History

Self Reflective Essay


To whichdistilled water add two nutmegs sliced, red poppy flowers a pugil, sugar two ounces, set it in the sun to give it a pleasing sharpness;if the sharpness be more than you would have it, put essay of the samewater to it which was not set in the sun aqua juglandium composita or walnut water compound college take of green walnuts a pound and an half, radish roots onepound, green asarabacca six ounces, radish seeds, six ounces let allof them, being bruised, be steeped in three pounds of white wine forthree days, then distilled in a leaden still till they be dry tinctures tinctura croci or tincture of saffron college take two drams of saffron, eight ounces of treacle water, digest them six days, then strain it culpeper see the virtues of treacle water, and then know that thisstrengthens the heart essaything more, and keeps melancholy vapoursthence by drinking a spoonful of it every morning tinctura castorii or tincture of castoreum college take of castoreum in powder half an ounce, spirit ofcastoreum half a pound, digest them ten days cold, strain it, and keepthe liquor for tincture culpeper a learned invention!. ’tis essaything more prevalent thanthe spirit tinctura fragroram or tincture of strawberries college take of ripe wood-strawberries two pounds, put them ina phial, and put so much small spirits of wine to them, that it mayovertop them the thickness of four fingers, stop the vessel close, andset it in the sun two days, then strain it, and press it but gently;pour this spirit to as thesis fresh strawberries, repeat this six times, at last keep the clear liquor for your use culpeper a fine thing for gentlemen that have nothing else to dowith their money, and it will have a lovely look to please their eyes tinctura scordii or tincture of scordium college take of the leaves of scordium gathered in a dry time, half a pound, digest them in six pounds of small spirits of wine, in avessel well stopped, for three days, press them out gently, and repeatthe infusion three times, and keep the clarified liquor for use so is made tincture of celandine, rest-harrow, and rosa-solis culpeper see the herbs for the virtues, and then take notice thatthese are better for cold stomachs, old bodies tinctura theriacalis vulgo aqua theriacalis ludg per infus or tincture of treacle college take of canary wine often times distilled, vinegar in whichhalf an ounce of rue seeds have been boiled, two pounds choice treacle, the best mithridate, of each half a pound. Mix them and set them in thesun, or heat of a bath, digest them, and keep the water for use tinctura cinnamoni, vulgo, aqua clareta cinnam or tincture of cinnamon college take of bruised cinnamon two ounces, rectified spirits ofwine two pounds, infuse them four days in a large glass stopped withcork and bladder, shake it twice a day, then dissolve half a pound ofsugar candy by itself in two pounds of rose water, mix both liquors, into which hang a nodule containing, ambergris half a scruple, muskfour grains tinctura viridis or a green tincture college take of verdigris, half an ounce, auripigmentum sixdrams, alum three drams, boil them in a pound of white wine till halfbe consumed, adding, after it is cold, the water of red roses, andnightshade, of each six ounces culpeper this was made to cleanse ulcers, but i fancy it not aqua aluminosa magistralis college take of plantain and red rose water, of each a pound, rochalum and sublimatum, of each two drams. Let the alum and sublimatum, being in powder, boil in the waters, in a vessel with a narrow mouthtill half be consumed, when it has stood five days, strain it physical wines vinum absynthitis or wormwood wine college take a handful of dried wormwood, for every gallon ofwine, stop it in a vessel close, and so let it remain in steep. So isprepared wine of rosemary flowers, and eye-bright culpeper it helps cold stomachs, breaks wind, helps the windcholic, strengthens the stomach, kills worms, and helps the greensickness rosemary-flower wine, is made after the same manner it is good againstall cold diseases of the head, consumes flegm, strengthens the gums andteeth eye-bright wine is made after the same manner it wonderfully clearsthe sight being drank, and revives the sight of elderly men. A cup ofit in the morning is worth a pair of spectacles all other wines are prepared in the same manner the best way of taking any of these wines is, to drink a draught ofthem every morning you may, if you find your body old or cold, makewine of any other herb, the virtues of which you desire. And make itand take it in the same manner vinum cerassorum nigrorum or wine of black cherries college take a gallon of black cherries, keep it in a vessel closestopped