History

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688 march 9. 923 march 301918 bracken, l l. Federal trade commission requests use of officialnames, ibid 70. 558 feb 23 1918 the new american names are:arsphenamin224 contracted from the scientific name arsenphenolaminfor salvarsan, arsenobenzol, diarsanol, arsaminol 224 the testing and standardizing of arsphenamin is being done by thehygienic laboratory, u s public health service for chemical testssee reprint 472, public health reports for a review of the patentliterature see article by h f lewis, j indust engin chem , feb 1, 1919, p 141 barbital contracted from the scientific name diethyl-barbituric acidfor veronal barbital-sodium the sodium salt of barbital for “veronal-sodium” and“medinal ”cinchophen for atophan or phenylcinchoninic acid the u s p ix name procain for novocain hydrochlorid from “pro” and “ cocaine” procain nitrate for novocain nitrate examination of synthetic drugsin testing chemically the products which had been submitted to thefederal trade commission, the aims were that the product should conformto a high degree of purity. At the same time the candidate for licenseshould not be inflicted with undue hardships in making the product, such as an unnecessarily high degree of purity it was insisted thatthe purity of the drugs should be equal to, if not greater than, thatof the respective former german-made products, in order to uphold thename and reputation of the american manufacturers in the after-the-warcompetition consequently, in the chemical work the american productwas always examined parallel with the german-made product, authenticsamples of the latter of which the laboratory had in its possession whenever possible, the tests described in books of standards werecarried out barbital veronalbarbital was introduced into medicine under the proprietary name“veronal, ” and was manufactured in gerthesis by friedr bayer &co , leverkusen, and e merck & co , darmstadt, gerthesis barbitalis described in new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, 225 asdiethylbarbituric acid diethylmalonyl urea having the formula. nh co c₂h₅ / \ / oc c \ / \ nh co c₂h₅225 new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, published by the council onpharmacy and chemistry of the american medical association, p 82 it is official in the british pharmacopeia under the name“barbitone, ” and in the german pharmacopeia as “acidumdiethylbarbituricum ” barbital “may be prepared by the interactionof esters of diethylmalonic acid with urea in the presence ofmetallic alcoholates it is also obtained by condensation ofdiethylcyanacetic ester with urea by means of sodium alcoholate ”barbital is used in medicine chiefly as a hypnotic the different brands of barbital which were submitted to the laboratorywere subjected to the tests given in the books referred to above 226the products were:226 the pharmaceutic monograph on barbital has been omitted it waspublished in the 1918 edition of the annual reports of the chemicallaboratory of the american medical association 1 barbital abbott sample a, to federal trade commission 2 barbital abbott sample b, to federal trade commission 3 barbital abbott sample c, to red cross 4 barbital antoine chiris, to federal trade commission 5 barbital v halter, to federal trade commission 6 barbital rector chemical company to federal trade commission 7 diethylbarbituric acid merck, to council 8 “veronal, ” manufactured by farb vorm fried bayer & co , gerthesis all responded satisfactorily to the tests in table 1 are given therespective melting points and percentages of ash found the meltingpoint of a mixture of the sample with the original “veronal” was alwaystaken table 1 -- melting point ash ash 1 188 5-189 0 0 01 5 188 0-188 5 0 01 2 188 5-189 0 0 01 6 188 0-188 5 0 01 3 188 0-188 5 0 01 7 188 0-188 5 0 01 4 188 0-188 5 0 04 8 188 0-188 5 0 02barbital does not seem to form an insoluble salt with chlorplatinicacid. Nor an ether-insoluble hydrochlorid or oxalate. Nor an insolublebarium salt it does not respond to thesis urea tests, and is notaffected by urease as would be expected in light of the extensiveinvestigations made on this enzyme by van slyke and cullen as barbital is also sold in the form of tablets or mixtures, a reliablemethod for its quantitative determination in the presence of othersubstances is needed essay experiments in this direction were made, butthe press of other work did not permit their continuation when timepermits, this work will be resumed at the time of writing this article, licenses for manufacture had beengranted by the federal trade commission to the abbott laboratories, toantoine