Sat Essay Scores

Thyme, in no 60 powder 100 gm moisten with a mixture of sat essay scores. Water 25 c c alcohol 15 c c glycerin 10 c c after standing five hours, pack in a percolator exhaust with amenstruum of alcohol, 1 volume, and water, 3 volumes reserve the first85 c c of percolate concentrate the weak percolate to a soft extractand dissolve in the reserved portion make up to 100 c c by additionof a mixture of alcohol, 1 volume, and water, 3 volumes other aromatic expectorants, such as terebene, terpin hydrate orcreosote, might be expected to have similar but greater effect inchronic bronchitis query in the journal, a m a , march 27, 1920 quinin and urea hydrochlorid to the editor:-- could you tell me why quinin and urea hydrochlorid has not become more popular for local anesthesia?. is it less efficacious or more toxic than other preparations?.

Theseed is of a shining black colour time they continue in flower from august till the time the frostnips them government and virtues sat essay scores it is under the dominion of saturn, and isan excellent qualifier of the unruly actions and passions of venus, though mars also should join with her the flowers dried and beateninto powder, stop the terms in women, and so do almost all other redthings and by the icon, or image of every herb, the ancients atfirst found out their virtues modern writers laugh at them for it;but i wonder in my heart, how the virtues of herbs came at first tobe known, if not by their signatures. The moderns have them from thewritings of the ancients. The ancients had no writings to have themfrom. But to proceed the flowers stop all fluxes of blood. Whether inman or woman, bleeding either at the nose or wound there is also asort of amaranthus that bears a white flower, which stops the whitesin women, and the running of the reins in men, and is a most gallantantivenereal, and a singular remedy for the french pox anemone called also wind flower, because they say the flowers never open butwhen the wind blows pliny is my author. If it be not so, blame him the seed also if it bears any at all flies away with the wind place and time they are sown usually in the gardens of the curious, and flower in the spring-time as for discription i shall pass it, being well known to all those that sow them government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars, beingsupposed to be a kind of crow-foot the leaves provoke the termsmightily, being boiled, and the decoction drank the body being bathedwith the decoction of them, cures the leprosy the leaves being stampedand the juice snuffed up in the nose, purges the head mightily. So doesthe root, being chewed in the mouth, for it procures much spitting, and brings away thesis watery and phlegmatic humours, and is thereforeexcellent for the lethargy and when all is done, let physicians pratewhat they please, all the pills in the dispensatory purge not the headlike to hot things held in the mouth being made into an ointment, and the eyelids anointed with it, it helps inflammations of the eyes, whereby it is palpable, that every stronger draws its weaker like thesame ointment is excellently good to cleanse malignant and corrodingulcers garden arrach called also orach, and arage. It is cultivated for domestic uses descript it is so commonly known to every housewife, it were labourlost to describe it time it flowers and seeds from june to the end of august government and virtues it is under the government of the moon. Inquality cold and moist like unto her it softens and loosens the bodyof man being eaten, and fortifies the expulsive faculty in him theherb, whether it be bruised and applied to the throat, or boiled, andin like manner applied, it matters not much, it is excellently goodfor swellings in the throat. The best way, i suppose, is to boil it, apply the herb outwardly.