till it begin to work, then filter it, and an ounce of sugarbeing added to every pound, let pass through hippocrates’ sleeve, andkeep in a vessel close stopped for use vinum helleboratum or helleborated wine college take of white hellebore cut small, four ounces, spanishwine two pounds, steep it in the sun in a phial close stopped, in thedog days, or other hot weather vinum rubellum college take of stibium, in powder, one ounce, cloves sliced twodrams, claret wine two pounds, keep it in a phial close shut vinum benedictum college take of crocus metallorum, in powder, one ounce, mace onedram, spanish wine one pound and an half, steep it vinum antimoniale or antimonial wine college take of regulus of antimony, in powder, four ounces, steepit in three pounds of white wine in a glass well stopped, after thefirst shaking let the regulus settle culpeper these last mentioned are vomits, and vomits are fittingmedicines for but a few, the mouth being ordained to take innourishment, not to cast out excrements, and to regulate a man bodyin vomiting. And doses of vomits require a deeper study in physic, than i doubt the generality of people yet have. I omit it therefore atthis time, not because i grudge it my country, but because i would notwillingly have them do themselves a mischief, i shall shortly teachthem in what diseases vomits may be used, and then, and not till then, the use of vomits vinum scilliticum or wine of squills college take of a white squill of the mountains, gathered about therising of the dog star, cut it in thin pieces, and dried for a month, one pound, put it in a glass bottle, and pour to it eight pounds offrench wine, and when it hath stood so four days, take out the squill the virtues of this are the same with vinegar of squills, only it ishotter physical vinegars acetum distillatum or distilled vinegar college fill a glass or stone alembick with the best vinegar to thethird writing, separate the flegm with a gentle fire, then encrease thefire by degrees, and perform the work acetum rosarum or rose vinegar college take of red rose buds, gathered in a dry time, the whitescut off, dried in the shade three or four days, one pound, vinegareight sextaries, set them in the sun forty days, then strain out theroses, and repeat the infusion with fresh ones after the same manner is made vinegar of elder flowers, rosemaryflowers, and clove-gilliflowers culpeper for the virtues of all vinegars, take this one onlyobservation, they carry the same virtues with the flowers whereof theyare made, only as we said of wines, that they were better for coldbodies then the bare simples whereof they are made.

More, i suppose, because it is dear, than because it would do harm amber, viz yellow amber heats and dries, therefore prevailsagainst moist diseases of the head. It helps violent coughs, helpsconsumption of the lungs, spitting of blood, the fluor albus. It stopsbleeding at the nose, helps difficulty of urine. You may take ten ortwenty grains at a time the froth of the sea, it is hot and dry, helps scabs, itch, andleprosy, scald heads, &c it cleanses the skin, helps difficulty ofurine, makes the teeth white, being rubbed with it, the head beingwashed with it, it helps baldness, and trimly decks the head with hair metals, minerals, and stones gold is temperate in quality, it wonderfully strengthens the heart andvital spirits, which one perceiving, very wittily inserted these verses. For gold is cordial. And that the reason, your raking misers live so long a season however, this is certain, in cordials, it resists melancholy, faintings, swoonings, fevers, falling-sickness, and all such likeinfirmities, incident either to the vital or animal spirit alum heats, binds, and purges. Scours filthy ulcers, and fastensloose teeth brimstone, or flower of brimstone, which is brimstone refined, andthe better for physical uses. Helps coughs and rotten flegm. Outwardlyin ointments it takes away leprosies, scabs, and itch. Inwardly ithelps yellow jaundice, as also worms in the belly, especially beingmixed with a little salt-petre. It helps lethargies being snuffed up inthe nose litharge, both of gold and silver. Binds and dries much, fills upulcers with flesh, and heals them lead is of a cold dry earthly quality, of an healing nature. Appliedto the place it helps any inflammation, and dries up humours pompholix, cools, dries and binds jacynth, strengthens the heart being either beaten into powder, andtaken inwardly, or only worn in a ring sapphire, quickens the senses, helps such as are bitten by venomousbeasts, ulcers in the bowels emerald. Called a chaste stone because it resists lust. Being wornin a ring, it helps, or at least mitigates the falling sickness andvertigo.

