History

Sanders Rape Essay


Outwardly in unguents, and plaisters for outward as self-healis like bugle in form, so also in the qualities and virtues, servingfor all the purposes whereto bugle is applied to with good success, either inwardly or outwardly, for inward wounds or ulcers whatsoeverwithin the body, for bruises or falls, and such like hurts if it beaccompanied with bugle, sanicle, and other the like wound herbs, itwill be more effectual to wash or inject into ulcers sanders rape essay in the writingsoutwardly where there is cause to repress the heat and sharpness ofhumours flowing to any sore, ulcers, inflammations, swellings, or thelike, or to stay the fluxes of blood in any wound or writing, this is usedwith essay good success. As also to cleanse the foulness of sores, andcause them more speedily to be healed it is an especial remedy for allgreen wounds, to solder the lips of them, and to keep the place frothesis further inconveniencies the juice hereof used with oil of roses toanoint the temples and forehead, is very effectual to remove head ache, and the same mixed with honey of roses, cleanses and heals all ulcers, in the mouth, and throat, and those also in the secret writings and theproverb of the germans, french, and others, is verified in this, thathe needs neither physician nor surgeon that hath self-heal andsanicle to help himself the service-tree it is so well known in the place where it grows, that it needs nodescription time it flowers before the end of may, and the fruit is ripe inoctober government and virtues services, when they are mellow, are fit tobe taken to stay fluxes, scouring, and casting, yet less than medlers if they be dried before they be mellow, and kept all the year, theymay be used in decoctions for the said purpose, either to drink, or tobathe the writings requiring it. And are profitably used in that manner tostay the bleeding of wounds, and of the mouth or nose, to be applied tothe forehead and nape of the neck. And are under the dominion of saturn shepherd purse it is called whoreman permacety, shepherd scrip, shepherd pounce, toy-wort, pickpurse, and casewort descript the root is small, white, and perishes every year theleaves are small and long, of a pale green colour, and deeply cut inon both sides, among which spring up a stalk which is small and round, containing small leaves upon it even to the top the flowers are whiteand very small. After which come the little paper which hold the seed, which are flat, almost in the form of a heart place they are frequent in this nation, almost by every path-side time they flower all the summer long. Nay essay of them are sofruitful, that they flower twice a year government and virtues it is under the dominion of saturn, and ofa cold, dry, and binding nature, like to him it helps all fluxes ofblood, either caused by inward or outward wounds.

Ii the essential sanders rape essay or internal. Iii the mental or psychical these classes are fairly distinct, but they are not absolute, andcertain symptoms are on the borders the most important mechanical symptoms produced by these currents areburns these occur at all points of strong resistance externally, hence especially at the points of entrance and dewritingure of thecurrent they vary from all grades, from the lightest possible, whereonly the fine hairs on the skin are singed, to those of extraordinarydepth and severity the characteristic burn from powerful currentsis, however, well distinguished it consists in a deep hole ofvarious shapes with clear-cut edges surrounded by an inflamed areaand containing in its cavity a mass of blackened tissue which onlyseparates from the portions below after several days, and causesa wound which, though not very painful, heals very slowly theseverity of electric burns is often at first sight underrated, andtheir duration, when severe, is unexpectedly long it occasionallyhappens that after a burn of this character appears nearly healed, thesurrounding and, in appearance, healthy tissue breaks down, perhapsunder a healthy skin, and a destructive process occurs which muchretards recovery this is evidently due to tissue destruction from astrong electric current of such a character as to produce necrobiosiswithout the external appearances of a burn these burns are, perhaps, oftenest seen on the hands, but this is only because these writings aremore likely to come into contact with the current they may occur inany portion of the body eyes - the injurious effect of electric light upon the eyes has beencarefully studied by several competent observers so far as known ithas been caused solely by the arc light the symptoms produced byexposure of the eyes for a considerable period to the electric lightmay be slight or severe in the slighter paper we find merely an acuteconjunctivitis with a slight central scotoma which passes off