“i do not wish to trouble you with this kind of material, usually deposited safely in my waste paper basket, but the enclosed was handed to me today by a ‘bird’ who is calling on all the doctors and making strong statements when he claimed that ‘toxicide’ is being used in the presbyterian hospital, chicago, and that the council on pharmacy and chemistry is considering it seriously, etc , etc , i wish to know whether i am missing any real good thing if it has any real virtue, i would like to know about it, but if it has not, it seems to me that essaything ought to be done to head him off as essay doctors are sure to fall for essay of it ”the toxicide laboratories is, apparently, merely a trade name used bythe alleged originator of “toxicide, ” j f ruckel, m d according toour records, ruckel was born in 1860 and was graduated by the chicagohomeopathic medical college in 1886 he claims to have originatedtoxicide about twenty years ago and to have prescribed it “in over3, 000 paper ” in addition to toxicide, the toxicide laboratories alsoput out “dianasiac for nymphomania and satyriasis” and “somnosine forinsomnia ”-- from the journal a m a , oct 8, 1921 pil mixed treatment chichester report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe sat essay scores council has authorized publication of the following report. W a puckner, secretary “pil mixed treatment chichester” is a proprietary preparation ofthe hillside chemical co , newburgh, n y it is sold in the form ofpills, each said to contain 1/20 grain of mercuric iodid and 5 grainsof potassium iodid in 1907 the council examined the therapeutic claims advanced for thispreparation and found that they were unwarranted, exaggerated andmisleading it found, also, thesis misleading statements in regard to theproduct itself furthermore, the a m a chemical laboratory found thepills to be “short weight” in potassium iodid content at the time that the council examined pil mixed treatment chichester, a dermatologist of recognized standing, to whom the“literature” for this product had been submitted for an opinion, madethe following report:“assuming that this pill contains what is claimed for it, one-twentieth 1/20 of a grain of biniodid of mercury and five 5 grains ofpotassium iodid, it presents neither an original nor a very usefulformula “the literature furnished by the company abounds in suggestions thatthe mixture, as they prepare it, represents essay unusual potency whichis not possessed by the ordinary mixture of these same drugs in thesame proportion these suggestions may of course be dismissed withoutconsideration there is nothing mysterious in a mixture of potassiumiodid and biniodid of mercury and this formula is no more entitledto special consideration than any other pill or tablet of the samecomposition prepared by any reputable pharmaceutical firm “the formula of this pill, however, does not represent a goodcombination it is offered for use both during the active secondaryperiod of syphilis and for tertiary lesions the pill does not containenough mercury to be an efficient remedy for secondary syphilis and notenough potassium iodid to be satisfactory in the treatment of tertiarylesions it is neither fish, flesh, fowl, nor good red herring apatient with secondary syphilis should not be dosed all the time withpotassium iodid and for the treatment of tertiary lesions he shouldhave a very much larger quantity of potassium iodid than can be givenin these pills without giving toxic doses of mercury “the statement that this pill ‘does not impair the appetite nor disturbdigestion and is well borne by patients who cannot tolerate iodidsotherwise administered’ is a bald claim which cannot be justified byexperience the most unsatisfactory way of administering potassiumiodid is in solid form a patient who can stand potassium iodid in pillform, as it is furnished in this preparation, can stand it in any formin which it is ever administered “in short this preparation is neither agreeable nor efficient thegreatest objection to it is its inefficiency, for it is offered asan adequate preparation for the treatment of syphilis in all of itsstages, whereas it is neither satisfactory for the treatment ofsecondary syphilis nor of tertiary lesions ”during the fourteen years which have elapsed since the council firstexamination of pil mixed treatment chichester, arsphenamin hasbeen added to the syphilographer armamentarium and much has beenlearned about syphilis and its treatment while there exist differencesof opinion as to the exact value of arsphenamin in the treatment ofsyphilis and there are even essay who desist from the use of arseniccompounds of any kind, no syphilographer of standing countenances theroutine treatment of syphilis with a fixed combination of mercuriciodid and potassium iodid the use of pil mixed treatment chichesteris on a par with the use of certain “blood purifiers” which wereadvocated at a time when the treatment of syphilis was a bafflingproblem present day claimsthe present advertising, which reads as if it had been written in theheyday of proprietary license, is, in effect, an invitation to treatsyphilis in its various stages and manifestations with pil mixedtreatment chichester if heeded by those who read the advertising ofthe hillside chemical co , it will result in much harm to the publicand the profession for this reason, the present report of the councilis published as a protest against any advertising