History

Self Introduction Essay


we doubt it that we, whethersage or fool, are humbugged is undeniable we are humbugged justto the extent that we are ignorant there lies one of the mostpowerful factors operating to the advantage of the “patent medicine”maker and the quack the layman ignorance of the possibilities andlimitations of drugs is wide and deep hence the ease with which heis fooled on this subject a seeming frankness in advertising beingthe order of the day, the nostrum maker makes a pretense of tellingwhat is in his stuff without disclosing any facts that will tend tolift the veil of mystery and thus destroy his greatest asset so theexploiter of nostrums to the medical profession, realizing that atleast a pretense must be made of giving the composition of medicamentsoffered to the physician, declares that his clay poultice has for itsbase “anhydrous and levigated argillaceous mineral ” this sounds muchmore imposing than dry and finely powdered clay, and satisfies by itsvery sonorousness now comes a product exploited chiefly to membersof the dental profession but also, it seems, to physicians tablets, “activated tablets, ” if you please!. they are “an anodyne, analgesicfebrifuge sedative, exorcising sic!. antineuralgic and antirheumaticaction ” and their composition?. simply “an activated, balancedcombination of the mono-acetyl-derivative of para-amidophenetoltogether with a feebly basic substance in the alkaloidal state from thethea-sinensis ” as clear as the missouri river!. essay day essay dentistor physician is going to investigate and find that this awe-inspiring, polysyllabic example of exuberant verbosity means nothing moremysterious than our old friends acetphenetidin phenacetin andcaffein in the meantime, the exploiters may smile softly and murmur, “barnum was right!. ”-- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 1, 1921 the pharmacopeia the ninth decennial revisionthe ninth revision of the united states pharmacopeia became officialthis week, sept 1, 1916 it is more fully reviewed elsewhere;303here we desire merely to call attention to two points. What the bookis and what it is not it is a book of standards for drugs. It isnot a book of standard remedies the committee of revision of thepharmacopeia included physicians and pharmacists retail, wholesaleand manufacturing, but the pharmacists were in the majority andin control the majority of the representatives of the medicalprofession on this committee would have preferred to see the bulkof the pharmacopeia reduced and its value as a work of referenceenhanced by the rejection of therapeutically worthless drugs therepresentatives of commercial interests, on the other hand, argued thatit was necessary for the pharmacopeia to provide standards for drugsin more or less general use, whether worthless or otherwise the forceof this argument is essaywhat impaired by the fact that the nationalformulary, which has also been made a book of legal standards, nowincludes individual drugs as well as combinations.

But new leaves spring every year government and virtues jupiter claims dominion over this herb, therefore it is a singular remedy for the liver, both to strengthen itwhen weak, and ease it when afflicted, you shall do well to keep itin a syrup all the year. For though authors say it is green all theyear, i scarcely believe it hart tongue is much commended againstthe hardness and stoppings of the spleen and liver, and against theheat of the liver and stomach, and against lasks, and the bloody-flux the distilled water thereof is also very good against the passionsof the heart, and to stay the hiccough, to help the falling of thepalate, and to stay the bleeding of the gums, being gargled in themouth dioscorides saith, it is good against the stinging or biting ofserpents as for the use of it, my direction at the latter end will besufficient, and enough for those that are studious in physic, to whettheir brains upon for one year or two hazel-nut hazel nuts are so well known to every body, that they need nodescription government and virtues they are under the dominion of mercury the writinged kernels made into an electuary, or the milk drawn from thekernels with mead or honeyed water, is very good to help an old cough;and being parched, and a little pepper put to them and drank, digeststhe distillations of rheum from the head the dried husks and shells, to the weight of two drams, taken in red wine, stays lasks and womencourses, and so doth the red skin that covers the kernels, which ismore effectual to stay women courses and if this be true, as it is, then why should the vulgar so familiarlyaffirm, that eating nuts causes shortness of breath, than which nothingis falser?. for, how can that which strengthens the lungs, causeshortness of breath?. i confess, the opinion is far older than i am. Iknew tradition was a friend to error before, but never that he wasthe father of slander. Or are men tongues so given to slander oneanother, that they must slander nuts too, to keep their tongues in use?. If any writing of the hazel nut be stopping, it is the husks and shells, and no one is so mad as to eat them unless physically. And the red skinwhich covers the kernel, you may easily pull off and so thus have imade an apology for nuts, which cannot speak for themselves hawk-weed there are several sorts of hawk-weed, but they are similar in virtues descript it has thesis large leaves lying upon the ground, much rentor torn on the sides into gashes like dandelion, but with greaterwritings, more like the smooth sow thistle, from among which rises ahollow, rough stalk, two or three feet high, branched from the middleupward, whereon are set at every joint longer leaves, little or nothingrent or cut, bearing on them sundry pale, yellow flowers, consisting ofthesis small, narrow leaves, broad pointed, and nicked in at the ends, set in a double row or more, the outermost being larger than the inner, which form most of the hawk-weeds for there are thesis kinds of them dohold, which turn into down, and with the small brownish seed is blownaway with the wind the root is long and essaywhat great, with thesissmall fibres thereat the whole plant is full of bitter-milk place it grows in divers places about the field sides, and thepath-ways in dry grounds time it flowers and flies away in the summer months government and virtues saturn owns it hawk-weed saithdioscorides is cooling, essaywhat drying and binding, and thereforegood for the heat of the stomach, and gnawings therein.