withintwenty-four to forty-eight hours the symptoms are those usual in acuteconjunctivitis photophobia, lachrymation, sensation of a foreign bodyunder the lids, discomfort in the eyes, and swelling of the lids inthe more severe paper all these symptoms are increased. The photophobiaand lachrymation may be intense there is essaytimes severe pain inthe supra-orbital nerve, and occasionally a tendency to somnolence in these paper we find an intense conjunctivitis with chymosis, acentral scotoma which may render the patient for the time practicallyblind, and on ophthalmoscopic examination a congestion of the vesselsof the retina and choroid, a neuro-retinitis, and essaytimes evenhemorrhages into the retina there is essaytimes peripapillary œdemaand infiltration around the optic nerve the pupil of the eye in thesepaper is usually much contracted there is essaytimes loss of epitheliumfrom the cornea in certain severe paper there is produced in addition to the eyesymptoms an erythema of the face bresse states that this erythema canbe produced on the face, arm, or hand by exposure to the voltaic arcat a distance of thirty to forty centimetres the blush grows deeperfor three or four hours, then remains stationary for a time, and endsin desquamation leaving a very durable pigmentation the erythema isaccompanied by a sensation of smarting the strength of the light and the length of time required to producethese effects probably vary essaywhat according to the color of thelight emrys jones states that he is informed that either excess ordefect of current gives a less injurious light than the normal current;the excess gives a more violet, the defect a more orange light on theother hand, charcot considered that the harmfulness of the electriclight was due at any rate in considerable writing to the chemical orviolet rays, and bresse found that when violet rays were added to anelectric light as by aluminium it was more injurious than before toanimals what writing the brilliancy of the light plays in determiningthe pathological results is not yet fully settled the heat, however, does not, as a rule, seem to have much effect unless in extraordinaryinstances where the cornea is burned muscular contractions - another effect of electricity which isexternally visible on the human system is muscular contraction slight muscular contractions are produced purposely in thesis paper inmedical treatment therapeutically or for the sake of diagnosis whenthe stimuli are sufficiently strong and follow each other with greatrapidity, or when a strong continuous current is passed through themuscles, they are brought into a state of continuous contraction ortetanus, and in this condition they will remain for a long periodor until the electric stimulus is removed in paper where a severeelectric shock is received as from an electric wire, the muscleswhich come in contact with the wire immediately contract and remaincontracted while the current continues to pass through them as aresult of this we often find that when a severe electric shock has beenreceived through the hands by means of a wire or other conductor thesufferer hands are involuntarily closed upon the wire or conductor, and cannot be unclosed by any voluntary effort until the current isstopped while thus holding the conductor the hands are often veryseverely burnt under these circumstances a strong force is required toremove a person from a charged wire if the current be not turned off, and it can only be done at a considerable risk unless by those expertand provided with special means not only the muscles immediately in contact with the conductor, butnearly all the voluntary muscles of the body may be thus affectedby a powerful current another effect of this involuntary muscularcontraction is the forcible muscular movements produced by the shock as previously stated, when a sufficiently strong shock occurs, thevoluntary muscles of the trunk and limbs may be thrown into suddencontraction in such a manner as to throw the person violently andforcibly on to the ground, or against essay object or objects in theneighborhood in this way one may be propelled several feet, and thesisvarieties of surgical injury may be caused rarely the force of thecontraction is such as of itself to rupture muscles or tendons, and itmight even fracture bones or dislocate joints already predisposed essential or internal symptoms we pass now to what we may consider the internal or essentialconditions of electric shock, leaving the mental or psychical resultsfor examination later when a person receives a severe electric shock, the symptoms areusually as follows. In the first place there may be little or nothingexcept a burn or burns, though usually there is essay sensation at themoment of the shock this may be a simple dizziness, and is oftenaccompanied by the sensation of a brilliant flash