chiris company, and to the rector chemical company barbital sodium medinal or veronal-sodiumbarbital sodium, formerly sold under the proprietary names“veronal-sodium” and “medinal, ” is, as the former name suggests, thesodium salt of diethylbarbituric acid its therapeutic advantagesare stated to be that more rapid results are obtained because ofits increased solubility over barbital alone 227 barbital sodiumshould yield, according to theory, 11 19 per cent of sodium and 89 31per cent of diethylbarbituric acid a number of years ago, when“veronal-sodium” and “medinal” were being introduced, puckner andhilpert228 found that these products yielded results correspondingclosely to the theoretical amounts of sodium and diethylbarbituricacid a recent examination of veronal-sodium, merck, made for thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, showed it to be of the samecomposition as that previously reported 227 new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, p 96 228 puckner, w a , and hilpert, w s. Veronal-sodium and medinal, j a m a 52:311 jan 23 1909. Rep a m a chemical lab , 2:13 only one firm product has been submitted to the laboratory throughthe committee on synthetic drugs, but because of the unsatisfactoryresults, it was not recommended for license, nor, as far as we areaware, has the firm investigated its anomalies 229 the amount ofmoisture in this specimen was 0 04 per cent it yielded 10 94 and 10 97per cent, of sodium puckner and hilpert found 11 02 per cent ofsodium in “medinal, ” and 11 01 per cent of sodium in “veronal-sodium ”the theoretical amount, according to the formula given for medinal bythe proprietors c₂h₅₂ cconnaconhco is 11 19 per cent when an aqueous └───────┘solution of barbital sodium was acidified, and the diethylbarbituricacid extracted with ether, it was found that theamount of freed acidextracted varied directly with the length of time after acidification 229 since this was written, the council on pharmacy and chemistry hasalso accepted “barbital-sodium abbott ”it is possible that in preparing the sodium salt of diethylbarbituricacid, the ring opens up, forming a compound not so easily affected bydilute mineral acids table 2 -- extraction of a sample of barbital-sodium diethylbarbituric acid length of time per cent a immediately 75 5 a^1 3/4 hour 82 0 b immediately 82 0 c 1-1/2 hours 80 5 d 4 hours 82 82 e 4 hours 83 56 f 4 hours 83 41 g 45-1/2 hours 84 89 h 45-1/2 hours 84 73 theory 89 31 veronal-sodium puckner and hilpert 89 01 average medinal puckner and hilpert 88 95 average phenetidyl-acetphenetidin hydrochlorid230 holocain hydrochloridphenetidyl-acetphenetidin hydrochlorid was introduced in theunited states under the name of “holocain hydrochloride” byfarbwerke, vorm meister lucius and bruening, hoechst a m gerthesis;the product apparently had not been patented in this country, although it was protected in gerthesis under patents no 78868 and80568 new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, describes “holocainhydrochlorid” as ethenyl-paradiethoxy-diphenyl-amidin hydrochloridch₃.

The side being bathed withit, it easeth pains in the spleen, cleanseth filthy corroding gnawingulcers iva arthritica the same with camæpytis iuncus oderatus the same sat essay template with schœnanthus labrum veneris the same with dipsacus lactuca lettice cold and moist, cools the inflammation of thestomach, commonly called heart-burning. Provokes sleep, resistsdrunkenness, and takes away the ill effects, of it. Cools the blood, quenches thirst, breeds milk, and is good for choleric bodies, and suchas have a frenzy, or are frantic it is more wholeessay eaten boiledthan raw logabus, herba leporina a kind of trefoil growing in france andspain let them that live there look after the virtues of it lavendula lavender. Hot and dry in the third degree. The templesand forehead bathed with the juice of it. As also the smell of theherb helps swoonings, catalepsis, falling-sickness, provided it be notaccompanied with a fever see the flowers laureola laurel the leaves purge upward and downward. They are goodfor rheumatic people to chew in their mouths, for they draw forth muchwater laurus bay-tree the leaves are hot and dry, resist drunkenness, they gently bind and help diseases in the bladder, help the stinging ofbees and wasps, mitigate the pain of the stomach, dry and heal, openobstructions of the liver and spleen, resist the pestilence lappa minor the lesser burdock lentiscus mastich-tree both the leaves and bark of it stop fluxes being hot and dry in the second degree spitting and evacuations ofblood, and the falling out of the fundament lens palustris duckmeat.