Ibid , xxvii , 1877, pp 239-244 - woman strangulated bythe bands of her nightcap 26 isnard and dieu. Rev cas jud , paris, 1841, p 101 - man, age 65 marks of fingers on face and neck opinion that he had beenassaulted by two men the two murderers confessed 27 friedberg. Gericht gutacht , 1875, pp 211-224 - woman foundhanging to branch of tree, but in half-lying position, feet on ground opinion given that she had been strangled and then hung 26 tardieu. “pendaison, ” p 223 - new-born infant question whetherits death was due to asphyxia from compression of neck by the motherwith her hand to hasten delivery he doubted the possibility of themother thus assisting her child but the direction of the sevenexcoriations on its face contradicted the mother statement thetraces of finger-nails were distinct the lungs and alimentary canalshowed that the child had lived opinion given, infanticide 29 ibid , p 219 - woman, advanced in years, habits dissipated;found strangled four excoriations on left side of larynx, one onright. Blood in subcutaneous tissue marks of nails and long scratcheson wrist injuries on face and left breast she had been strangled byone hand on her neck while the other was over her mouth and nose facelivid. Eyes congested. Frothy bloody liquid flowing from mouth andnose. Tongue behind teeth. Bloody froth in larynx and trachea. Lungslarge, much congested, splenized in places, surface emphysematous, looking like white spots. Black fluid blood in heart.

Both guinea-pigs showed marked congestion and a moderate degree of exudate in the peritoneum self introduction essay experiment 17 -- toxic and virulent action of eucalyptus -- three normal guinea-pigs were selected for the experiment, as in experiment 16 the injection was made in the pleural cavity guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of eucalyptus oil result. Guinea-pig 1 died the following day, and guinea-pig 2 one hour after the injection experiment 18 -- toxic and irritant action of dichloramin-t, 0 5 per cent in chlorcozane -- one guinea-pig was used for each experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of dichloramin-t peritoneally result. Both animals became restless immediately after the injection, and died twelve hours after of acute hemorrhagic peritonitis experiment 19 -- effect of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus suspended in salt solution and one of that solution injected into the peritoneum of the guinea-pig -- three guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c of staphylococcus suspension as control guinea-pig 2 was given the same, and immediately after received 1 c c of chlorlyptus guinea-pig 3 was injected with the same amount, and chlorlyptus was injected twenty-four hours after injection results. Guinea-pig 1 was sick and weak with loss of appetite for essay days, but gradually recovered guinea-pig 2 died over night autopsy. There was a large amount of exudate in the peritoneal cavity, irritation of the intestine, and other signs of acute inflammation a moderate degree of congestion. Spleen not enlarged. Liver showed cloudy swelling and fibrinous exudate. Lungs and heart about normal except for a moderate degree of congestion but no exudate guinea-pig 3 was sick for essay days, but recovered gradually one week after experiment 20 -- effect of chlorlyptus in vivo on staphylococcus -- the experiment was conducted in the same way as in experiment 17, but 2 c c were used instead of 1 c c result. Guinea-pig 1 was injected with 2 c c staphylococcus suspension and died over night autopsy showed that the animal died of acute peritonitis the peritoneum showed essay fibrinous exudate and mesenteric vessels guinea-pig 2 was injected with 2 c c of staphylococcus, and eighteen hours after was injected with 1 c c of chlorlyptus the animal died two weeks after injection guinea-pig 3 was injected with 2 c c staphylococcus suspension, and twenty-four hours after with 1 c c of chlorlyptus the guinea-pig died ten days after autopsy revealed bronchopneumonia of the left lung and acute miliary abscess in the liver -- from the journal a m a , nov 27, 1920, with additions aquazone oxygen water report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryaquazone is stated by the aquazone laboratories, inc , los angeles, california, to be a supersaturated solution of oxygen in water, carrying approximately five and one-half times as much dissolved oxygenas ordinary water in an advertising booklet, it is suggested thataquazone is of value in the treatment of influenza, pneumonia, typhoid, bright disease and kindred disorders it was also stated thereinthat in the treatment of fevers it lowers the temperature, and thatthe administration of three bottles of aquazone representing 0 033gm -- 1-1/2 grain-- of oxygen is of value for “preventive and tonicpurposes ”the evidence which the aquazone laboratories submitted did not showthat the effects were other than those which might be obtained from theadministration of ordinary potable water the council declared aquazoneinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, because the therapeuticclaims made for it were unwarranted, and because its