propaganda advocatingthe routine treatment of a disease which requires that each case bestudied carefully so that prompt and efficient measures may be appliedto the various manifestations of the disease the following advertisement appeared recently in several medicaljournals. “medicine is an exact science-- on paper only!. ” every general practitioner of medicine is called upon to treat syphilis occasionally he cannot depend upon the use of arsenicals alone in most paper, “mixed treatment” the giving of mercury and iodides is required to get satisfactory results pil mixed treatment chichester accurately and successfully meets the indications and assures definite action important advantages. Ready solubility of mercury in combination with potassium iodide avoidance of gastric, buccal or intestinal disturbance easy administration, can be taken at any time, anywhere economical, both drugs in one combination accurate adjustment of dosage to each individual case full physiological action-- assured by purity of content secrecy-- patient or friends do not know nature of medicine pil mixed treatment chichester has been time tested and trial proven it needs no introduction to the thousands of physicians who prescribe or dispense it while the advertisement does not directly so advise, yet it is asubtle invitation to the general practitioner to use pil mixedtreatment chichester and thus save himself and his patient the timeand inconvenience which the rational treatment of syphilis imposes acircular “the treatment of syphilis simplified and improved” begins. “no therapeutic fact is more conspicuously and decisively established than that a radical cure of syphilis can be effected by the continuous administration, from the period of development, of a proper combination of mercury with iodine ”continuing, it is admitted that mercury is the most efficacious drug inthe primary and secondary stages of syphilis and iodin in the tertiarystage, but it is asserted that. “ it is now granted by all syphilologists that the antiluetic action of these drugs is immeasurably augmented by properly combining them, and that the best results are obtained when they are conjunctively administered throughout the entire course of the disease ”arguing along the same lines, this circular continues. “ it was not until mercury and iodine in the form of pil mixed treatment chichester was evolved that the marked advantages of the combined employment of these drugs in the various stages of syphilis became a scientific certainty ”further we are asked to believe that. “because of the greatly increased potency of mercury and iodine when combined, as in pil mixed treatment chichester, the foremost syphilologists are now agreed that the employment of these drugs in such form should be enjoined as soon as the disease develops, and should be thus continued until a cure has been effected. In other words, pil mixed treatment chichester should be made the sole antisyphilitic medication throughout all stages of the disease ”the circular illustrates the extent to which our knowledge of drugs maybe distorted and misrepresented and the public health jeopardized inthe exploitation of a proprietary medicine illustration. One reason scientific medicine lags uncritical medicaljournals perpetuate-- for a price-- the use of nostrums proprietary claimsin its advertising, the hillside chemical co claims that pil mixed treatment chichester both as to formula and method ofpreparation “in the incapsulated powder form” was “brought to thenotice of the profession by dr w r chichester of new york, aneminent syphilographer and recognized authority in the therapeuticsof syphilis ” it is claimed that this pill “is perfectly soluble, tasteless, nonirritant, and therefore well adapted to a sensitivestomach ” it is claimed that the pill “is always preferable to oneextemporaneously prepared, which, even if identical in composition, often gives negative results ”an examination made in the chemical laboratory of the association todetermine if the product now marketed contains the claimed amount ofpotassium iodid indicated that this was the case the chemist who madethis examination commented as follows on the claim that in this pill, potassium iodid is rendered tasteless, that the pill is “perfectlysoluble” and that extemporaneous pills of “identical compositionoften give negative results ”“that the potassium iodid has been rendered tasteless is false, naturally. The pills when placed in the mouth, after removal of thecoating, have the characteristic taste of alkali iodids the claimthat the pills are entirely soluble is incorrect. They contain a largeamount of insoluble material, probably kaolin the assertion that anextemporaneous compound prescription even if identical in compositionwith the chichester pill is often inert, is absurd and a reprehensibleattack by suggestion of the ideal that the physician shall write hisprescription to meet the individual needs of his patient and that thepharmacist shall compound the prescriptions of the physician as theyare required it should also be pointed out that while much is saidabout the potassium iodid in the chichester pill being in powderedform, the pill mass is solid and very slowly soluble and the claim ofbeing in powdered form is, if immaterial, also incorrect ”as to the asserted standing of the alleged discoverer of the formulafor pil mixed treatment. Dr william r chichester appears to havelived and practiced