“there are cogent reasons connected with publicpolicy and the peace of families, where in the absence of testamentarydisposition the possession of a corpse and the right to determine itsburial should follow the administration of the estate ” inasmuch asthe husband has the first right to administer upon the estate of thewife, and the wife upon the estate of the husband, the law imposes thecorrelative duty of burial upon the person having such right. And soit has been held that the husband is liable for the necessary expenseof the decent interment of his wife from whom he has been separated, whether the writingy incurring the expense is an undertaker or merevolunteer 494where the deceased leaves a will appointing executors, the executorshave a right to the possession of the body, and the duty of burialis imposed upon them, but it has been doubted whether at common lawa direction by will concerning the disposal of the body could beenforced, and therefore the right to make such direction has beenconferred by statute in several states 495and where a widow ordered a funeral of her husband, it was held thatshe was liable for the expense, although she was an infant at the time, the court holding that the expense fell under the head of necessaries, for which infants’ estates are liable 496if there be no husband or wife of the deceased, the nearest of kinin the order of right to administration is charged with the duty ofburial 497such acts as casting a dead human body into a river without the ritesof sepulture kanavans case, 1 me , 226. Stealing a corpse 2 east, pc , 652 or stealing for dissection a dead body of one executed whenthe death sentence did not direct dissection rex v cundick, d &r , n p , 13, were indictable offences at common law 498in the works of the early dramatists, and by essay writers of fiction, it has been stated, or implied, that the body of a deceased personcould be seized and detained to compel the payment of his debts thiswas never the law in jones v ashburnham, 4 east, 460, it was heldthat to seize a dead body on pretence of arresting for debt would becontra bonos mores, and an extortion on the relatives, and that casedistinctly overrules any authority to be derived from the case of quickv coppleton, 1 vent , 161, to the effect that forbearance to seizeor hold a body upon such a pretence would afford any consideration fora promise to pay a debt so, also, where a jailer refused to give upa body of a person who had died while a prisoner in execution in hiscustody, to the executors of the deceased, unless they would satisfycertain claims against the deceased due the jailer, the court issueda peremptory mandamus in the first instance, commanding that the bodyshould be delivered up to the executors rex v fox, 2 q b , 247 and in r v scott, 2 q b , 248, it was said, that a jailer whoshould attempt to do so would be guilty of misconduct in his publiccharacter, for which he would be liable to prosecution 499how and by whom the dead human body may be removed or exhumed - wherethe right of burial has been exercised, and the body interred inits final resting-place, no person has any right to interferewith it without the consent of the owner of the grave, or of theproperly constituted public authorities in foster v dodd, 8 d & e , 842-854, it was held, that a dead body belongs to no one, andis, therefore, under the protection of the public if it lies inconsecrated ground, ecclesiastical authorities will interpose forits protection. But whether in ground consecrated or unconsecrated, indignities offered to the remains or the act of indecentlydisinterring them, are the ground of an indictment 500even the purchaser of land upon which is located a burial-ground maybe enjoined from removing bodies therefrom, if he attempts to do soagainst the wishes of the relatives or next of kin of the deceased every interment is a concession of the privilege which cannot afterwardbe repudiated, and the purchaser title to the ground is fettered withthe right of burial 501on the other hand, the right of the municipal or state authorities, with the consent of the owner of the burial lot or in the execution ofthe right of eminent domain, to remove dead bodies from cemeteries iswell settled 502after the right of burial has once been exercised by the person chargedwith the duty of burial, or where such person has consented to theburial by another person, no right to the corpse remains except toprotect it from unlawful interference 503on the other hand, where a husband did not freely consent to the burialof his wife in a lot owned by another person, it was held that a courtof equity might permit him, after such burial, to remove her body, coffin, and tombstones to his own lot, and restrain any person frominterfering with such removal 504in rhodes v brandt, 21 hun, n y , 1, the defendant brought anaction against one beelard to recover for services rendered by him, asa physician, in