcernedly debased the pharmacopœia by theintroduction of nonsensical and loathessay substances let us examinemore in detail this dewritingment of medical practise among the magicians § 3 the medical practise of the magicians - the magicians adoptedvarious modes of procedure in the treatment of the sick. They eitherattempted, as do our modern quacks, to create the impression, byadministering medicine, that they were actually able to direct thetreatment of the ailing in a rational manner, or they restrictedthemselves to various kinds of magical observances the drug therapy of the magicians actually utilized everything underthe sun as a remedy the more out of the way and the less suitablefor a remedy a substance seemed to be, the more likely it was to bechosen by the magician intent upon healing for it was always themain object of these practising quacks to make their treatment assensational as possible in this they succeeded best by employingthe most extraordinary substances as remedies thus they made use ofgold, silver, precious stones and pearls, just because these, owing totheir value, were held in great esteem, and their medical application, therefore, was bound to create a sensation but the most loathessaysubstances were quite as readily employed, for here, too, the mostgeneral attention was bound to be attracted by their application human feces, urine, and menstrual blood were introduced into themateria medica in such a manner the awe with which writings of corpsesusually inspired the non-medical writing of the public was relied upon bythe magicians to advertise their cures thus these quacks administeredpowders of human bones to the ailing but inasmuch as what is conspicuous and unusual has always enjoyedan especial esteem with humanity, the incredible remedies of themagicians naturally found everywhere an abundance of believers. Andas writingicularly the most nonsensical theory is most tenacious oflife, provided it has been presented in apparent combination with themiraculous, the medical armamentarium rapidly took on a very peculiaraspect until the present more modern times medicine was condemnedto the encumbrance of this rubbish, this list of odd and loathessayremedies, whose admission to the pharmacopœia was only due to the whimof a human mind that constantly hankers after the extraordinary and themiraculous finally the magic observances to which the magicians resorted in thetreatment of the sick, have shown a remarkable vitality, for theyare in vogue even in modern times, and thesis sections of our peopleeven to-day swear unconditionally by the curative efficacy of variousagencies which demonstratively have been derived from the medicine ofthe magicians but now such agencies are no longer ascribed to magic orsorcery, but they are called “cures by means of sympathy ” and as thesismodern people believe that various incomprehensible mystic performancescause certain mysterious powers, otherwise absolutely unknown, toexert a curative influence upon certain diseases, so did the ancientsbelieve exactly the same this was the origin of exorcism as a remedyfor disease exorcism played a conspicuous writing in the middle ages asa means of stopping hemorrhages, and even in these modern times, as iswell-known, this method of cure finds thesis adherents this magic treatment was believed to be especially efficacious if theexorcisms had been written or engraved upon paper, gold, preciousstones, etc , in which case they were suspended around the neck ofthe patient countless talismans from the arabic tilsam, magicimage and amulets from the arabic hamalet, trinket were thusmanufactured, and even to our own time there are survivals of thismedical superstition altho these mystic observances are performed invarious ways, and their modifications are practically innumerable, yetcertain radical resemblances are continually appearing among the magicrites of the most diverse races, and essay of these practises have evenpersisted up to the present time thus the rope of the hung criminalplays a conspicuous writing in antique magic as well as in modern sympathytreatment.