in new york since 1886 or longer, but the claimthat he is an “eminent syphilographer” seems to have originated withthe exploiters of “pil mixed treatment ” search failed to show thename of w r chichester among authors of textbooks of syphilis or anyother branch of medicine or among authors of contemporary literature inthe index medicus from 1907 down to the present. Nor did a search ofthe catalogue to the surgeon-general library reveal w r chichesteras ever having published anything on syphilis or any other subject pil mixed treatment chichester is sold under therapeutic claimswhich are unwarranted and misleading the preparation well illustratesthe abuses which are connected with the exploitation as proprietariesof established drugs or mixtures of established drugs -- from thejournal a m a , oct 22, 1921 atophan omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportexplaining why atophan has been omitted from new and nonofficialremedies schering and glatz, inc , the firm which markets thisbrand of cinchophen in the united states, has refused to placeeither the u s pharmacopeial name, “phenylcinchoninic acid acidumphenylcinchoninicum” or the n n r name, “cinchophen, ” on the labeland in the advertising matter so as to make the identity of the productclear to physicians furthermore, the product is sold under therapeuticclaims which the council holds to be exaggerated and unwarranted w a puckner, secretary commercial history of cinchophenthe substance, 2-phenyl-quinolin-4-carboxylic acid, was described bydoebner and gieseke in 1887 ann d chem liebig 242:291 thetherapeutic properties of this compound were described by nicolaier anddohrn in 1908 deutsch arch f klin med 93:331 subsequentlythe product was placed on the market and extensively advertised by thechemische fabrik auf actien vorm e schering, berlin, gerthesis thisfirm also took out a patent in the united states on its productionand in 1911 secured a u s trademark on the name “atophan ” in1912 atophan was passed on by the council and admitted to new andnonofficial remedies when the government of the united states took charge of german-ownedpatents during the world war, the federal trade commission, andlater the chemical foundation, inc , issued licenses to americanfirms whereby these were authorized to manufacture the compound in the meantime, schering and glatz, inc , who had been the u s representatives for the chemische fabrik auf actien, also undertook tosupply the drug, but did not obtain a license from the boards in chargeof german patents also, this firm secured, in 1919, a trademark of theword “atophan, ” apparently after the german-owned trademark had beencanceled the drug “atophan” was admitted to the u s pharmacopeia as“phenylcinchoninic acid acidum phenylcinchoninicum ” as this nameproved too cumberessay, the council on pharmacy and chemistry coined theabbreviated name “cinchophen” for it, and this name is now used by allthe firms which are marketing the product in the united states, withthe exception of schering and glatz, inc , who use the term “atophan, ”first owned by the chemische fabrik auf actien atophan, a brand of cinchophenbecause of the confusion which is bound to arise from giving variousnames to one drug, the council selects a common name and providesstandards of identity, purity and strength for any drug which, byreason of the absence or lapse of patent rights or for other reason, is open to manufacture by more than one firm the council, then, willaccept such article only if it is marketed under the title adoptedfor new and nonofficial remedies the rules provide, however, thatwhen the council adopts a common name for an article that has beenadmitted under another name, such article will be retained in new andnonofficial remedies under the older name if the council name is givenprominence on the label and in the circulars and advertisements, inorder to avoid confusion accordingly, when the period of acceptancefor atophan in new and nonofficial remedies was about to expire, schering and glatz were notified that atophan could be retained inthat publication only on condition that the name, “cinchophen, ”or else the pharmacopeial name, “phenylcinchoninic acid acidumphenylcinchoninicum” be placed on the label and used in the circularsand advertising unwarranted therapeutic claims for atophanat the time that the council asked schering and glatz to adoptcinchophen or phenylcinchoninic acid as a synonym for atophan, thefirm was also requested to omit from future advertising a number oftherapeutic claims to which the council was obliged to take exception schering and glatz refused the first request and made no definitepromise with regard to the second the council, therefore, directed theomission of atophan from new and nonofficial remedies, 1921 the advertising to which the council took exception does not appear tobe distributed at present a pamphlet has been sent out, however, whichis equally objectionable it contains unwarranted therapeutic claimsand suggests that atophan be used in conditions in which it is notindicated for instance. “no longer the vague, hypothetical, ‘test-tube demonstrated’ principle of uric acid elimination by solution, but a definite, scientifically and clinically established, physiologic stimulation of the uric acid excretion performed innocuously and controllable to a nicety by dosage and by urine and blood tests ”the “innocuousness” of atophan has not been proved.