treating a child of beelard for a fracture of thethigh-bone, in which action beelard set up malpractice on the writing ofthe defendant as a defence during the pendency of the action the childdied and was buried subsequently beelard, the father, acting under theadvice of his counsel, directed and allowed the plaintiff, a physician, to cause the body of the child to be exhumed, and a portion of thethigh-bone to be removed, in order that it might be used in evidence onthe trial of the question of malpractice after the bone was removed, the body was returned to the grave the defendant thereupon caused theplaintiff to be arrested for unlawfully removing the body from thegrave contrary to the provisions of the statute, and the plaintiffsued the defendant for malicious prosecution the court held that theplaintiff had not removed the body from the grave “for the purpose ofdissection or from mere wantonness, ” as these terms were used in thestatute 3 r s , 6th ed , 965, for violation of which he had beenarrested, nor had he committed any offence against public decency orthe spirit of the statute 505autopsies, by whom ordered. The rights of relatives and accusedpersons - as shown in a previous article in this volume, on the powersand duties of coroners and medical examiners, in paper of sudden orsuspicious death, it has been the law for nearly a thousand yearsthat an inquisition or inquest super visum corporis must be held byan officer known as a coroner, and that this office and its powers andduties were inherited by this country as writing of the english common-lawsystem in force at the time of the formation of the republic of theunited states when a body has been buried, and the coroner believesthat an inquest is necessary, he has power to disinter the body andhold an inquest, and he may direct a post-mortem examination to bemade, but after having done so he must cause the body to be reinterred it is now well settled that in holding such an inquest, and making suchan autopsy or post-mortem examination required by his official duty, the coroner has authority to employ, and it is his duty to employ, professional skill and aid, and his contract will bind the county topay a reasonable compensation for the same 506as will be seen below from a synopsis of the statutes relating tothis matter, thesis of the states have enacted statutes defining andprescribing the duties of the coroner and other public officers in suchpaper at an early period in england see 2 and 3 will iv , chap 75, sec 7 it was enacted by the english parliament that any executoror other person having lawful possession of the body of a deceasedperson, and not being an undertaker or other writingy entrusted with thebody for the purpose only of interment, might lawfully permit the bodyof such deceased person to undergo an anatomical examination, unlessto the knowledge of such executor or other writingy such person shouldhave expressed his desire during his life in writing, or verbally inthe presence of two or more witnesses during his illness whereof hedied, that his body after death might not undergo such examination, orunless the surviving husband or wife or known relative of the deceasedshall require the body to be interred without such examination byanother section of this statute sec 10, professors of anatomy andother persons duly licensed were declared not liable to punishment forhaving in their possession human bodies when having such possessionaccording to the provisions of the act section 308 of the new york penal code, subdivision 3, as amendedby chapter 500, laws 1889, enacts that whenever and so far as thehusband, wife, or next of kin of the deceased, being charged by lawwith the duty of burial, may authorize dissection for the purposeof ascertaining the cause of death and no further, the right existsto dissect the dead human body the same statute also provides thatwhenever any district attorney of that state, in the discharge ofhis official duties, shall deem it necessary, he may exhume, takepossession of, and remove the body of a deceased person, or anyportion thereof, and submit the same to a proper physical or chemicalexamination or analysis, to ascertain the cause of death, whichexamination or analysis will be made on the order of a justice of thesupreme court of the state, or the county judge of the county in whichthe dead bodies shall be, granted on the application of the districtattorney, with or without notice to the relatives of the deceasedperson, or to any person or corporation having the legal charge ofsuch body, as the court may direct the district attorney shall alsohave power to direct the sheriff, constable, or other peace officer, and employ such person or persons as he may deem necessary to assisthim, in exhuming, removing, obtaining possession of, and examiningphysically or chemically such dead body, or any portion thereof. Theexpense thereof to be a county charge paid