“for cancer, infectious fevers measles, scarlet fever, typhoid and septicaemia and as a prophylactic ” “protonuclein. An ideal prophylactic for all infectious diseases ” “a true alterative and tissue builder ” “the value of protonuclein depends upon its ability to increase cell power and promote tissue strength it is therefore needed whenever the organism is below the normal standard, more especially in anaemia, typhoid, neoplasms and as a prophylactic ”all the foregoing claims and recommendations are supposed to be basedon certain alleged discoveries which the council has previouslycharacterized as “a tissue of vague speculations in direct conflictwith the known facts of physiologic chemistry ” as for the third claim, hunt and seidell have commented on the danger of recommending thyroid, the most powerful tissue-destroying drug known, as a “tissue builder ”protonuclein beta, it is said. “ combines the reconstructive action of protonuclein with the action of the vital principle of the spleen, making it a distinct product for use in all tubercular troubles, including phthisis, localized joint affections and scrofular conditions ”this product, according to the manufacturers, is based on the work of acertain dr bayle of cannes, france dr bayle said that he had treatedtuberculous patients with fresh ground up spleen of hogs 25-100 gramsper day, mixed with fruit preserve or bouillon. In paper in which thisbrought on gastro-intestinal disorders, extract of the spleen pulp wasadministered hypodermically bayle reported extraordinary improvementsin the physical and mental conditions of his patients even after a fewdays of this treatment. Over 90 per cent of his tuberculous patients, according to him, improved or were cured this applied to all typesand stages of tuberculosis in man “with the spleen pulp treatmenttuberculous glands disappear like syphilis lesions on administration ofmercury and iodids ”this “spleen specific” of bayle lacks scientific foundation. Bayleown paper were not adequately controlled, and no notice has been takenof bayle report by experts on tuberculosis hence it practicallylacks both confirmation and contradiction the spleen is invaded by tubercle bacilli quite as frequently as arethe kidneys and the liver. It has no special toxic action on thesebacilli nor is there any reason to believe that the end products ofgastric and intestinal digestion of spleen pulp, after absorption intothe blood, exert such toxic action it cannot be assumed that theseend products indirectly aid the healing processes through improvedmetabolism, for there is no evidence that they have any specificnutritive or stimulating action after such absorption altogether, whatwe know of the physiology and pathology of the spleen does not warrantus in looking for a “specific” against tuberculosis in this organ if, however, the known facts did justify any hope that the spleenmight furnish such a specific, manufacturers would not be warranted inexploiting or physicians in prescribing spleen products as a remedyfor tuberculosis until control experiments on animals had confirmedthe therapeutic value of these products in a chronic disease liketuberculosis, no conclusions that are scientifically valid can be drawnfrom clinical paper until thesis paper have been observed for yearsunder suitable conditions right here it may be said that the clinical“evidence” offered in favor of protonuclein beta is worthless theobservations which have been reported on this product are not such asto permit any valid final conclusions to be drawn with regard to itsvalue the rational method of proving the worth of an alleged new specificsuch as this is by animal experimentation so far as we know, neitherdr bayle nor the reed and carnrick company has performed any suchexperiments with “spleen pulp” or protonuclein beta. Nor are we awarethat any competent investigator has done so there is, to the best ofour knowledge, no scientific evidence on which to base the claims forprotonuclein beta the council reaffirms its former action with regard to protonuclein the objections made to protonuclein apply with equal force toprotonuclein beta in view of the lack of evidence, the claims forprotonuclein beta are unwarranted and the product is ineligible ton n r on account of noncompliance with rules 1, 6 and 8 -- from thejournal a m a , jan 1, 1916 hydropsin report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary hydropsin is marketed by the ernst bischoff company, inc , new york its composition is thus described. “hydropsin is the standardized dialysate of digitalis purpurea, betula alba, scilla maritima, juniperis communis, and herniaria glabra. Or, stated otherwise, it is the juice of these drugs, dialyzed and physiologically standardized ” “each fluid dram represents digitalysatum 7 gtts , and 2 gtts each of the dialysates of betula, herniaria, juniper and scilla ”the composition of hydropsin must be considered essentially secretsince the amounts of the several constituent drugs in a given amountof “dialysate” are not disclosed the active principle of juniper is avolatile oil which is practically insoluble in water. It is difficultto believe that the “juice” of juniper submitted to dialysis couldcontain any material amount of the active constituent no informationis given as to the method used whereby the several dialysates are“physiologically standardized ” it therefore remains to be provedthat the manufacturer of hydropsin possesses any method whereby thedialysates of juniper juniperis communis, birch betula alba, the common european birch and knot weed herniaria glabra are sostandardized the claim is made that. “herniaria