On the contrary, they seem to act asa stimulus to the tumor, accelerating the normal rate of growth spontaneous tumors show similar effects, but no cures are recorded only in tumors in which autolysis is active intra vitam does themethod exert any effect consequently the benign primary tumors ofanimals, such as fibromas, are not influenced by it neuberg and caspari are to a great extent responsible for the colloidaltheory of treatment in tumors accepting the observations of petri andothers that the autolytic ferments in tumors are quantitatively greaterand qualitatively different from those present in the normal tissuesof the body, they venture the assumption that the process of recoveryin the experimental tumors of animals is due to the self-digestion ofthe tumor by these ferments ascoli and izar271 had shown that suchferments are materially stimulated by the presence of metals, and moreespecially of metals in colloidal form this contention is apparentlyin harmony with the well-established fact that certain colloidal metalsof themselves are capable of acting under certain circumstances asferments neuberg and caspari were at first of the belief that thecompounds produced by them circulate in colloidal form subsequentlythey stated that these compounds were crystalline substances, but theyassumed, under the influence of the theoretical consideration mentionedabove, that these substances are broken up in the tumor and thereundergo transformation into the colloid state 271 izar. Ztschr f immunitätsforsch , 1913 izar and basile. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 1312 in connection with the preceding observations there are certain otherexperimental results which require mention izar271 succeeded incuring rat tumors by means of injection of colloidal sulphur c lewin272 cured subcutaneous mouse tumors with various preparationsof gold werner and szécsi273 produced similar results througha combination of selenium-vanadium with cholin-borate. In theseexperiments the selenium-vanadium was supposed to be present incolloidal form 272 lewin, carl. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 147. Berl klin wchnschr , 1913, p 541 273 werner and szécsi. Ztschr f chemotherap , 1913, orig , i, 358 szécsi. Ibid , ref , 1913, ii, 1060 within a comparatively brief period of time, therefore, it fell to thelot of a number of observers, using strikingly different substances, to produce therapeutic effects amounting in a certain percentage ofpaper even to cure in the experimental tumors of the lower animals the various procedures have little in common both metals andnonmetallic substances have been employed either in colloidal form orin combination with organic radicals in essay instances a diffusiblecarrier is combined with the basic substances. In others not all ofthe preparations appear to possess a high degree of toxicity, althoughadequate data on this very essential feature are almost invariablywithheld wassermann results with eosin-selenium were soon critically examinedby other observers uhlenhuth274 and contamin275 were unable toconfirm his observations, but their negative results are attributedby keysser to the fact that they were not in possession of the properformula for the preparation of the eosin-selenium compounds as usedby wassermann apolant, 276 however, in ehrlich name confirmedwassermann findings 274 uhlenhuth, dold and bindseil. Ref , münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 1782 275 contamin, detoeuf and thomos. Bull de l’assn franç pourl’étude du cancer, vi, 62 276 apolant, h. Vi tag der freien vereinigung für mikrobiologie , berlin, 1912 ref münchen med wchnschr , 1912, p 659 the most important critique of eosin-selenium has been contributedby the subsequent investigations of one of wassermann originalcollaborators, f keysser 277 keysser publication contains a largenumber of very careful observations on the various forms of eosinsupplied by the german manufacturers, as well as on other matters whichcannot here be considered in detail he finally reached the conclusionthat the eosin furnished by the manufacturing house of sandoz wasthe most effective for his purposes, inasmuch as it combined thelowest grade of toxicity with the highest capacity for discoloringthe tissues the selenium he used in the form of selenio-vanadiumfurnished by clin of paris, which was the identical preparation usedby werner and szécsi in combination with borcholin the maximum doseof this selenio-vanadium is 0 06 c c for each gram of mouse eosin, 0 01 gm , dissolved in 0 5 c c of physiologic salt solution, is mixedwith 0 5 c c of the selenio-vanadium this mixture is then used forintravenous injections the results produced by the injection of thismixture are to all intents and purposes similar to those obtained bywassermann, except that keysser induced cure in a larger proportion ofanimals, namely, from 6 to 8 per cent it is evident from his carefuldescription of his experiments that the treatment is extremely toxic tothe animals the therapeutic dose is considerably greater than one-halfthe toxic dose this accounts for the fact that an extremely largeproportion of the animals perish during the course of the treatment the tumors failed to be influenced unless the dose given fell verylittle short of the fatal amount moreover, in order to accomplish acomplete cure, at least eight to ten injections must be given, and inessay instances not less than fourteen 277 keysser, f.