by the county treasurer onthe certificate of the district attorney the matter of ordering autopsies and dissections of dead bodies, orexhuming the same for that purpose or other purposes, is a matter of somuch public importance that it has been regulated in nearly all of theunited states by statutory enactments, which together with the otherstatutes relating to the subject-matter of this article are hereuntoappended the author of this article is greatly indebted for assistance inpreparing the same, and in compiling these statutes, to mr amasa j parker, jr , of the albany, n y , bar appendix statutory regulations concerning dead bodies the coroner has power to hold inquest and direct autopsy, ala , code, sec 4, 801 et seq ariz , pen code, sec 2, 309 et seq ark , r s , sec 692 cal , pen code. Sec 1, 510 col , mill stat , sec 870 conn , gen stat , secs 2, 005, 2, 008 del , r s , ch 33 fla , r s , secs 3, 011, 3, 019 ga , code, secs 590, 591, 4, 101 et seq idaho, r s , sec 8, 377 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 606 ind , r s , secs 5, 878, 5, 879 iowa, mccl am code, sec 487 kan , gen stat , secs 1, 780, 1, 784 ky , gen stat , ch 25, secs 3, 11 la , voorh rev l , sec 653 me , r s , ch 139, sec 1 md , code, art 22, secs 3, 4 minn , gen stat , sec 1, 011 et seq miss , am code, sec 816 mo , r l , sec 2, 438 et seq mont , crim l , secs 869, 883 neb , consol stat , sec 3, 144 n h , pub stat , ch 262, sec 1 et seq n j , rev stat , p 170 et seq n c , code, sec 657 n dak , comp laws, sec 664 et seq ohio, r l , sec 1, 221 et seq oklahoma, stat , sec 1, 745 et seq ore , crim code, sec 453 et seq pa , bright pen digest, 1536, sec 37 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 17 s c , r s , secs 711, 2, 664 et seq tenn , code, sec 6, 139 et seq va , code, sec 2, 928 et seq wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 245 et seq w va , code, ch 154 wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 wyo , r s , sec 1, 879 et seq medical examiner shall hold inquest and direct autopsy mass , pub stat , ch 26, secs 10, 11 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420 justice of the peace shall hold inquest and direct autopsy mich , how am stat , v 2, sec 9, 583 et seq nev , gen stat , sec 225 et seq n m , comp l , sec 443 et seq texas, code crim p , art 988 et seq vt , rev l , sec 3, 934 et seq wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 and may order a body to be disinterred for the purpose of holding suchinquisition ark , r l , sec 718 cal , pen code, sec 1, 510 del , r l , ch 33 ga , code, secs 590, 591, 410 et seq idaho, r l , sec 8, 377 s c , r s , sec 2, 687 texas, code crim p , art 989 and when not claimed by friends and relatives, to bury the bodydecently, and when the property of deceased is not sufficient to defrayexpenses, this may be done at public expense cal , pen code, sec 3, 094 col , mill stat , sec 882 conn , gen stat , sec 2, 015 idaho, r l , sec 2, 081 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 606 iowa, mccl am code, sec 501 kan , gen stat , sec 1, 792 ky , gen stat , ch 25, sec 6 la , voorh rev l , sec 660 me , r s , ch 139, sec 11 md , code, art 22, sec 7 mass , laws, 1887, ch 310 mich , how am stat , v 3, sec 9, 593 minn , gen stat , sec 1, 021 miss , am code, secs 3, 145, 3, 146 mo , r l , sec 2, 456 mont , gen laws, sec 881 neb , consol stat , sec 3, 144 nev , gen stat , sec 2, 269 n h , pub stat , ch 262, sec 16 n j , rev stat , p 170, sec 5 n m , comp laws, sec 447 n dak , comp laws, sec 676 ohio, r l , sec 1, 227 oklahoma, stat , sec 1, 759 ore , crim code, sec 462 r i , pub laws, 1884, ch 420, sec 24 tenn , code, sec 6, 150 va , code, sec 3, 946 wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 257 w va , code, ch 154, sec 8 wis , s & b am stat , ch 200 wyo , r s , sec 1, 886 removal or disinterment of a dead body without authority of law orconsent of relatives, for the purpose of selling such body or fordissection or for mere wantonness, is a a felony cal , pen code, sec 290 ga , laws, 1882, v 2, p 87 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, p 794 ind , r s , sec 2, 166 mo , r s , secs 3, 842, 3, 845 mont , laws, 1889, p 114 n c , laws, 1885, ch 90 b a misdemeanor ark , r s , secs 1, 902, 1, 903 del , laws, 1883, ch 234 kan , gen stat , sec 2, 372 et seq md , code, art 27, secs 133, 134 pa , bright pen digest, 229, sec 11 tenn , code, secs 5, 659, 5, 660 c is punishable by various sentences ala , code, secs 4, 023, 4, 028 ariz , pen code, sec 491 col , mill stat , sec 1, 367 conn , gen stat , sec 1, 880 fla , r l , sec 2, 625 iowa, mccl am code, sec 5, 328 ky , gen stat , ch 29, art 17, sec 16 me , r s , ch 124, sec 27 mass , pub stat , ch 207, secs 47, 48 mich , how stat , v 2, sec 9, 297 miss , am code, secs 1, 023, 1, 024 neb , consol stat , sec 5, 847 n h , pub stat , ch 266, sec 7 n dak , comp laws, sec 6, 559 ohio, r l , sec 7, 034 