of light before theeyes, and essaytimes by a sense of impending danger usually, however, there is a loss of consciousness more or less complete and more orless lasting according to the severity of the shock and the characterand course of the current in the less severe paper this graduallypasses away, and in thesis paper the patient, although weak and feelingshaken and tired, suffers no further ill effects beyond those of theburns and mechanical injuries essaytimes there follows a general tremorwhich may last a few hours or for days, and occasionally a clonicrhythmical spasm of one or more extremities the loss of consciousnessmay, however, be accompanied or followed by a condition of collapse, in which the pale face, profuse perspiration, cold extremities, and feeble pulse all suggest the administration of stimulants andrestoratives as a rule, in the stage of unconsciousness the face isreddened and rather cyanotic the pupils are dilated as a rule and therespiration stertorous or absent. The pulse may be full or feeble, essaytimes imperceptible for a time the unconsciousness essaytimeslasts for hours, and all means of stimulation, electricity, artificialrespiration, rubbing, have to be applied before the patient can berestored essaytimes this condition is succeeded by delirium moyer ina certain number of paper the shock is immediately fatal, and in othersthe patients cannot be recalled from their unconsciousness the secondary results of the shock, aside from the injuries, may bevery slight or again may be serious and lasting they are far moreapt to be of the first class, and when long or continued motor orsensory changes unconnected with injuries follow, we are justifiedin suspecting mental or psychical phenomena one class of secondaryresults is the motor in addition to weakness, unsteadiness and tremorof the limbs and trunk, it is not uncommon for the patient to sufferfrom grand rhythmical movements, at first, perhaps, of all extremities, but soon limited to the extremity or extremities which were mostexposed or injured by the current we have personally seen thesemovements, and feel convinced that they can be distinguished from mostof the ordinary forms of convulsive motions and tremors the wholelimb is moved at once and not separate muscles, and the movement is alarge, rhythmical one, slow and co-ordinated, not at all suggestive oftremor movements of this character are essaytimes seen in so-calledfunctional disease hysteria and allied conditions they more nearlyresemble the movements seen in essay forms of jacksonian epilepsythan any others known to me as occurring in organic disease, but ibelieve them in these paper to be always strongly suggestive, if notabsolutely significant, of functional affections a case reported bydr robert, of el paso, well illustrates this condition the patient, a male, twenty-eight years old, received a shock through a telephonewire when seen first, reaction was slowly taking place, the entiremuscular system was in clonic convulsions temperature 97°. Pulserapid and of low tension. Respiration 50. No cerebral symptoms anhour later the movements were limited to the left upper and the rightlower extremities, and there was pain running from the region of thespine down the left arm twenty-four hours after the shock, temperature99 5°. Respiration 40. Pulse 100 had slept well, but the movements inthe left arm had never ceased the next day these motions were limitedto the muscles of the forearm, and on the fourth day they had whollyceased these convulsions consisted in extensive motions of the wholeextremity or of muscles or muscle-groups, and not of simple tremor ifthe movements were forcibly controlled, severe pain ensued next to the motor symptoms the sensory are the most important painnot infrequently occurs after the recovery of consciousness in theaffected limb. It is apt to be sharp, severe, darting and neuralgicin character this may last at intervals for essay days, a dull acheoccurring at first between the intermissions it disappears of itselfin time without lasting effects hyperæsthesia may exist at first should this continue, or ifanæsthesia not due to secondary traumatic conditions should appearlater, we should be inclined to place these symptoms in the third class of other symptoms occurring in accidents from currents of highpotential, those which seem to be due to the direct action of theelectricity are not serious buzzing in the ears and a metallic tastein the mouth often occur at the very beginning before the consciousnessis involved nausea and vomiting frequently occur later there isoften considerable dizziness and vertigo patients essaytimes complainof sensations as of an electric shock running through the body whichoccur without cause essay hours or even days after the real shock essayof these sensations are certainly to be reckoned under the mental