History

Scholarship Essay Outline


“fifteen writings of the remedy contain 0 5 writings scholarship essay outline oxysaponin, 1 5 writings tincture of digitalis, 2 5 writings tincture of strophanthus, scillipicrin and scillitoxin, the active principles of scilla maritima, and alcohol ”it is not clear from this statement whether 15 writings of hydragogincontain 2 5 writings of tincture of strophanthus, plus unspecifiedamounts of scillipicrin and scillitoxin, or 2 5 writings of a mixture, in unspecified proportions, of tincture of strophanthus, scillipicrinand scillitoxin the activity of strophanthus, after it enters theblood stream, is about fifty times that of digitalis. Hence, if theformer proportion is the true one, in giving an amount of hydragoginwhich ensures the full therapeutic effect of the digitalis, one wouldadminister an almost certainly fatal amount of strophanthus whateverthe proportion of strophanthus may be, however, the administrationof a mixture of digitalis and strophanthus in fixed proportions isindefensible at times it is advisable to follow one of these drugswith the other in the treatment of cardiac disease the simultaneousadministration of the two continuously in fixed proportions, however, is injudicious, because of the great difference between their rates ofabsorption and in their activity after they enter the blood stream theaction of digitalis, moreover, persists much longer than does that ofstrophanthus an advertising circular contains the following claim. “the well-known diuretic properties of digitalis, strophanthus and squills are greatly enhanced by the addition of the oxysaponin ”this is not true saponins are not synergistic with digitalistherapeutically. On the contrary, they exert a purely deleteriousaction on the heart when they enter the circulation the symptoms of cardiac disease are often difficult to distinguishfrom the toxic actions of the digitalis bodies since these bodiesmust often be given to the point of beginning toxic action in orderto induce the full therapeutic effects, it is obvious that theadministration of a mixture of digitalis, strophanthus, saponin andactive principles of squill is especially liable to induce serioustoxic effects which cannot be distinguished from the symptoms of thedisease hydragogin is a shotgun mixture of semisecret composition. It ismarketed under a therapeutically suggestive name, and advertised bymeans of unwarranted therapeutic claims it is therefore in conflictwith rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 the council held hydragogin ineligible fornew and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 4, 1915 filudine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfiludine is said to be prepared by j l chatelain, paris, and issold in this country by geo j wallau, inc , new york it is offeredas a remedy for “biliary insufficiency, ” “hepatic insufficiency, ”“intestinal dyspepsia, ” “all affections of the liver diabetes, cirrhosis, cancer, etc , ” “malaria, ” “obesity” and “tuberculosis ”no quantitative information is furnished as to the composition of thepreparation and there are noteworthy discrepancies in the variousstatements regarding the ingredients in one number of “treatment, ”a self-styled “review” of medical literature actually devoted toadvertising the preparations sold by wallau, we are told that “this product filudine is a more concentrated and potent extract of the liver, with which is combined an extract of the spleen the liver and the spleen are so intimately interdependent, that the addition of a splenary extract to the liver extract is a signal improvement from which a synergistic action results thiarféine is also added, as it helps essaywhat to combat the anaemia from which all diabetics suffer more or less ”thiarféine is said to be “thiomethylarsinate of caffein, a new salt discovered by m chatelain ”another circular, which gives an imposing formula for “thiarféine” or“thiomethylarsinate of caffein, ” states that “sulphurated methylarsinate is an arsenical preparation devoid of all toxicity on account of the intimate joining of its composing writings ”and that “filudine can never be contraindicated ”a statement of composition in a later number of “treatment, ” however, says that biliary extracts are components, in addition to the liver andspleen extracts moreover, thiarféine, the “new salt discovered by m chatelain, ” is no longer “thiomethylarsinate, ” but “thiocinnamate ofcaffein”. And a new formula is furnished for it we are told that “methyl-arsinate cannot be used in paper where fever is present ” “m chatelain at first studied the action of thiomethylarsinate.