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Treatment of influenzapneumonia by the use of sat essay scores convalescent human serum. Preliminary report, j a m a 71:1311 oct 19 1918 at least two kinds of vaccine are in use in the hope that they mayhave preventive effects one consists solely of killed influenzabacilli. It being extensively used in the east we have as yet nodecisive figures as to its effects, but there is an impression that itmay have essay value the other vaccine is a mixed vaccine of the moreimportant bacteria in the respiratory tract in influenza, principallypneumonococci, streptococci and influenza bacilli it appears thatvaccines of this nature are in extensive use, but we have no evidencethat any benefit will be derived from them to say that thousandshave been vaccinated with apparently good results means nothing atall, simply because we are still in the midst of the outbreak, inthesis places even in the earlier stages how slender the basis ofthis anti-influenzal vaccination when it is considered that the realnature of influenza is still unknown!. in any event, it will requirethesis carefully elaborated and controlled observations before anythingdefinite may be learned in regard to the effect of these vaccines, and it is probably safe to say that nothing on which to rely in thefuture can be learned from the indiscriminate vaccination now goingon there is, therefore, no basis on which promise of protection fromvaccines may be made they may be harmless, and they may or may not beof preventive value -- editorial from the journal a m a , oct 26, 1918 intravenous therapythe intravenous administration of drugs is a new dewritingure in therapy, but one which is rapidly increasing in use among its reputedadvantages are that it is the quickest means of obtaining the effectsof a drug, the effects are obtained with a certainty not obtained byother methods, and they are so marked that they cannot fail to impressthe observer these advantages in thesis paper are apparent rather thanreal. But even were they real advantages, they should not blind usto the various and serious dangers which this method involves thetechnic, although not difficult, must be thoroughly mastered, orundue pain, infection, air embolism, or even death may result suchaccidents, however, are ordinarily easily avoided, and should beconsidered quite inexcusable more serious is the fact that the drugsgiven intravenously reach the system, and especially the heart, in adifferent manner and concentration from that to which physicians areaccustomed with ordinary methods of administration pharmacologistshave long practiced intravenous administration, when studying acuteeffects of drugs, and they have observed that frequently the immediateresult of such injections is a prompt fall of blood pressure, notobtained when the same drugs are given by mouth or even hypodermically this fall in blood pressure is commonly attributed to irritation ofthe endocardium it is usually of short duration, but is certainlyundesirable and essaytimes may have serious results it has also been observed that several drugs, for instance, quinin andpotassium, depress the cardiac muscle when given intravenously muchmore than when given in other ways furthermore, any substance whichtends to precipitate proteins must be injected slowly and with extremecaution, or it will produce intravascular clotting and sudden death deaths have resulted not only from a lack of knowledge of the technicof intravenous therapy, but also from a lack of knowledge of drugswhich may be so administered sudden death has been reported followingthe injection of an iron preparation containing peptone, and alsofollowing intravenous injection of ether intravenous injections, whileessaytimes superior to the slower methods, are distinctly inferior whena continuous, rather than a sudden, action is desired drugs leave theblood system with great rapidity, and therefore their action on thecirculation will cease promptly unless they are continuously supplied it would be undesirable to inject intravenously such drugs as iodids, nitrites, iron or salicylates with these dangers and disadvantages in mind, it seems unwise toresort to promiscuous intravenous medication until the effects ofthis method have been studied in detail for the drugs employed, andunless there are