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 198 ore , crim code, sec 656 texas, pen code, art 345 vt , rev l , secs 4, 194, 4, 196 va , code, sec 208 w va , code, ch 149, sec 13 wis , s & b am stat , sec 4, 592 wyo , r l , sec 1, 029 d a high misdemeanor n j , rev stat , p 249, sec 122 bodies of criminals executed under sentence, and those dying in jail, poor-house, etc , when to be delivered over for dissection ark , r s , sec 2, 552 cal , pen code, sec 3, 094 col , mill stat , secs 1, 547, 1, 548, 1, 204 conn , gen stat , secs 1, 729, 1, 732 ga , laws, 1887, v 2, p 87 ill , s & c am stat , v 1, 869 ill , crim code, sec 503 ill , s & c am stat , v 3, p 867 ind , r l , sec 4, 258 et seq iowa, mccl am code, sec 5, 329 kan , gen stat , sec 3, 758 me , r s , ch 13, sec 2 me , laws, 1893, ch 254 mass , laws, 1891, ch 185 mass , pub stat , ch 202, sec 8 mich , how stat , v 3, sec 2, 284 minn , gen stat , sec 678 mo , r s , sec 6, 883 neb , consol stat , secs 3, 299, 3, 301, 5, 848 n h , pub stat , ch 136 n j , rev stat , p 239, sec 69 n c , laws, 1891, ch 129 n dak , laws, 1890, ch 92 ohio, r s , sec 3, 763 ore , hill am laws, sec 3, 730 et seq pa , bright pen dig , p 94, sec 1 et seq vt , laws, 1884, ch 85 va , code, ch 80 wash , hill am stat , v 1, sec 2, 428 et seq wash , s & b am stat , sec 1, 437 duty of burial, etc ariz , pen code, sec 493 cal , pen code, sec 292 minn , gen stat , sec 6, 221 n dak , comp laws, secs 6, 550, 6, 556 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 189 concealing birth of child which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable col , mill stat , sec 1, 195 fla , r l , sec 2, 393 mass , pub stat , ch 207, sec 11 mich , how am stat , sec 9, 284 mont , crim l , sec 41 neb , consol stat , sec 5, 582 nev , gen stat , sec 4, 597 n h , pub stat , ch 278, sec 14 n dak , comp l , sec 6, 947 oklahoma, stat , sec 2, 179 ore , crim code, sec 649 pa , bright pen digest, 431, sec 158 r i , pub stat , ch 244, sec 8 wis , s & b am stat , sec 4, 585 is a misdemeanor minn , gen stat , sec 6, 210 n j , rev stat , p 241, sec 83 is a felony mo , r s , sec 3, 479 whether born dead or alivealabama removal of body wantonly for dissection or sale, purchase of abody unlawfully disinterred, violating grave with intent to stealbody, etc , or wantonly mutilating body, is punishable by fine orimprisonment code, secs 4, 023, 4, 028 coroner, or in his absence justice of the peace, to hold inquest anddirect examination of body by surgeon, etc code, sec 4, 801 etseq arizona mutilation, etc , of dead body is a felony pen code, sec 491 removal of a writing of body unlawfully is punishable pen code, sec 492 duty of burying body is, if a married woman, on husband. If nota married woman, on nearest of kin who is an adult possessed ofsufficient means if deceased has no relatives, on coroner holdinginquest or overseers, etc , of poor pen code, sec 493 refusal of one on whom duty of burial is imposed by law, is punishable pen code, sec 494 arrest or attachment of a dead body is a misdemeanor pen code, sec 496 et seq coroner to hold inquest and direct autopsy pen code, sec 2, 309 etseq person whose duty it is to bury is entitled to custody except wherecoroner holds it until inquest is completed pen code, sec 495 arkansas bodies of persons dying in alms-house, prison, house of correction, orjail shall be surrendered to a physician for dissection, etc , unlessthe deceased request to be buried or the body is claimed by relatives, or unless deceased died suddenly and unknown. And after such use fordissection it shall be decently buried r s , sec 2, 552 removal of dead body for the purpose of dissection, or stealing, orfrom wantonness, or receiving same knowing it to have been unlawfullydisinterred, is a misdemeanor r s , secs 1, 902, 1, 903 dead body can be transported out of county in which death occurred onpermit of state board of health r s , sec 480 coroner to hold inquest and direct autopsy, etc r s , sec 692 and may order a body to be disinterred for inquisition r s , sec 718 california removal, mutilation, or disinterment of dead body without authority oflaw is a felony pen code, sec 290 removal of writing of body for sale, dissection maliciously or wantonly ispunishable pen code, sec 291 duty of burial - of married woman, on husband. Not a married woman, nearest of kin who is an adult with sufficient means. Where norelatives, on coroner who held the inquest or overseers, etc , of poor pen code, sec 292 refusal to bury by person on whom duty rests by law to bury, is amisdemeanor and he is liable for treble the expenses pen code, sec 293 custody of body is on him on whom duty to bury is imposed by law, except where coroner detains remains for inquest pen code, sec 294 arrest or attachment of dead body for any debt or demand is amisdemeanor pen code, sec 295 one who disinters or exhumes a body without permit of board of health, health officer, or