use is irrationalfor the reason that oxygen given by stomach in this way is of littleor no value -- abstracted from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1920, p 50 coagulen-ciba omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportannouncing the deletion of coagulen-ciba from new and nonofficialremedies w a puckner, secretary coagulen-ciba, a product of the society of chemical industry, basle, switzerland, was admitted to new and nonofficial remedies in 1915 it is stated to be an extract prepared from blood platelets and tocontain thromboplastic substances cytozym, thrombokinase, thrombozymmixed with lactose extensive clinical reports appeared to justify itsacceptance for new and nonofficial remedies with fibrin ferments andthromboplastic substances in 1918, dr arthur d hirschfelder reported to the council that ofa number of specimens of coagulen-ciba examined by him, failed toaccelerate the coagulation time of blood in view of dr hirschfelder findings, the therapeutic researchcommittee of the council invited dr p j hanzlik to undertake anexhaustive investigation of thromboplastic substances, the council, in the meantime temporarily retaining coagulen in new and nonofficialremedies until the investigation was completed the following report on the eligibility of coagulen-ciba was made tothe council by dr hanzlik. Object. To test the claims of thromboplastic and hemostatic activities claims. Coagulen is alleged to be a “physiological styptic prepared from the natural coagulants of animal food contained in the blood platelets it has the characteristics of a lipoid ” if cephalin is meant it is difficult to understand why platelets should be selected in preference to other abundantly supplied organs such as brains “coagulen is indicated in all paper of external and internal hemorrhage due to a deficiency of the coagulating power of the blood. Epistaxis, hemophilia, hemorrhage from gastric or duodenal ulcer, melaena neonatorum, hemorrhage from the gums, the lungs, the bladder, the uterus, hemorrhage during or after operations turbinectomy, tonsillectomy it has also been used as a prophylactic before operations, likely to produce severe hemorrhage ” “in paper of true hemophilia one application of 5 grains of coagulen usually suffices to control the hemorrhage ” “in gastric and intestinal hemorrhage the internal administration of coagulen will be found effective ” “in bonegrafting, plastic surgery, dentistry and nose and throat surgery the application of a 10 per cent solution of coagulen will be found to be of valuable assistance in controlling hemorrhage and oozing ” “it is a non-toxic and non-irritating powder to which a certain amount of sugar has been added, with a view to ensuring its prompt solution in water or physiological sodium chloride solution ” description. “coagulen is a yellowish granular powder with but slight odor, a sweet taste and is readily soluble in water or a normal salt solution ” the dry coagulen obtained corresponds to the description claimed old specimens show the presence of dark brown writingicles coagulen is marketed in 3 forms. 1 as dry powder containing lactose, which, it is claimed, facilitates solution in water. 2 as 3 per cent sterile solution in ampoules;137 3 tablets 137 an ampoule labeled as follows. “coagulen-ciba, 20 c c in sterile solution ready for use to be shaken importé de suisse op no 968” was found to measure only 15 c c another ampoule with the same label and op no 9641 contained considerable sediment methods of study. The alleged thromboplastic activity was tested by the method of howell and a modification of this method by fenger as described in “new and nonofficial remedies ” in the howell method dog or cat blood is used, while beef blood at body temperature is used in fenger method in other respects the methods are essentially the same briefly these consist of noting the acceleration of coagulation time in a mixture of equal writings of serum and the thromboplastic agent to which about an equal writing of oxalate plasma is added under these conditions cephalin causes clotting in about 1 minute or even less as compared with 20 to 30 minutes or more of the control the effects were compared with freshly prepared cephalin and other thromboplastic agents, using saline 0 9 per cent nacl as control the effect of different concentrations was also studied the literature of the manufacturers claims that coagulen is harmless this was tested by making intravenous and subcutaneous injections into guinea-pigs, using saline and cephalin as controls bloods of 4 different species were used, namely, cat, dog, beef and human dog peptonized blood and plasma were also tried the 15 different tests that were made in vitro were carried out with 3 different samples of fresh dry coagulen from manufacturer, 2 old samples one from council on pharmacy and chemistry and one of our own, 3 fresh specimens of sterile solution in ampoules from manufacturer, one old specimen and 4 small ampoules council on pharmacy and chemistry the tablets were not tested since these are made from dry coagulen and the results would hardly be expected to show anything different results.