Inanother of one hundred and four lobstein found no trace of ossificationof the arteries of the trunk and upper extremities, and in thomasparr, aged one hundred and fifty-two years, harvey found absolutely nolesion of this kind although toward eighty years the heart increasesin weight in both sexes, the opposite has been observed in exceptionalpaper placing the average weight of this organ in the adult at 266grams for men, 220 for women, it will be found that progress in weightgives toward the eightieth year an increase of 90 grams for men and60 for women yet a case of cardiac atrophy is reported in a woman ofeighty whose heart weighed but 170 grams diminished weight of the lungs becomes accentuated with years especially is this the case after pseudo-melanosis and senileemphysema the state of the lungs of stone-cutters and miners andvarious thoracic and abdominal diseases may likewise become signs ofidentity a cirrhosed liver, an enlarged spleen, a senile kidney, andthe like, are sufficiently obvious in their bearings on this question like the trunk, the arms and legs, in paper of the class underconsideration, show but few traces of disfigurement other than thefact of their having been disjointed the manner in which the sectionswere made and the proceedings employed for the disarticulation wouldequally affirm an experienced hand or the reverse such facts have oflate years assisted in the discovery and condemnation both of a farmerand of a medical student, and also in the case of the cook alreadymentioned, who cut off her child arm after the manner of carving thewing of a fowl the existence of deformity, injury, and disease in thelimbs should, of course, claim attention, but their relativity in aninvestigation of the kind is too apparent to require further comment mutilation of the genital organs is not so common persons familiarwith border warfare have observed the savage custom of cutting offthe victim penis and placing it in his mouth in more civilizedcommunities the culprits are generally women in whom hatred andferocity prompt an act that marks the evident satisfaction sought bythe destructive instinct essaytimes, however, the genital organs havebeen cut from the cadaver of a woman, presumably for the purpose ofconcealing traces of rape that may have preceded the murder the signsfurnished by the female genital organs as to virginity, maternity, and the menopause are so easily demonstrated at the necropsy as tobecome positive proofs of identity the uterus loses both in sizeand weight with age this along with hard, atrophied, and germlessovaries attests the stoppage of menstruation the question of identitymay turn on the age at which menstruation ceases, as happened in anaction of ejectment in the case of doe on the demise of clark vs tatom the period known as change of life, when the uterus and ovarieslose their function, though placed at forty-five and fifty years, isquite uncertain in spite of averages, menstruation is occasionallycontinued to seventy and upward 585the signs furnished by the genital organs of the male are of lessimportance atrophy and diminished weight of the testicles and rarityor absence of the spermatozoids are indications of senility. Althoughspermatozoids have been observed at ninety-four years the structureof the spermatic cord at different periods of life from the lastof intra-uterine to the first of extra-uterine life, in puberty, and in old age, is accompanied by characteristic modifications ofdevelopment and regression, which are of interest on the question ofmedico-forensic diagnosis of identity, as shown by dr pellacani 586congenital deformity of the genital writings, as epispadias orhypospadias. Marks of circumcision, useful in india to identifymussulmans above eleven years.

Wellthen, we will take it for a general water for all physick aqua caponis or capon water college take a capon the guts being pulled out, cut in pieces, thefat being taken away, boiled in a sufficient quantity of spring-waterin a close vessel, take of this broth three pounds borrage andviolet-water, of each a pound and a half, white service essay writing wine one pound, redrose leaves two drams and an half, the flowers of borrage, violets andbugloss, of each one dram, pieces of bread, hot out of the oven, halfa pound, cinnamon bruised, half an ounce, distil it in a glass stillaccording to art culpeper the simples are most of them appropriated to the heart, and in truth the composition greatly nourishes and strengthens suchas are in consumptions, and restores lost strength, either by feversor other sickness. It is a sovereign remedy for hectic fevers, andmarasmos, which is nothing else but a consumption coming from them letsuch as are subject to these diseases, hold it for a jewel aqua limacum magistr or water of snails college take of the juice of ground ivy, colt-foot, scabious, lungwort, of each one pound and a half, the juice of purslain, plantain, ambrosia, paul bettony, of each a pound, hog blood, whitewine, of each four pounds, garden snails, two pound, dried tobaccoleaves eight, powder of liquorice two ounces, of