mayor, or transports such exhumed remains throughstreets of town, city, etc , except in a sealed coffin, guilty of amisdemeanor laws, 1878, ch 673 a sheriff, coroner, or keeper of county poor-house, public hospital, county jail, or state prison, etc , must surrender bodies of those whoare to be buried at public expense, to any physician or surgeon fordissection, etc , unless deceased during his last sickness requestedto be buried or body is claimed by relatives, etc , or deceased was astranger or traveller, died suddenly pen code, sec 3, 094 coroner to bury body when no other person takes charge of same pen code, sec 4, 286 coroner to hold inquest, direct autopsy, and may exhume pen code, see 1, 510 colorado concealment of death of issue which, if born alive, would be a bastard, is punishable mill stat , sec 1, 195 body of criminal executed for capital offence shall be delivered toa physician or surgeon unless claimed by relative or friend millstat , sec 1, 204 board of health, mayor, etc , or officer, etc , having control of anyalms-house, prison, hospital, jail, etc , shall surrender bodies to beburied at public expense to any physician or surgeon for dissection, etc , unless deceased during last illness requested to be buried, orbody is claimed by relatives or friends, or deceased was a stranger ortraveller who died unknown mill stat , secs 1, 547, 1, 548 non-resident poor person to be decently buried mill stat , sec 3, 391 coroner to hold inquest, etc , or, if none, bury it decently at expenseof county mill stat , secs 870-882 removal of body unlawfully for sale, dissection, etc , punishable mill stat , sec 1, 367 board of health may direct removal of dead bodies from cemetery withina city laws, 1893, ch 113, sec 54 connecticut no body shall be buried or disinterred or removed beyond limits ofany town unless a permit is obtained, and where deceased died of aninfectious disease body shall be in a hermetically sealed case gen stat , secs 106, 108, 113 custody of remains is in husband or wife or next of kin gen stat , sec 536 coroner to hold inquest, etc gen stat , secs 2, 005, 2, 008 anddeliver body to friends or, if none, to town authorities for burial gen stat , sec 2, 015 mayor, etc , may deliver bodies of those not buried within twenty-fourhours after death to medical college for dissection, etc , unlessrelatives or friends do not consent, or deceased requested to beburied, or was a stranger or traveller gen stat , sec 1, 729 bodies of convicts dying in state prison and not having any knownrelatives, shall be delivered to medical institution of yale college gen stat , sec 1, 732 body of one dying in a hospital shall not be examined unless father, etc , consent, or if none, within forty-eight hours after death gen stat , sec 1, 735 removal of body from grave unlawfully, or receiving, secreting, ordissecting same, is punishable gen stat , 1880 body of executed criminal shall be buried by sheriff gen stat , sec 1, 640 delaware coroner to hold inquest, etc , or may cause body to be disinterred r l , ch 33 removal of body from grave unlawfully, a misdemeanor laws, 1883, ch 204 florida buying, selling, or having possession for purpose of buying or selling, a dead body is punishable r l , sec 2, 625 concealing birth of issue which, if born alive, would be a bastard, ispunishable r l , sec 2, 393 coroner to hold inquest, etc r l , secs 3, 011, 3, 019 georgia coroner to hold inquest or to disinter same for inquisition code, secs 590, 591, 410 et seq public officers and their assistants, and their deputies of everycounty, city, town, or other municipality, or of every prison, chaingang, penitentiary, county morgue, public hospital, having controlof dead body to be buried at public expense not dying of infectiousdisease shall deliver same to medical college for dissection, etc , unless claimed by friends or relatives or such friends or relativesrequest same to be buried, or unless deceased was a stranger ortraveller laws, 1887, vol 2, p 77 removal of body from grave, etc , unlawfully for dissection or sale isfelony, or receiving or purchasing it knowing it to have been so taken, or trafficking in dead bodies, or having them conveyed without thestate for sale, etc , is a felony laws, 1882, vol 2, p 87 idaho coroner to hold inquest, etc , and may exhume it for that purpose r l , sec 8, 377 coroner to bury body decently when not claimed by relatives, etc , andif necessary, at expense of county r l , sec 2, 081 illinois removal of body unlawfully or aiding in such removal is punishable as afelony one to ten years s & c am stat , vol 1, p 794 coroner to hold inquest, etc s & c am stat , vol 1, p 606 and to deliver body to friends or bury decently if no friends claim it, if necessary at county expense s & c am stat , vol 1, p 606 body of executed criminals may be delivered to any physician or surgeonfor dissection unless friends object s & c am stat , vol 1, p 869.