“not a new-born prodigy or an untried experiment, but a remedy whose usefulness has been fully demonstrated during half a century of clinical application ”these advertisements show that the exploiters of fellows’ syrup arespending a great deal of money to induce physicians to prescribe thepreparation, and it is equally evident that they wish to convey theimpression that the preparation has essay therapeutic value since wefind nothing directly false, in the first mentioned advertisement atleast, we must take the evident intent for consideration and determinewhat therapeutic value, if any, this preparation has, and whether it isadvisable for physicians to employ it in any case the preparation, according to the statement just cited, has been inuse for fifty years as the exploiter of any preparation cites themost convincing evidence in his possession in support of his views, this claim may be assumed to be the strongest available, and if thisevidence fails we must reject the contention as not proved herewe face a dilemma, for examination of the literature used in theexploitation of fellows’ syrup fails to disclose any evidence of thekind that we have described as satisfactory. And we are, therefore, forced to conclude that none has ever been found by this it is notto be implied that no reputable physician has ever reported favorablyconcerning the therapeutic effects of this preparation it is quitepossible that an extensive literature of that sort might be found ifone examined the older medical journals but the day has passed whenevery improvement that follows the administration of a preparation isblindly attributed to the drug in question clinical research today isfar more exacting we will assume that the reader who has investigated the question withan open mind will have come to the decision that the contention thatfellows’ syrup is of especial therapeutic value is not proved we mightrest with that assumption and ask the clinician whether he is preparedto use a nostrum that has been before the medical profession for halfa century without any satisfactory evidence having been gained thatit possesses therapeutic value we might ask him whether he would bewilling to tell his patients that he was prescribing such a nostrumfor them in the face of the absence of any such evidence of its value the inertness of the hypophosphitesbut we prefer to go even further and show him that not only is therean entire absence of any evidence of its therapeutic value so far aswe have been able to learn, but in addition there is an abundance ofevidence that the hypophosphites are devoid of any such therapeuticeffect as they were formerly reputed to have, and that, in fact, they are, so far as any effect based on their phosphorus content isconcerned, singularly inert while we have thus far taken the fellows’ preparation as the subjectof the discussion, we may take a broader view and examine the subjectof the hypophosphites in general, and the substitutes containingphosphorus that have been introduced from time to time it hardly needsto be said that if the hypophosphites are without therapeutic value, itis impossible to give them value by combining them in a muddy-looking, ill-made preparation such as fellows’ syrup such evidence wassubmitted to the medical profession in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry j a m a 67:760 sept 2 1916. And wewould strongly advise any one who is disposed to act on the suggestioncontained in the advertisements of fellows’, and other hypophosphitepreparations, to read that report in full and to think the matter overbefore prescribing one of these nostrums quoting briefly from thereport in question. “although the overwhelming weight of evidence was against the probability that the hypophosphite preparations are of value as therapeutic agents, the council thought it well to investigate the subject dr w mckim marriott of baltimore was therefore requested to review the evidence for and against the therapeutic usefulness of the hypophosphites and to conduct such experiments as seemed necessary ”the council was not content to rest on the mere absence of evidencefor the value of these preparations or any one of them, but soughtto obtain evidence that would fulfil the conditions mentioned above, and in pursuance of this plan it secured the cooperation of a trainedinvestigator, one who would work under the best of conditions forlearning the truth the results of dr marriott investigation werepublished in the journal, feb 12, 1916, p 486, and should be read byeveryone who has any interest in the problem lest essay of our readersmay fail to refer to the original of marriott paper, we will quotebriefly from it. “none of the subjects of the experiment experienced any effect whatsoever from the administration of the drug almost all of the ingested hypophosphite is eliminated unchanged “these experiments forbes demonstrate conclusively that the hypophosphites possess no specific value as a source of phosphorus for the body it is doubtful if there are any conditions in which the body suffers from lack of phosphorus even should such conditions exist, phosphorus, in the form that it occurs in the ordinary foods, or as phosphates, is more efficient in supplying the deficit than hypophosphites that must be oxidized before utilization and which are only about 15 per cent oxidized if at all for example, half a glass of milk contains more available phosphorus than three large doses of hypophosphites of 15 grains each, as great a dosage as is usually given “what then, is the therapeutic value of hypophosphites?. there is no reliable evidence that they exert a physiologic effect.