elecampane half anounce, of orris an ounce, cotton seeds an ounce and a half, the greatercold seeds, annis seeds of each six drams, saffron one dram, theflowers of red roses, six pugils, of violets and borrage, of each fourpugils, steep them three days warm, and then distil them in a glassstill, in sand culpeper it purges the lungs of flegm and helps consumptions there if you should happen to live where no better nor readier medicine canbe gotten, you may use this aqua scordii composita or compound water of scordium college take of the juice of goat rue, sorrel, scordium, citrons, of each one pound, london treacle, half a pound, steep it three days, and distil it in sand culpeper a tasterful taken in the morning, preserves from ill airs aqua mariæ college take of sugar candy a pound, canary wine six ounces, rosewater four ounces. Boil it well into a syrup, and add to it imperialwater two pounds, ambergreese, musk, of each eighteen grains, saffronfifteen grains, yellow sanders infused in imperial water, two drams;make a clear water of it aqua papaveries composita or poppy water compound college take of red poppies four pounds, sprinkle them with whitewine two pounds, then distil them in a common still, let the distilledwater be poured upon fresh flowers and repeated three times. To whichdistilled water add two nutmegs sliced, red poppy flowers a pugil, sugar two ounces, set it in the sun to give it a pleasing sharpness;if the sharpness be more than you would have it, put essay of the samewater to it which was not set in the sun aqua juglandium composita or walnut water compound college take of green walnuts a pound and an half, radish roots onepound, green asarabacca six ounces, radish seeds, six ounces let allof them, being bruised, be steeped in three pounds of white wine forthree days, then distilled in a leaden still till they be dry tinctures tinctura croci or tincture of saffron college take two drams of saffron, eight ounces of treacle water, digest them six days, then strain it culpeper see the virtues of treacle water, and then know that thisstrengthens the heart essaything more, and keeps melancholy vapoursthence by drinking a spoonful of it every morning tinctura castorii or tincture of castoreum college take of castoreum in powder half an ounce, spirit ofcastoreum half a pound, digest them ten days cold, strain it, and keepthe liquor for tincture culpeper a learned invention!. ’tis essaything more prevalent thanthe spirit tinctura fragroram or tincture of strawberries college take of ripe wood-strawberries two pounds, put them ina phial, and put so much small spirits of wine to them, that it mayovertop them the thickness of four fingers, stop the vessel close, andset it in the sun two days, then strain it, and press it but gently;pour this spirit to as thesis fresh strawberries, repeat this six times, at last keep the clear liquor for your use culpeper a fine thing for gentlemen that have nothing else to dowith their money, and it will have a lovely look to please their eyes tinctura scordii or tincture of scordium college take of the leaves of scordium gathered in a dry time, half a pound, digest them in six pounds of small spirits of wine, in avessel well stopped, for three days, press them out gently, and repeatthe infusion three times, and keep the clarified liquor for use so is made tincture of celandine, rest-harrow, and rosa-solis culpeper see the herbs for the virtues, and then take notice thatthese are better for cold stomachs, old bodies tinctura theriacalis vulgo aqua theriacalis ludg per infus or tincture of treacle college take of canary wine often times distilled, vinegar in whichhalf an ounce of rue seeds have been boiled, two pounds choice treacle, the best mithridate, of each half a pound. Mix them and set them in thesun, or heat of a bath, digest them, and keep the water for use tinctura cinnamoni, vulgo, aqua clareta cinnam or tincture of cinnamon college take of bruised cinnamon two ounces, rectified spirits ofwine two pounds, infuse them four days in a large glass stopped withcork and bladder, shake it twice a day, then dissolve half a pound ofsugar candy by itself in two pounds of rose water, mix both liquors, into which hang a nodule containing, ambergris half a scruple, muskfour grains tinctura viridis or a green tincture college take of verdigris, half an ounce, auripigmentum sixdrams, alum three drams, boil them in a pound of white wine till halfbe consumed, adding, after it is cold, the water of red roses, andnightshade, of each six ounces culpeper this was made to cleanse ulcers, but i fancy it not aqua aluminosa magistralis college take of plantain and red rose water, of each a pound, rochalum and sublimatum, of each two drams. Let the alum and sublimatum, being in powder, boil in the waters, in a vessel with a narrow mouthtill half be consumed, when it has stood five days, strain it physical wines vinum absynthitis or wormwood wine college take a handful of dried wormwood, for every gallon ofwine, stop it in a vessel close, and so let it remain in steep. So isprepared wine of rosemary