distinct advantages to be secured this is the casewhen an immediate action is necessary in emergencies, as in the use ofstrophanthin for cardiac collapse, quinin in pernicious malaria, etc , or if the drug would be destroyed in the stomach or tissues as in thecase of salvarsan, or when the drug is not adequately absorbed by anyother channel, as in the case of epinephrin intravenous therapy will be most securely advanced if its employmentis restricted to such well defined fields these fields can besatisfactorily determined only by a scientific pharmacologic study ofthe action of these drugs when so administered in animals, as well asin man, under conditions in which the results are carefully controlled the intravenous method is an impressive one, approaching in preparationalmost to that which goes with a surgical operation the patient isusually interested and impressed by this new, and to him, mysteriousmethod there is a psychic element in his reaction to the injectionwhich is not a factor in his reaction to the same drug when given bymouth the intravenous injection of a complex mixture would appear tobe writingicularly reprehensible little is known, as has been stated, of the results to be expected from intravenous therapy, even withsimple substances the use of complex mixtures will without doubt reactagainst the proper use of the method -- editorial from the journala m a , nov 11, 1916 iodin fumesone of the important factors connected with therapeutics as a scienceis the method of administration of medicinal substances drugsmay be given by mouth, by hypodermic or intravenous injection, byinhalation, by inunction or, less frequently, by the use of otherentrances into the body in choosing a method, the physical charactersof the substance to be administered and the immediate effects of thesubstance on the body tissues with which it may come in contact must beespecially taken into consideration these factors apply writingicularly in the case of substances likeiodin, arsenic, mercury or the biologic products in which the modeof administration radically modifies the action for essay time, manufacturers have urged substitutes for tincture of iodin, claimingthat their substitutes were free from the undesirable properties of thetincture, and, at the same time, possessed special virtues which thetincture could not possess more recently, attention has been directedto the administration of iodin in the form of vapor the diffusing andpenetrating powers of gases have writingicularly attracted the attentionof therapeutists, since by this method drugs may be applied to ratherinaccessible portions of the body, such as the lining of the lungs, the throat and the mucous membranes of the genito-urinary tract furthermore, it has been asserted that iodin in the form of fumes hasincreased combining powers, and is thus far more potent in effect thaniodin administered by any other route there do not seem to have beenany adequate scientific investigations of the subject, however, untilthe recently published results of luckhardt and his collaborators293at the university of chicago in their experiments, both on man and onanimals, accurately determined quantities of iodin were vaporized in aspecial device, and the fumes applied to the skin at the same time, the tincture was applied to the skin of other persons as a control iodin was also applied to the skin of dogs with hyperplastic thyroidglands. And the effects on the gland, before and after administration, studied dogs were also used to determine whether iodin fumes wereabsorbed from the lungs as a result of these investigations, which arereported in great detail, it was found that iodin, when deposited onthe skin in the form of fumes, is absorbed more iodin was recoveredfrom the urine, following the application of the tincture, than wasrecovered following the use of the fumes this result is explainedby the authors on the ground that probably more iodin was actuallyapplied, and that the iodin so deposited was held in combination withthe protein during the process of coagulation of the latter by thealcohol of the tincture, leading to a state of continuous absorption it is probable, furthermore, that the iodin deposited on the skin inthe form of fumes is revaporized to essay extent by the heat of the body 293 luckhardt, a b. Koch, f c. Schroeder, w f.