has long been recognized as one of the most valuable drugs in the treatment of dropsical affections due to cardiac impairment ”on the contrary, herniaria belongs to that large class of drugswhich have been tried, found wanting and abandoned it is a very oldremedy, and the claims made for it are an inheritance from the earlyherbalists, with whom it was very popular according to king americandispensatory, it was “principally employed to cure hernia hence itsname and to increase the flow of urine it was also said to increasethe flow of bile internally and externally, it was praised insnake-bites, and the powdered plant was employed to kill maggotson unhealthy sores of horses it was reputed to ‘crush’ and expelcalculi from the kidneys and bladder ”the ernst bischoff company says that. “betula exerts both an antiseptic and stimulating influence on the urinary passages and is writingicularly serviceable where a catarrhal condition of the bladder exists when combined with other diuretics, as in hydropsin, the drug affords highly satisfactory results in the treatment of ascites, cardiac dropsy and hydrothorax ”birch is another drug which has been discarded few textbooks onmateria medica even mention it that it can materially affect theaction of such powerful drugs as squill and digitalis is exceedinglydoubtful an unwarranted implication-- that in this preparation the powerfuldrugs digitalis and squill have been deprived of their dangerousqualities-- is the assertion. “dialysis, removing all resins and colloidals, results in better tolerance on writing of sensitive patients, and in more rapid absorption and elimination. Which, in turn, means early therapeutic effects and little or no fear of toxic accumulation ”that removal of colloids and resins materially affects the toleranceof these drugs is improbable to claim that because of their removal, there need be “little or no fear of toxic accumulation” is utterlywithout warrant the claim that one preparation containing digitalisis less likely to produce cumulative effect than any other digitalispreparation is contradicted by a mass of evidence it is claimed that hydropsin affects “favorably all forms of dropsyor edema that are at all amenable to medical treatment ” there can beno question but that squill and digitalis, or, better, either singly, used in suitable paper, may relieve dropsical effusions. But to claimthat such a complex mixture as hydropsin can favorably affect allforms of dropsy that are amenable to medical treatment is on its faceunwarranted the claim is made that.

“theunconstitutionality asserted consists in its the statutes allegedconflict with the clause of the fourteenth self reflective essay amendment, which declaresthat no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law. The denial to the defendant of the right topractise his profession, without the certificate required, constitutingthe deprivation of his vested right and estate in his profession, whichhe had previously acquired “it is undoubtedly the right of every citizen of the united statesto follow any lawful calling, business, or profession he may choose, subject only to such restrictions as are imposed upon all personsof like age, sex, and condition this right may in thesis respects beconsidered as a distinguishing feature of our republican institutions here all vocations are open to every one on like conditions all maybe pursued as sources of livelihood, essay requiring years of study andgreat learning for their successful prosecution the interest, or, as it is essaytimes termed, the estate acquired in them, that is, theright to continue their prosecution, is often of great value to thepossessors, and cannot be arbitrarily taken from them, any more thantheir real or personal property can be thus taken but there is noarbitrary deprivation of such right where its exercise is not permittedbecause of a failure to comply with conditions imposed by the statefor the protection of society the power of the state to provide forthe general welfare of its people authorizes it to prescribe all suchregulations as, in its judgment, will secure or tend to secure themagainst the consequences of ignorance and incapacity as well as ofdeception and fraud as one means to this end it has been the practiceof different states, from time immemorial, to exact in thesis pursuitsa certain degree of skill and learning upon which the community mayconfidently rely, their possession being generally ascertained uponan examination of the writingies by competent persons, or inferred froma certificate to them in the form of a diploma or license from aninstitution established for instruction on the subjects, scientificand otherwise, with which such pursuits have to deal the nature andextent of the qualifications required must depend primarily upon thejudgment of the state as to their necessity if they are appropriateto the calling or profession, and attainable by reasonable study orapplication, no objection to their validity can be raised because oftheir stringency or difficulty it is only when they have no relationto such calling or profession, or are unattainable by such reasonablestudy and application, that they can operate to deprive one of hisright to pursue a lawful vocation “few professions require more careful preparation by one who seeksto enter it than that of medicine it has to deal with all thosesubtle and mysterious influences upon which health and life depend, and requires not only a knowledge of the properties of vegetable andmineral substances, but of the human body in all its complicatedwritings, and their relation to each other, as well as their influenceupon the mind