flowers, and eye-bright culpeper it helps cold stomachs, breaks wind, helps the windcholic, strengthens the stomach, kills worms, and helps the greensickness rosemary-flower wine, is made after the same manner it is good againstall cold diseases of the head, consumes flegm, strengthens the gums andteeth eye-bright wine is made after the same manner it wonderfully clearsthe sight being drank, and revives the sight of elderly men. A cup ofit in the morning is worth a pair of spectacles all other wines are prepared in the same manner the best way of taking any of these wines is, to drink a draught ofthem every morning you may, if you find your body old or cold, makewine of any other herb, the virtues of which you desire. And make itand take it in the same manner vinum cerassorum nigrorum or wine of black cherries college take a gallon of black cherries, keep it in a vessel closestopped till it begin to work, then filter it, and an ounce of sugarbeing added to every pound, let pass through hippocrates’ sleeve, andkeep in a vessel close stopped for use vinum helleboratum or helleborated wine college take of white hellebore cut small, four ounces, spanishwine two pounds, steep it in the sun in a phial close stopped, in thedog days, or other hot weather vinum rubellum college take of stibium, in powder, one ounce, cloves sliced twodrams, claret wine two pounds, keep it in a phial close shut vinum benedictum college take of crocus metallorum, in powder, one ounce, mace onedram, spanish wine one pound and an half, steep it vinum antimoniale or antimonial wine college take of regulus of antimony, in powder, four ounces, steepit in three pounds of white wine in a glass well stopped, after thefirst shaking let the regulus settle culpeper these last mentioned are vomits, and vomits are fittingmedicines for but a few, the mouth being ordained to take innourishment, not to cast out excrements, and to regulate a man bodyin vomiting. And doses of vomits require a deeper study in physic, than i doubt the generality of people yet have. I omit it therefore atthis time, not because i grudge it my country, but because i would notwillingly have them do themselves a mischief, i shall shortly teachthem in what diseases vomits may be used, and then, and not till then, the use of vomits vinum scilliticum or wine of squills college take of a white squill of the mountains, gathered about therising of the dog star, cut it in thin pieces, and dried for a month, one pound, put it in a glass bottle, and pour to it eight pounds offrench wine, and when it hath stood so four days, take out the squill the virtues of this are the same with vinegar of squills, only it ishotter physical vinegars acetum distillatum or distilled vinegar college fill a glass or stone alembick with the best vinegar to thethird writing, separate the flegm with a gentle fire, then encrease thefire by degrees, and perform the work acetum rosarum or rose vinegar college take of red rose buds, gathered in a dry time, the whitescut off, dried in the shade three or four days, one pound, vinegareight sextaries, set them in the sun forty days, then strain out theroses, and repeat the infusion with fresh ones after the same manner is made vinegar of elder flowers, rosemaryflowers, and clove-gilliflowers culpeper for the virtues of all vinegars, take this one onlyobservation, they carry the same virtues with the flowers whereof theyare made, only as we said of wines, that they were better for coldbodies then the bare simples whereof they are made. So are vinegarsfor hot bodies besides, vinegars are often, nay, most commonly usedexternally, viz to bathe the place, then look amongst the simples, and see what place of the body the simple is appropriated to, and youcannot but know both what vinegar to use, and to what place to apply it acetum scilliticum or vinegar of squils college take of that writing of the squill which is between theoutward bark and the bottom, cut in thin slices, and placed thirty orforty days in the sun or essay remiss heat, then a pound of them beingcut small with a knife made of ivory or essay white wood being put ina vessel, and six pounds of vinegar put to them. Set the vessel, beingclose stopped, in the sun thirty or forty days, afterwards strain it, and keep it for use culpeper a little of this medicine being taken in the morningfasting, and walking half an hour after, preserves the body in health, to extreme old age, as sanius tried, who using no other medicine butthis, lived in perfect health till one hundred and seventeen years ofage it makes the digestion good, a long wind, a clear voice, an acutesight, a good colour, it suffers no offensive thing to remain in thebody, neither wind, flegm, choler, melancholy, dung, nor urine, butbrings them forth. It brings forth filth though it lie in the bones, ittakes away salt and sour belchings, though a man be never so licentiousin diet, he shall feel no harm. It hath cured such as have thephthisic, that have been given over by all physicians. It cures suchas have the falling sickness, gouts, and diseases and swellings of thejoints.