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There was a large amount of exudate in the peritoneal cavity, irritation of the intestine, and other signs of acute inflammation a moderate degree of congestion. Spleen not enlarged. Liver showed cloudy swelling and fibrinous exudate. Lungs and heart about normal except for a moderate degree of congestion but no exudate guinea-pig 3 was sick for essay days, but recovered gradually one week after experiment 20 -- effect of chlorlyptus in vivo on staphylococcus -- the experiment was conducted in the same way as in experiment 17, but 2 c c were used instead of 1 c c result. Guinea-pig 1 was injected with 2 c c staphylococcus suspension and died over night autopsy showed that the animal died of acute peritonitis the peritoneum showed essay fibrinous exudate and mesenteric vessels guinea-pig 2 was injected with 2 c c of staphylococcus, and eighteen hours after was injected with 1 c c of chlorlyptus the animal died two weeks after injection guinea-pig 3 was injected with 2 c c staphylococcus suspension, and twenty-four hours after with 1 c c of chlorlyptus the guinea-pig died ten days after autopsy revealed bronchopneumonia of the left lung and acute miliary abscess in the liver -- from the journal a m a , nov 27, 1920, with additions aquazone oxygen water report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryaquazone is stated by the aquazone laboratories, inc , los angeles, california, to be a supersaturated solution of oxygen in water, carrying approximately five and one-half times as much dissolved oxygenas ordinary water in an advertising booklet, it is suggested thataquazone is of value in the treatment of influenza, pneumonia, typhoid, bright disease and kindred disorders it was also stated thereinthat in the treatment of fevers it lowers the temperature, and thatthe administration of three bottles of aquazone representing 0 033gm -- 1-1/2 grain-- of oxygen is of value for “preventive and tonicpurposes ”the evidence which the aquazone laboratories submitted did not showthat the effects were other than those which might be obtained from theadministration of ordinary potable water the council declared aquazoneinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, because the therapeuticclaims made for it were unwarranted, and because its use is irrationalfor the reason that oxygen given by stomach in this way is of littleor no value -- abstracted from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1920, p 50 coagulen-ciba omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportannouncing the deletion of coagulen-ciba from new and nonofficialremedies w a puckner, secretary coagulen-ciba, a product of the society of chemical industry, basle, switzerland, was admitted to new and nonofficial remedies in 1915 it is stated to be an extract prepared from blood platelets and tocontain thromboplastic substances cytozym, thrombokinase, thrombozymmixed with lactose extensive clinical reports appeared to justify itsacceptance for new and nonofficial remedies with fibrin ferments andthromboplastic substances in 1918, dr arthur d hirschfelder reported to the council that ofa number of specimens of coagulen-ciba examined by him, failed toaccelerate the coagulation time of blood in view of dr hirschfelder findings, the therapeutic researchcommittee of the council invited dr p j hanzlik to undertake anexhaustive investigation of thromboplastic substances, the council, in the meantime temporarily retaining coagulen in new and nonofficialremedies until the investigation was completed the following report on the eligibility of coagulen-ciba was made tothe council by dr hanzlik. Object. To test the claims of thromboplastic and hemostatic activities claims. Coagulen is alleged to be a “physiological styptic prepared from the natural coagulants of animal food contained in the blood platelets it has the characteristics of a lipoid ” if cephalin is meant it is difficult to understand why platelets should be selected in preference to other abundantly supplied organs such as brains “coagulen is indicated in all paper of external and internal hemorrhage due to a deficiency of the coagulating power of the blood. Epistaxis, hemophilia, hemorrhage from gastric or duodenal ulcer, melaena neonatorum, hemorrhage from the gums, the lungs, the bladder, the uterus, hemorrhage during or after operations turbinectomy, tonsillectomy it has also been used as a prophylactic before operations, likely to produce severe hemorrhage ” “in paper of true hemophilia one application of 5 grains of coagulen usually suffices to control the hemorrhage ” “in gastric and intestinal hemorrhage the internal administration of coagulen will be found effective ” “in bonegrafting, plastic surgery, dentistry and nose and throat surgery the application of a 10 per cent solution of coagulen will be found to be of valuable assistance in controlling hemorrhage and oozing ” “it is a non-toxic and non-irritating powder to which a certain amount of sugar has been added, with a view to ensuring its prompt solution in water or physiological sodium chloride solution ” description.