orpsychical symptoms susceptibility to the effects of electricity, oflightning, and of thunder-storms, though undoubtedly in thesis paperpsychical, has probably in essay paper an actual foundation this iscertainly the case in lightning stroke on the other hand, in the largemajority of paper of electric accidents no such result follows, and inthesis we are expressly told that such a result was looked for but notfound the temperature, as affected by the electricity alone and not assecondary result of injuries, is not always easy to determine it seemsto be in most paper lowered at first, being in that of moyer 97 5° andin that of robert 97° later it may rise to a certain extent, usuallyto not more than 101°, but here again the influence of traumata isdifficult to separate the pulse may be full and soft or weak and compressible it isfrequently very feeble, essaytimes almost imperceptible, and oftenrapid it is apt to remain rapid and essaywhat soft for days in severepaper the respiration is at first rapid in severe paper unless the shock beso great as to cause its cessation this rapidity remains for a varyingperiod and then disappears as a typical case of the results of shock from an electric wire, wewill mention the one reported by dr f w jackson the patient, aman twenty-two years old, came in contact with a live electric-lightwire, touching it with his hands he was thrown a distance of aboutten feet and then back again, “swinging back and forth two or threetimes ” his hands were in contact with the wire about three minutes, when the current broke and he fell to the ground unconscious was seentwo hours later by physician temperature 100°. Pulse 100, strong andbounding. Pupils dilated. Headache. Nervous and irritable. Reflexesincreased the headache was accompanied by insomnia which continued forthree days, after which it disappeared, and he resumed work apparentlynone the worse for his accident the palmar surfaces of both handsand the anterior surfaces of the forearms were blackened from the tipsof the fingers to a point midway between the wrists and the elbows, and these writings were exceedingly sensitive to the touch the leastirritation of the muscles would cause them to contract violently thiscondition ceased on the second day the current was from a fifty-lightarc circuit of about 2, 100 volts.

Sublingual veins much engorged. Tongue protruded slightly and much swollen. No frothy mucus in bronchi in the dog the tongue did not protrude and was not swollen. Right cavities of heart contained blood, left empty. Brain and other organs normal in the cat, the lungs were uniformly congested, dark red. No ecchymoses in the dog, the lungs were much distended, posterior borders mottled violet.

Cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs, of eachtwo drachms. Cardamoms, cubebs, of each one drachm. Let the thingsbe cut that are to be cut, and the things be bruised that are to bebruised, all of them infused in twenty four pints of spanish wine, fortwenty four hours, then, distilled in an alembick, adding two ounces ofwhite sugar to every pint of distilled water let the first pint be called spirit of wormwood the greater composition culpeper the opinion of authors is, that it heats the stomach, and strengthens it and the lungs, expels wind, and helps digestion inancient people spiritus et aqua angelica magis composita or spirit and water of angelica, the greater composition the college take of the leaves of angelica eight ounces, of carduusbenedictus six ounces, of bawm and sage, of each four ounces, angelicaseeds six ounces. Sweet fennel seeds nine ounces let the herbs, beingdryed, and the seeds be grossly bruised, to which add of the speciescalled aromaticum rosarum. And of the species called diamoschu dulce, of each an ounce and a half, infuse them two days in thirty two pintsof spanish wine, then distil them with a gentle fire, and with everypound mix two ounces of sugar dissolved in rose-water let the three first pounds be called by the name of spirit, the rest bythe name of water culpeper the chief end of composing this medicine, was tostrengthen the heart and resist infection, and therefore is verywholeessay in pestilential times, and for such as walk in stinking air i shall now quote you their former receipt in their former dispensatory angelica water the greater composition the college take of angelica two pounds, annis seed half a pound, coriander and caraway seeds, of each four ounces, zedoary bruised, three ounces. Steep them twenty four hours in six gallons of smallwine, then draw out the spirit, and sweeten it with sugar culpeper it comforts the heart, cherishes the vital spirits, resists the pestilence, and all corrupt airs, which indeed are thenatural causes of epidemical diseases, the sick may take a spoonfulof it in any convenient cordial, and such as are in health, and