our correspondent complaint against the companyseems to be, not that the company sold stock to physicians, but that“the dividend checks have been few and far between, ” the assumptionbeing that had the dividends come regularly, there would have been nocomplaint it cannot be too often emphasized that it is against publicinterest and scientific medicine for physicians to be financiallyinterested in the sale of products which they may be called on toprescribe for the sick it is perfectly true that there are thesisphysicians who would not consciously permit financial considerationsto warp their judgment. But it is not humanly possible to remainunbiased in paper of this sort it is conceivable that a judge on thebench might make every effort to dispense imwritingial justice in a suitin which one of the writingies was a firm in which he, the judge, hadfinancial interest nevertheless, it would be obviously improper forsuch a judge to try a case of this kind yet, in this supposititiouscase the only harm that could result would be of a financial nature inthe case of the physician, the harm is not to the public purse but tothe public health -- from the journal a m a , dec 11, 1920 pituitary gland preparationsthe importance of the standardization of preparations of the posterior, or infundibular, lobe of the pituitary gland the liquor hypophysisof the new united states pharmacopeia, pituitary solution, pituitaryextract, etc is exemplified by a recent publication of roth 304 asis well known, the active constituent or constituents of this glandhave not been isolated, and there is no chemical method of determiningthe activity and therapeutic value of various preparations thereare, however, certain physiologic methods by which the activity ofsuch preparations may be determined with a considerable degree ofexactness the last revision of the pharmacopeia, recognizing thatthe best attested field of usefulness for such preparations is inobstetrics, adopted as a test their activity on the uterus of theguinea-pig. The details of the method adopted by the pharmacopeia arethose described by roth 305 roth now reports on the activity ofseven samples of commercial infundibular extracts, the products offive american manufacturing pharmacists four of these samples werefound to be of pharmacopeia strength. The other three were much weaker of the latter, one had but one tenth, another but one fifth and thethird but one fourth of the required activity those preparationswhich had been accepted by the council on pharmacy and chemistryfor inclusion in new and non-official remedies corresponded to thepharmacopeia requirements roth also compared the activity of theseseven preparations on the blood pressure, another method by whichit has been proposed to standardize infundibular extracts the fourpreparations which were equally active on the uterus were found to beequally active on the blood pressure. The other three were much weaker roth points out, however, that the results of the two methods are notnecessarily parallel. In one instance, for example, two samples causedequal rises of blood pressure, but one was twice as active as the otheron the uterus hence it is evident that the blood pressure test is nota satisfactory method for determining the activity of a preparation onthe uterus, and vice versa 304 roth, g b. Pituitary standardization, bull 109, hyg lab , u s p h s , 1917 305 roth, g b. Bull 100, hyg lab , u s p h s the subject of pituitary standardization, or perhaps it may be saidthe application of the present method is, however, in need of furtherstudy thus the statement has recently been made306 that commercialpreparations are on the market which have from three to five timesthe activity of the pharmacopeia standard. This was not the case, however, with the preparations examined by roth it is probable thatessay have used for comparison a weaker standard than that proposedby the pharmacopeia. This, of course, would lead to the conclusionthat the commercial preparations were stronger than the pharmacopeiastandard roth suggests that the employment of standards of unequalactivity by the various supply houses could easily be eliminated byhaving a central laboratory distribute material for use as a standard it will be recalled that before the united states public health serviceestablished and began the distribution of standards for diphtheria andtetanus antitoxins, the commercial preparations of these varied evenmore in activity than do those of the pituitary extracts at present 306 pittenger, p s , and vanderkleed, c e. Jour am pharm assn 6:131, 1917 it is unnecessary to emphasize the importance of this subject. This issufficiently evident to those who have followed the recent clinicalliterature on the use of pituitary extracts in obstetrics thesepreparations are used in times of emergency.

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“the rectal method of administration, either inthe form of solution or as suppositories, has been advocated by a fewobservers mainly for paper in which there is difficulty in the adoptionof the intravenous method the experiments made by mills at rochesterrow show that three enemata of ‘606’ 0 6 gm in each on successivedays failed to produce any effect on the spironemes in the lesions the general opinion of experienced workers is that the rectal methodis ineffective, and in this view the committee concur ”-- from thejournal a m a , oct 30, 1920 hypodermic solution no 13, iron, arsenic and phosphorus compound not accepted for n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary hypodermic solution no 13, iron, arsenic and phosphorus compound burdick-abel laboratory is said to contain in each c c. Ferrous citrate 0 06 gm sodium cacodylate 0 06 gm sodium glycerophosphate 0 1 gm chloretone 0 005 gm the preparation is advertised as “the old reliable hematinic” which is“indicated in all forms of anemia, where both red and white cells arelow ” it is for hypodermic or intramuscular administration the productis inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because:1 it does not contain ferrous citrate as claimed instead the iron isin the ferric