The same, or the distilled water, assuages hot and swellingimposthumes, scholarship essay outline burnings and scaldings by fire or water. As also allother hot tumours and inflammations, or breakings-out, of heat, beingbathed often with wet cloths dipped therein. The said juice made intoa liniment with ceruss, and oil of roses, and anointed therewith, cleanses foul rotten ulcers, and stays spreading or creeping ulcers, and running scabs or sores in children heads. And helps to stay thehair from falling off the head the said ointment, or the herb appliedto the fundament, opens the piles, and eases their pains. And beingmixed with goats’ tallow, helps the gout the juice is very effectualto cleanse fistulas, and to heal them up safely. Or the herb itselfbruised and applied with a little salt it is likewise also effectualto heal any green wound. If it be bruised and bound thereto for threedays, you shall need no other medicine to heal it further a poulticemade hereof with mallows, and boiled in wine and wheat bran and beanflour, and essay oil put thereto, and applied warm to any bruisedsinews, tendon, or muscle, doth in a very short time restore them totheir strength, taking away the pains of the bruises, and dissolves thecongealed blood coming of blows, or falls from high places the juice of pellitory of the wall clarified and boiled in a syrup withhoney, and a spoonful of it drank every morning by such as are subjectto the dropsy. If continuing that course, though but once a week, theyever have the dropsy, let them but come to me, and i will cure themgratis pennyroyal pennyroyal is so well known unto all, i mean the common kind, that itneeds no description there is a greater kind than the ordinary sort found wild with us, which so abides, being brought into gardens, and differs not from it, but only in the largeness of the leaves and stalks, in rising higher, and not creeping upon the ground so much the flowers whereof arepurple, growing in rundles about the stalks like the other place the first, which is common in gardens, grows also in thesismoist and watery places of this land the second is found wild in effect in divers places by the highwaysfrom london to colchester, and thereabouts, more abundantly than in anyother counties, and is also planted in their gardens in essex time they flower in the latter end of summer, about august government and virtues the herb is under venus dioscorides saith, that pennyroyal makes thin tough phlegm, warms the coldness of any writingwhereto it is applied, and digests raw or corrupt matter. Being boiledand drank, it provokes women courses, and expels the dead child andafter-birth, and stays the disposition to vomit, being taken in waterand vinegar mingled together and being mingled with honey and salt, it voids phlegm out of the lungs, and purges melancholy by the stool drank with wine, it helps such as are bitten and stung with venomousbeasts, and applied to the nostrils with vinegar, revives those thatare fainting and swooning being dried and burnt, it strengthens thegums it is helpful to those that are troubled with the gout, beingapplied of itself to the place until it was red. And applied in aplaister, it takes away spots or marks in the face. Applied with salt, it profits those that are splenetic, or livergrown the decoction dothhelp the itch, if washed therewith the green herb bruised and put intovinegar, cleanses foul ulcers, and takes away the marks of bruises andblows about the eyes, and all discolourings of the face by fire, yea, and the leprosy, being drank and outwardly applied. Boiled in winewith honey and salt, it helps the tooth-ache it helps the cold griefsby the joints, taking away the pains, and warms the cold writing, beingfast bound to the place, after a bathing or sweating in a hot house pliny adds, that pennyroyal and mints together, help faintings, beingput into vinegar, and smelled unto, or put into the nostrils or mouth it eases head-aches, pains of the breast and belly, and gnawings ofthe stomach.

A dram of thepowder of the dried root taken with twice so much sugar in the form ofa licking electuary, or the green root, doth wonderfully help thosethat are pursy and short-winded, as also scholarship essay outline those that have a cough. Itbreaks, digests, and rids away phlegm from the stomach, chest, andlungs the milk wherein the root as been boiled is effectual also forthe same purpose the said powder taken in wine or other drink, orthe juice of the berries, or the powder of them, or the wine whereinthey have been boiled, provokes urine, and brings down women coursesand purges them effectually after child-bearing, to bring away theafter-birth taken with sheep milk, it heals the inward ulcers of thebowels the distilled water thereof is effectual to all the purposesaforesaid a spoonful taken at a time heals the itch. An ounce or moretaken a time for essay days together, doth help the rupture. The leaveseither green or dry, or the juice of them, doth cleanse all manner ofrotten and filthy ulcers, in what writing of the body soever. And healsthe stinking sores in the nose, called polypus the water wherein theroot has been boiled, dropped into the eyes, cleanses them from anyfilm or skin, cloud or mists, which begin to hinder the sight, andhelps the watering and redness of them, or when, by essay chance, theybecome black and blue the root mixed with bean-flour, and applied tothe throat or jaws that are inflamed, helps them the juice of theberries boiled in oil of roses, or beaten into powder mixed with theoil, and dropped into the ears, eases pains in them the berries orthe roots beaten with the hot ox-dung, and applied, eases the pains ofthe gout the leaves and roots boiled in wine with a little oil, andapplied to the piles, or the falling down of the fundament, eases them, and so doth sitting over the hot fumes thereof the fresh roots bruisedand distilled with a little milk, yields a most sovereign water tocleanse the skin from scurf, freckles, spots, or blemishes whatsoevertherein authors have left large commendations of this herb you see, but for mywriting, i have neither spoken with dr reason nor dr experience about it cucumbers government and virtues there is no dispute to be made, but thatthey are under the dominion of the moon, though they are so much criedout against for their coldness, and if they were but one degree colderthey would be poison the best of galenists hold them to be cold andmoist in the second degree, and then not so hot as either lettuce orpurslain. They are excellently good for a hot stomach, and hot liver;the unmeasurable use of them fills the body full of raw humours, and soindeed the unmeasurable use of any thing else doth harm the face beingwashed with their juice, cleanses the skin, and is excellently good forhot rheums in the eyes. The seed is excellently good to provoke urine, and cleanses the passages thereof when they are stopped. There is nota better remedy for ulcers in the bladder growing, than cucumbersare. The usual course is, to use the seeds in emulsions, as they makealmond milk.

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It helps the vertigo or dissiness of thehead, melancholy sad thoughts. You may boil it either alone, or withother herbs fit for the same purpose, with which this treatise willfurnish you. Applied to the wrists, it helps the ague matrisylva the same with caprifolium meliotus melilot inwardly taken, provokes urine, breaks the stone, cleanses the reins and bladder, cutteth and cleanses the lungs oftough flegm, the juice dropped into the eyes, clears the sight, intothe ears, mitigates pain and noise there.