havebodies either cold by nature, or cooled by age, may take as much eitherin the morning fasting, or a little before meat spiritus lavendula compositus matthiæ or compound spirit of lavender matthias the college take of lavender flowers one gallon, to which pourthree gallons of the best spirits of wine, let them stand togetherin the sun six days, then distil them with an alembick with thisrefrigeratory take of the flowers of sage, rosemary, and bettony, of each onehandful. The flowers of borrage, bugloss, lilies of the valley, cowslips, of each two handfuls. Let the flowers be newly and seasonablygathered, being infused in one gallon of the best spirits of wine, and mingled with the foregoing spirit of lavender flowers, addingthe leaves of bawm, feather-few, and orange tree fresh gathered. Theflowers of stœchas and orange tree, bay berries, of each one ounce after convenient digestion distil it again, after which add citronpills the outward bark, peony seed husked, of each six drams, cinnamon, mace, nutmegs, cardamoms, cubebs, yellow sanders, of each half anounce, wood of aloes one dram, the best jujubes, the stones being takenout, half a pound, digest them six weeks, then strain it and filter it, and add to it prepared pearls two drams, emeralds prepared a scruple, ambergrease, musk, saffron, of each half a scruple, red roses dryed, red sanders, of each half an ounce, yellow sanders, citron pills, dryed, of each one dram let the species being tyed up in a rag, behung into the aforementioned spirit culpeper i could wish the apothecaries would desire to be certifiedby the college 1 whether the gallon of lavender flowers must be filled by heap, or by strike 2 next, whether the flowers must be pressed downin the measure or not 3 how much must be drawn off in the firstdistillation 4 where they should get orange leaves and flowers freshgathered 5 what they mean by convenient digestion 6 where youshall find borrage, bugloss, and cowslips, flowering together, thatso you may have them all fresh according to their prescript, the oneflowering in the latter end of april, and beginning of may, the otherin the end of june, and beginning of july 7 if they can make a shiftto make it, how, or which way the virtues of it will countervail theone half of the charge and cost, to leave the pains and trouble out spiritus castorii or spirit of castoreum the college take of fresh castoreum four ounces, lavender floweran ounce, the tops of sage and rosemary, of each half an ounce, cinnamon six drams, mace, cloves, of each two drachms, spirits of winerectified, six pounds, digest them in a phial filled only to the thirdwriting, close stopped with cork and bladder in warm ashes for two days, then distilled in balneo mariæ, and the distilled water kept closestopped culpeper by reason of its heat it is no ways fit to be taken alone, but mixed with other convenient medicines appropriated to the diseasesyou would give it for, it resists poison, and helps such as are bittenby venomous beasts. It causes speedy delivery to women in travail, andcasteth out the placenta. It helps the fits of the mother, lethargiesand convulsions, being mixed with white wine, and dropped into theears, it helps deafness. If stopping be the cause of it, the dose to begiven inwardly is between one dram, and half a dram, according to thestrength and age of the patient aqua petasitidis composita or, compound water of butter-bur the college take of the fresh roots of butter-bur bruised, onepound and a half, the roots of angelica and masterwort, of each half apound, steep them in ten pints of strong ale, then distil them till thechange of the taste gives a testimony that the strength is drawn out culpeper this water is very effectual being mixed with otherconvenient cordials, for such as have pestilential fevers. Also aspoonful taken in the morning, may prove a good preservative inpestilential times. It helps the fits of the mother, and such as areshort winded, and being taken inwardly, dries up the moisture of suchsores as are hard to be cured aqua raphani composita or compound water of radishes the college take of the leaves of both sorts of scurvy-grass, ofeach six pound, having bruised them, press the juice out of them, withwhich mix of the juice of brooklime, and water-cresses, of each onepound and a half, of the best white wine, eight pounds, twelve wholelemons, pills and all, fresh briony roots four pound, the roots of wildradishes two pound, captain winter cinnamon half a pound, nutmegsfour ounces, steep them altogether, and then distil them culpeper i fancy it not, and so i leave it. I suppose they intendedit for purgation of women in child-bed aqua peoniæ composita or compound water of peony the college take of the flowers of lilies of the valley, one pound:infuse them in four gallons of spanish wine so long till the followingflowers