condition, apparently in the form of the unofficial andunstandardized “iron citrate green” for which there is no evidence ofsuperiority over the official iron and ammonium citrate 134134 iron citrate green, the journal a m a , jan 12, 1917, p 135;reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 42 2 its name gives no information on the form in which the iron, thearsenic and the phosphorus occur therein the term “arsenic” doesnot indicate whether the mild cacodylate or the potent arsenousoxid is being administered nor does the term “phosphorus” tell thephysician that he is administering the practically inert sodiumglycerophosphate 135-- from the journal a m a , nov 13, 1920 135 glycerophosphates, the journal a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 1033. Reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 32 sodiumglycerophosphates reports council pharm and chem , 1916, p 52 parathesin not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report w a puckner, secretary the local anesthetic ethyl paraminobenzoate was first introduced as“anesthesin” or “anæsthesin ” ethyl paraminobenzoate is not patentedin the united states and it may be manufactured, therefore, by anyfirm which chooses to do so in order that a common name by which todesignate the drug might be available, the council coined the name“benzocaine, ” as being short and easily remembered, but yet suggestiveof its composition and character “benzo” to indicate its derivationfrom benzoic acid and “caine” to indicate its cocaine-like properties as the term “anesthesin” had become a common name for the drug, thecouncil recognized this as a synonym for benzocaine one of the accepted brands for benzocaine is “anesthesin, ”manufactured by the h a metz laboratories, inc see new andnonofficial remedies, 1920, p 33 however, on april 19, 1920, themetz laboratories requested that its product be recognized underthe designation of “parathesin ” as the use of one substance underseveral names causes confusion and retards rational therapeutics, thecouncil rules provide against the recognition of proprietary namesfor nonproprietary, established drugs in view of this and becausethe legitimate interests of the manufacturer may be safeguardedby appending his name or initials to the common name, benzocaineor anesthesin, the council voted not to recognize the designation“parathesin ”-- from the journal a m a , nov 13, 1920 chlorlyptus report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe condensed report on chlorlyptus which follows and also a completedetailed report was sent to the proprietor, jan 9, 1920 in replyhe requested that publication be postponed pending the submission offurther clinical evidence as after nine months this evidence had notbeen received the council has authorized publication of its report w a puckner, secretary chlorlyptus is manufactured by chas a weeks, trading as the weekschemical company, philadelphia it is prepared by chlorinatingeucalyptus oil until it has bound 30 per cent of chlorin, the chlorinbeing in relatively stable combination it is claimed that chlorlyptusis a new “chlorinated antiseptic, ” highly efficient as a woundantiseptic and at the same time nonirritant and nontoxic chlorlyptusis offered for use in the treatment of local infections of all types, as well as of burns, and also as an antiseptic in the alimentary andgenito-urinary tracts the claims were based largely on reports of investigations made byphilip b hawk and his collaborators these reports the refereeof the committee in charge of chlorlyptus considered incompleteand unconvincing being advised of this mr weeks caused furtherinvestigations to be made essay of the information was checked andextended by the a m a chemical laboratory and by the referee the laboratory side of the investigation may now be considered ascomplete the results show that chlorlyptus is a feeble antiseptic ofthe aromatic oil type, considerably weaker than eucalyptus oil, bothas to therapeutic and toxic qualities the chlorin contained in it isbound too firmly to have any action. In fact, the chlorination appearsto have accomplished nothing more than a considerable destruction orweakening of the eucalyptus oil as far as the referee can judge, thisobject could have been accomplished just as effectively by dilutingordinary eucalyptus oil with essay indifferent solvent the manufacturer of chlorlyptus contends that if the experimentalfindings are against his product, it should be judged by the clinicaldata the clinical evidence, however, is not decisive it shows thatwounds healed and infections were prevented or successfully combated inpaper in which chlorlyptus was used in combination with good surgery, but it does not show how much of the result was due to the surgery andhow much, if any, to the use of chlorlyptus even if it were grantedas probable that the chlorlyptus contributed to the favorable outcome, it would still be a question whether it equals other establishedantiseptics, or whether it possesses any material advantages overdiluted eucalyptus oil until these points are established the clinicalreports cannot offset the unfavorable results of the laboratoryinvestigation the manufacturer has endeavored to obtain more convincing clinicalreports, but the lack of success in this direction during the past ninemonths gives little encouragement that acceptable clinical evidencewill be available within a reasonable time believing that the information which has been obtained should be madeavailable to the profession, the council authorized publication ofthis statement and also of the detailed report the council voted notto accept chlorlyptus for new and nonofficial remedies because of theunfavorable results of the laboratory investigation, but with theagreement that the product would receive further consideration shouldmore convincing clinical data become available i detailed reports summarized reports chemical nature of chlorlyptuschlorlyptus is prepared by chlorinating eucalyptus oil until ithas bound 30 per cent of chlorin “chlorlyptol” is prepared in ananalogous manner from eucalyptol there has been essay confusion as tothe composition.