the physician must be able to detect readily thepresence of disease, and prescribe appropriate remedies for itsremoval every one may have occasion to consult him, but comparativelyfew can judge of the qualifications of learning and skill which hepossesses reliance must be placed upon the assurance given by hislicense, issued by an authority competent to judge in that respect, that he possesses the requisite qualifications due consideration, therefore, for the protection of society, may well induce the state toexclude from practice those who have not such a license, or who arefound upon examination not to be fully qualified the same reasonswhich control in imposing conditions, upon compliance with which thephysician is allowed to practise in the first instance, may call forfurther conditions as new modes of treating disease are discovered, ora more thorough acquaintance is obtained of the remedial propertiesof vegetable and mineral substances, or a more accurate knowledgeis acquired of the human system and of the agencies by which it isaffected it would not be deemed a matter for serious discussion thata knowledge of the new acquisitions of the profession, as it from timeto time advances in its attainments for the relief of the sick andsuffering, should be required for continuance in its practice, butfor the earnestness with which the plaintiff in error insists that, by being compelled to obtain the certificate required, and preventedfrom continuing in his practice without it, he is deprived of his rightand estate in his profession without due process of law we perceivenothing in the statute which indicates an intention of the legislatureto deprive one of any of his rights no one has a right to practisemedicine without having the necessary qualifications of learning andskill. And the statute only requires that whoever assumes, by offeringto the community his services as a physician, that he possesses suchlearning and skill, shall present evidence of it by a certificate orlicense from a body designated by the state as competent to judge ofhis qualifications as we have said on more than one occasion, it maybe difficult, if not impossible, to give to the terms ‘due processof law’ a definition which will embrace every permissible exertionof power affecting private rights and exclude such as are forbidden they come to us from the law of england, from which country ourjurisprudence is to a great extent derived, and their requirementwas there designed to secure the subject against the arbitraryaction of the crown and place him under the protection of the law they were deemed to be equivalent to ‘the law of the land ’ in thiscountry the requirement is intended to have a similar effect againstlegislative power, that is, to secure the citizen against any arbitrarydeprivation of his rights, whether relating to his life, his liberty, or his property legislation must necessarily vary with the differentobjects upon which it is designed to operate it is sufficient, forthe purposes of this case, to say that legislation is not open to thecharge of depriving one of his rights without due process of law, ifit be general in its operation upon the subjects to which it relates, and is enforceable in the usual modes established in the administrationof government with respect to kindred matters. That is, by process orproceedings adapted to the nature of the case ”early common-law rule concerning suits by physicians the common-law rule was that the physician could not sue and recoverfor his services, though he might for the medicines he furnished thetheory of the law followed the etiquette of his profession and forbadehim from making a specific contract for pay for his services, andobliged him to receive what his patient chose to give him, which wascalled his “honorarium ”the early common-law rule no longer in force - as time went on thistheory vanished from the law for thesis years it has lost its placeamong the rules of professional etiquette in its stead statutoryprovisions have been adopted which forbid a recovery for servicesperformed by persons not legally authorized to practise the right tocontract with the patient or with those who employ the medical man, andhis remedies to enforce such contracts, will be treated of hereafter statutory regulations in new york state - most of the states of theunited states have enacted statutory regulations prescribing in oneform or another the necessary qualifications which entitle a physicianor surgeon to practise, and prescribing penalties for practisingwithout having complied with such statutory requirements in the stateof new york such matters were regulated for the first time by statutein 1787 this was followed by a general enactment on the subject ofthe organization of county medical societies, and of state medicalsocieties having boards of censors, to whom was committed the power toexamine applicants for license to practise, and of issuing licenses laws of 1813, p 94 this law remained in force, with certainmodifications, until 1844, when all acts regulating the practiceof medicine and surgery were repealed a history of the statutoryregulations in new york state up to the act of 1844 on this subjectwill be found in the case of bailey v mogg, 4 denio, 60 154at the time of the passage of the act of 1813, and for thesis yearsafterward, nearly all of the physicians in new york state practisedin accordance with the theories and precepts of what is now calledthe regular or allopathic school of medicine that act provided thatthe physicians in the respective counties of the state of new yorkshould meet in the respective counties and organize county medicalsocieties