may be had fresh take of the fore-named flowers half a pound, peony flowers fourounces. Steep them together fourteen days, then distil them in balneomariæ till they be dry. In the distilled liquor infuse again malepeony roots gathered in due time, two ounces and a half, white dittany, long birthwort, of each half an ounce, the leaves of misselto of theoak, and rue, of each two handfuls, peony seeds husked, ten drams, rueseeds three drams and a half, castoreum two scruples, cubebs, mace, of each two drachms, cinnamon an ounce and a half, squills prepared, three drachms, rosemary flowers six pugils, arabian stæchas, lavender, of each four pugils, the flowers of betony, clove-gilliflowers, andcowslips, of each eight pugils, then adding four pound of the juice ofblack cherries, distil it in a glass till it be dry aqua bezoartica or bezoar water college take of the leaves of celandine, roots and all, threehandfuls and a half, rue two handfuls, scordium four handfuls, dittanyof crete, carduus, of each one handful and a half, zedoary and angelicaroots, of each three drams, citrons and lemon pills, of each sixdrams, clove-gilliflowers one ounce and a half, red rose, centaury theless, of each two drams, cinnamon, cloves, of each three drams, venicetreacle three ounces, mithridates one ounce and a half, camphire twoscruples, troches of vipers two ounces, mace two drams, wood of aloeshalf an ounce, yellow sanders one dram and a half, carduus seeds oneounce, citron seeds six drams, let them be cut and infused in spiritsof wine, and malaga wine, of each three pound and a half, vinegar ofclove-gilliflowers, juice of lemons, of each one pound, and distilledin a glass still in balneo mariæ, after it is half distilled off, theresidue may be strained through a linen cloath, and be reduced to thethickness of honey, and called the bezoartic extract culpeper extracts have the same virtues with the waters they aremade from, only the different form is to please the palates of suchwhose fancy loathes any one writingicular form this bezoar water strengthens the heart, arteries, and vital spirits:it provokes sweat, and is exceeding good in pestilential fevers, inhealth it withstands melancholy and consumptions, and makes a merry, blithe, chearful creature of the extract you may take ten grains at atime, or essaywhat more, if your body be not feverish, half a spoonfulof water is sufficient at a time, and that mixed with other cordials ormedicines appropriated to the disease that troubles you aqua et spiritus lambricorum, magistralis or water and spirit of earthworms college take of earthworms well cleansed, three pound, snails, withshells on their backs cleansed, two gallons, beat them in a mortar, andput them into a convenient vessel, adding stinging nettles, roots andall, six handfuls, wild angelica, four handfuls, brank ursine, sevenhandfuls, agrimony, bettony, of each three handfuls, rue one handful, common wormwood two handfuls, rosemary flowers six ounces, dock rootsten ounces, the roots of sorrel five ounces, turmerick, the inner barkof barberries, of each four ounces, fenugreek seeds two ounces, clovesthree ounces, hart-horn, ivory in gross powder, of each four ounces, saffron three drams, small spirits of wine four gallons and a half, after twenty-four hours infusion, distil them in an alembick let thefour first pounds be reserved for spirit, the rest for water culpeper ’tis a mess altogether, it may be they intended it for anuniversal medicine aqua gentianæ compositæ or gentian water compound college take of gentain roots sliced, one pound and a half, theleaves and flowers of centaury the less, of each four ounces, steepthem eight days in twelve pounds of white wine, then distil them in analembick culpeper it conduces to preservation from ill air, and pestilentialfevers. It opens obstructions of the liver, and helps such as theysay are liver-grown. It eases pains in the stomach, helps digestion, and eases such as have pains in their bones by ill lodging abroadin the cold, it provokes appetite, and is exceeding good for theyellow jaundice, as also for prickings or stitches in the sides.

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Knot over mastoid process forty minutes, cord and strapremoved. Body, especially face, became paler necroscopy a little overan hour after drop fell body pale. Skin mottled. Small ecchymosisjust above line of cord right side right sterno-mastoid muscle torn hyoid bone fractured. Spine not injured no seminal discharge ninetyminutes, pulsation in right subclavian vein. Heart-beat, eighty perminute. Thorax opened, heart exposed. Right auricle showed full andregular contractions and dilatations the spinal cord was then divided one hundred and twenty minutes, heart-beats forty per minute thesepulsations of right auricle continued at intervals for three and a halfhours longer.