then again. “cactina pillets a remedy that steadies and strengthens the heart by imwritinging tone to the heart muscle ”that is a pretty direct statement, but digitalis imwritings tone. And wemust not forget that “cactina” is wholly unlike digitalis, and we aretold that “cactina” is. “invaluable in all functional cardiac disorders such as tachycardia, palpitation, arrhythmia, and whenever the heart action needs regulating or support ”if these are merely functional disorders of the heart, it is highlydesirable to know what are the symptoms of really serious cardiacdisease!. since the manufacturers give us no information concerningthe mode of action of “cactina” we will turn to the literature ofdisinterested observers if one attempts to discover the origin of“cactina, ” he will probably meet with disappointment, for variousbibliographies fail to mention the name of sultan, who is said to haveisolated “cactina” from cactus grandiflorus it seems that sultanworked with cactus, or essay other plant, when a student of pharmacy, and it is to be remembered that cactina pillets are manufactured by thesultan drug company it is doubtful whether sultan actually worked with genuine cactusgrandiflorus. And, in fact, there is good reason for thinking thathe did not, for all subsequent workers who have taken pains to securegenuine cactus grandiflorus have failed to detect the presence of anyactive principle, except possible traces that are of no therapeuticimportance whatever what the council foundthe council on pharmacy and chemistry examined the literature relatingto cactus and certain proprietary preparations, including cactinapillets, alleged to be made from cactus, and has reported the resultsof its investigation j a m a 54:888 march 12 1910 and wewill quote from that report “the therapeutic value of this plant has been variously estimated by different observers experimental evidence as to its action is scanty and no complete chemical examination has ever been made “reputable men have testified that essay of the plants of the cactus family contain very active principles, but so far experiments seem to prove that cactus grandiflorus has neither the action of digitalis nor that of strychnin the principal contributions, clinical and experimental, for and against the drug are set out below ”illustration. Typical advertisements of “cactina pillets” from themedical record and new york medical journal, respectively the report then proceeds to analyze the work of o h myers, r a hatcher, boinet and boy-teissier, sayre, gordon sharp, s a matthews, p w williams, aulde and ellingwood, and comes to conclusions that areset forth as follows, in brief:1 it is uncertain what writing of the plant contains the activeprinciple, if any such principle exists 2 writing of the experimental and clinical work has been published underproprietary auspices 3 the value of clinical evidence when unsupported by animalexperimentation is much diminished by the tendency of enthusiastic anduntrained observers to attribute to the drug given the effect reallydue to general remedial measures, psychic suggestion and so forth in other words, the literature does not afford a report of a singlepiece of careful painstaking work the results of which lend support tothe claims made for cactina pillets as stated above, for it is obviousthat if cactus grandiflorus contains no active principle, no activeprinciple can be extracted from it essay time after the report ofthe council was published, hatcher and bailey secured genuine cactusgrandiflorus directly from a competent botanist, dr c a purpus, of vera cruz, mexico, and studied it experimentally they reported j a m a 56:26 jan 7 1911 in writing as follows.

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It is just as though it were cut out for the purpose this herb bruised and applied to the navel, stays miscarriages. Iknow no herb like it for that use. Boiled in ordinary beer, and thedecoction drank, doth the like. And if her womb be not as she wouldhave it, this decoction will make it so let those women that desirechildren love this herb, it is their best companion, their husbandsexcepted also it consumes the phlegmatic humours, the cold andmoist constitution of winter most usually affects the body of manwith, and that was the first reason of eating tansies in the spring the decoction of the common tansy, or the juice drank in wine, is asingular remedy for all the griefs that come by slopping of the urine, helps the stranguary and those that have weak reins and kidneys it isalso very profitable to dissolve and expel wind in the stomach, belly, or bowels, to procure women courses, and expel windiness in thematrix, if it be bruised and often smelled unto, as also applied to thelower writing of the belly it is also very profitable for such women asare given to miscarry it is used also against the stone in the reins, especially to men the herb fried with eggs as it is the custom inthe spring-time which is called a tansy, helps to digest and carrydownward those bad humours that trouble the stomach the seed is veryprofitably given to children for the worms, and the juice in drink isas effectual being boiled in oil, it is good for the sinews shrunk bycramps, or pained with colds, if thereto applied wild tansy, or silver weed this is also so well known, that it needs no description place it grows in every place time it flowers in june and july government and virtues now dame venus hath fitted women withtwo herbs of one name, the one to help conception, and the other tomaintain beauty, and what more can be expected of her?.