as a consequence of the fact that the physicians of that daywere chiefly of the allopathic school, they necessarily obtained thecontrol of the county medical societies and state medical societies hence it became difficult, if not impossible, for physicians whowished to practise upon other theories and tenets than those obtainingin that school, to obtain licenses to do so with the growth of thehomœopathic school of medicine and the eclectic school of medicine, came applications to the legislature asking for those practising underthose schools the same rights and privileges of organizing county andstate societies as had been extended to physicians generally by theact of 1813. So that in 1857, by chapter 384, the legislature of newyork state enacted that the homœopathic physicians might meet in theirrespective counties and organize county medical societies, with boardsof censors having the same powers and privileges which were granted bythe act of 1813. And by other laws similar privileges were granted tothe so-called eclectic school after the passage of the act of 1844, down to about 1874, as hereinbefore stated, there was no limitationupon the right to practise medicine or surgery in this state the inharmonious and injurious effect of such policy of the statebecoming manifest, the legislature, by chapter 436 of laws of 1874, required all persons desiring to practise medicine or surgery toobtain a certificate as to their qualifications from the censors ofessay one of these medical societies by the laws of 1880, chapter 513, additional and more extensive and writingicular provisions were made inreference to this matter, and all the physicians then practising wererequired, on or before the time limited in the act, to file with thecounty clerks of their respective counties their licenses to practisegranted by the censors of their county medical societies, or a diplomaof essay chartered school of medicine. And those persons who desiredto become licensed who were not in practice were likewise required toobtain similar licenses or certificates and file the same a diplomaof a chartered school or medical college was given the same effect as alicense issued by the censors recent legislation in new york state - the whole matter, however, of licensing physicians to practise has, in the state of new york, been recently regulated by chapter 468, laws of 1889, and 499 of 1890, which have reference to the qualifications of persons becoming medicalstudents, and chapter 507 of 1890, which gives to the regents of theuniversity of the state of new york power to select boards of examinersfrom persons nominated by each of the three state medical societies, viz , the new york state medical society, homœopathic medical society, and eclectic medical society these boards prepare questions which areto be approved by the state board of regents. Examinations are heldin different writings of the state upon these questions, the examinationpapers are certified to that one of these boards of examiners whichthe student may elect, and that board in turn certifies whether ornot the examination has been successfully undergone. And upon itscertificate the board of regents licenses the student to practise, andhis examination papers are filed in the office of the board of regentsand become a matter of record these provisions have been enlarged andmodified slightly by various statutes since enacted they are all nowembodied in chapter 601 of laws of 1893 they will be found carefullysynopsized below penal provisions in new york state - the new york penal code, whichwent into effect in 1882, enacted that a person practising medicine orsurgery, or pretending to be a physician or surgeon, without a licenseor a diploma from essay chartered school, should be deemed guilty of amisdemeanor punishable by fine or imprisonment penal code, section356. And the same statute, 357, made it a misdemeanor for a person, whether licensed or not, to practise medicine or surgery, or do anyother act as a physician or surgeon, while intoxicated, by which thelife of any person is endangered or his health seriously affected 155giving “patented” medicines no exception - at one time an attempt wasmade to claim, that under the patent laws of the united states a personhad the right to administer patent medicines without being punishablefor practising without a license, but this doctrine was repudiated bythe courts thompson v staats, 15 wend , 395. Jordan v overseers, etc , 4 ohio, 295 courts may compel granting of license - a person who is qualifiedand complies with reasonable rules of a licensing body, can compelsuch body to license him this was held to be the law in the case ofthe people ex rel bartlett v the medical society of the countyof erie, which is also an important authority in respect to a vexedquestion of medical ethics it appeared in that case that under thegeneral laws of new york in regard to the organization of medicalsocieties, a medical society had refused to receive as a member aperson otherwise qualified, because he had advertised in the publicprints a certain cure, including a mechanical appliance used intreating throat troubles. It being forbidden by the code of ethics ofthe american medical association, which the county medical societyhad adopted as one of its by-laws, that a physician or surgeon shouldadvertise the court of appeals of the state of new york held that thisconstituted no defence to a proceeding instituted by such person toobtain a mandamus compelling the society to admit him to membership, ifotherwise qualified 156it has also been decided that a medical society had no right to makea by-law establishing a fixed fee-bill, or tariff of charges, andproviding for the expulsion of a member charging at a different ratethan that prescribed such a by-law was declared unreasonable and voidin the case of people v medical society of erie county, 24 barb , 570 the effect of these decisions was, so far as they affect the validityof by-laws, attempted to be avoided in that state by chapter 445 oflaws of 1866, by which it is expressly enacted that the county medicalsocieties of the state of new york may make such rules and by-laws asthey see fit, “not inconsistent with the laws of said state, and mayenforce them by expulsion or other discipline ” it may be considereddoubtful whether this legislation can accomplish its purpose in thecase of the adoption of a by-law void as against public policy no writingicular schools recognized by the courts - the general trend ofthe decisions in all the states, whenever any questions in referenceto schools of medicine have been before our courts, is to avoidrecognizing any writingicular system or school the theory of the newyork courts upon this subject is well expressed by the liberal-mindedand learned judge daly in the new york court of common pleas, in thecase of corsi v maretzek, 4 e d smith, 1-5 in that case it wasclaimed that a certificate of incapacity because of sickness, givenby a “homœopathic” physician to an opera-singer, was not binding itwas argued that the employment of a “homœopathic” physician under thecontract did not fulfil a provision thereof which required the event ofthe singer sickness to be certified to by “a doctor, ” to be appointedby the director the court said. “the system pursued by the practitioner is immaterial the law has nothing to do with writingicular systems their relativemerit may become the subject of inquiry, when the skill or ability ofa practitioner in any given case is to be passed upon as a matter offact but the law does not, and cannot, supply any positive rules forthe interpretation of medical science it is not one of those certainor exact sciences in which truths become established and fixed, butis essentially progressive in its nature, enlarging with the growthof human experience, and subject to those changes and revolutionsincident to any branch of human inquiry, the laws of which are notfully ascertained the labors of the anatomist, the physiologist, andthe chemist have contributed an immense storehouse of facts. But themanner in which this knowledge is to be applied in the treatment andcure of diseases has been, and will probably continue to be, open todiversity of opinion no one system of practice has been uniformlyfollowed, but physicians from the days of hippocrates have been dividedinto opposing sects and schools the sects of the dogmatists and theempirics divided the ancient world for centuries, until the rise ofthe methodics, who, in their turn, gave way to innumerable sects theories of practice, believed to be infallible in one age, have beenutterly rejected in another for thirteen centuries europe yieldedto the authority of galen he was implicitly followed his practicestrictly pursued everything that seemed to conflict with his preceptswas rejected. And yet, in the revolutions of medical opinion, theworks of this undoubtedly great man were publicly burned by paracelsusand his disciples.

  • homework help now
  • buy mla essays
  • a problem solution essay
  • essay writing help for cheap please
  • homework helps students
  • write my essay geek
  • personal narrative essay examples high school
  • custom essay writing canada
  • college essay format examples
  • persuasive essay powerpoint
  • assignments for sale
  • no prlagiarism paper writing service
  • probability homework help
  • sample persuasive essay
  • persuasive essay on bullying
  • how to write your college essay
  • ib extended essay examples
  • can anyone do my homework
  • reflection essay
  • best college paper writing service
  • crucible essay

The juice of the root put intothe nostrils, purges the head, helps self reflective essay the noise in the ears, and thetooth-ache. The juice snuffed up the nose, helps a stinking breath, ifthe cause lie in the nose, as thesis times it does, if any bruise hasbeen there. As also want of smell coming that way water betony called also brown-wort, and in yorkshire, bishop-leaves descript first, of the water betony, which rises up with square, hard, greenish stalks, essaytimes brown, set with broad dark greenleaves dented about the edges with notches essaywhat resembling theleaves of the wood betony, but much larger too, for the most writing setat a joint the flowers are thesis, set at the tops of the stalks andbranches, being round bellied and open at the brims, and divided intotwo writings, the uppermost being like a hood, and the lowermost like ahip hanging down, of a dark red colour, which passing, there comes intheir places small round heads with small points at the ends, whereinlie small and brownish seeds. The root is a thick bush of strings andshreds, growing from the head place it grows by the ditch side, brooks and other water-courses, generally through this land, and is seldom found far from thewater-side time it flowers about july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues water betony is an herb of jupiter incancer, and is appropriated more to wounds and hurts in the breastthan wood betony, which follows. It is an excellent remedy for sickhogs it is of a cleansing quality the leaves bruised and applied areeffectual for all old and filthy ulcers. And especially if the juice ofthe leaves be boiled with a little honey, and dipped therein, and thesores dressed therewith.