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They are meanly hot and dry, cleansing, help the bitings of venomous beasts, keep men bodies fromgrowing too fat, help the yellow jaundice, stay bleeding, fluxes, andhelp green wounds dioscorides, pliny, galen, tragus aspergula odorata wood-roof. Cheers the heart, makes men merry, helps melancholy, and opens the stoppings of the liver aquilegia columbines. Help sore throats, are of a drying, bindingquality argentina silver-weed, or wild tansy. Cold and dry almost in thethird degree. Stops lasks, fluxes, and the menses, good against ulcers, the stone, and inward wounds. Easeth gripings in the belly, fastensloose teeth. Outwardly it takes away freckles, morphew, and sunburning, it takes away inflammations, and bound to the wrists stops the violenceof the fits of the ague artanita sow-bread. Hot and dry in the third degree, it is adangerous purge. Outwardly in ointments it takes away freckles, sunburning, and the marks which the small pox leaves behind them:dangerous for pregnant women aristolochia, longa, rotunda birth-wort long and round see theroots artemisia mugwort. Is hot and dry in the second degree.

And if all that authors say betrue, why do they contradict one another?. but in mine, if you view itwith the eye of reason, you shall see a reason for everything that iswritten, whereby you may find the very ground and foundation of physic;you may know what you do, and wherefore you do it. And this shall callme father, it being that i know of never done in the world before i have now but two things to write, and then i have done 1 what the profit and benefit of this work is 2 instructions in the use of it 1 the profit and benefit arising from it, or that may occur to a wiseman from it are thesis. So thesis that should i sum up all the writingiculars, my epistle would be as big as my book. I shall quote essay few generalheads first the admirable harmony of the creation is herein seen, in theinfluence of stars upon herbs and the body of man, how one writing of thecreation is subservient to another, and all for the use of man, wherebythe infinite power and wisdom of god in the creation appear.

And in case ofremoval into another county he must procure from the said clerk acertified copy of the said license, and file it with the clerk in thecounty to which he shall remove 6 exceptions - the act does not apply to commissioned surgeons of theunited states army, navy, or marine hospital service, or to regularlylicensed physicians or surgeons in actual consultation from otherstates or territories, or to regularly licensed physicians or surgeonsactually called from other states or territories to attend paper inthis state, or to any one while actually serving as a member of theresident medical staff of any legally incorporated hospital or asylumin this state, or to any person claiming the right to practise in thisstate who has been practising therein since before july 4th, 1890, provided the said right or title was obtained upon a diploma of whichthe holder and applicant was lawfully possessed and it was issued by alegally chartered medical institution in good standing 7, asamended act 1892, c 212 definition - any person is regarded as practising medicine or surgerywho appends “m d ” or “m b ” to his name, or prescribes for the useof any person any drug or medicine or other agency for the treatment, cure, or relief of any bodily injury, infirmity, or disease s 8 penalty - commencing the practice of medicine or surgery without alicense or contrary to the act is a misdemeanor punishable by a fine offrom $50 to $100, or imprisonment in the county jail from ten to ninetydays, or both 9 fees - to the treasurer of the board, for examination, for applicant offirst and second class, $15 to the treasurer of the board, for examination, for applicant of thirdclass, $20 4 to the county clerk, for registering license, 50 cents 6 new hampshire in new hampshire there is no statute on this subject new mexico board of examiners - the board of medical examiners is composed ofseven practising physicians of known ability and integrity, graduatesof essay medical school, college, or university duly established underand by virtue of the laws of the country in which it is situated, fourallopathic members, three homœopathic sample scholarship essay members, and one eclectic member compiled laws 1884, s 2, 553 qualification - applications for certificates and examinations are madeto the board through their secretary 2, 555 the board must examine diplomas as to their genuineness. Theverification consists in an affidavit of the holder and applicant thathe is the lawful possessor of the diploma and the person therein named;the affidavit may be taken before any person authorized to administeroaths, and shall be attested under his hand and official seal if hehave a seal graduates may present their diplomas and affidavits byletter or by proxy 2, 556 examinations of persons not graduates or licentiates must be made bythe board, and certificates by a majority of the board authorize thepossessor to practise medicine and surgery 2, 557 the certificate must be recorded in the county clerk office in everycounty in which the holder practises or attempts to practise medicineor surgery 2, 558 when a certificate is filed, the clerk must record it and attach hiscertificate thereto, showing the date of filing and recording and thenumber of the book and the page of the record 2, 559 examinations of persons not graduates must be made by the board andmay be wholly or writingly in writing, in anatomy, physiology, chemistry, pathology, surgery, obstetrics, and the practice of medicine exclusiveof materia medica and therapeutics 2, 561 the board may refuse or revoke a certificate to an individual guilty ofunprofessional or dishonorable conduct 2, 562 definition, exceptions - practising medicine is defined as professingpublicly to be a physician and prescribing for the sick or appendingto a name the letters “m d ” the act does not prohibit students fromprescribing under the supervision of a preceptor, nor prevent womenfrom practising midwifery, nor prohibit gratuitous services in paper ofemergency, nor apply to commissioned surgeons or acting surgeons of theunited states army or navy 2, 563 penalty - practising medicine or surgery without complying with the actis punishable with a fine of from $50 to $500 for each offence. Andfiling a diploma or a certificate of another, or a forged affidavit ofidentification, is a felony punishable the same as forgery exception - the provisions of the act do not apply to those who havebeen practising medicine ten years in the territory 2, 564, act passed 1882 professional conduct - the code of ethics of the united states medicalassociation is the standard, and the rule of decision, concerningprofessional conduct 2, 565 penalty - persons unlawfully collecting or receiving fees orcompensation for services as physicians or surgeons in violation ofthis act, are liable to the writingy paying it for double the amountthereof 2, 568 fees - to the secretary of the board, from each graduate or licentiateif the diploma is genuine, $5 to the secretary of the board, from each graduate or licentiate if thediploma is fraudulent or not owned by the possessor, $20 s 2, 556 to clerk of the county, for filing and recording certificate, the usualfees 2, 559 to the secretary of the board, for examination, in advance, $10 s 2, 561 new york prohibition - no person can lawfully practise medicine unlessregistered and legally authorized prior to september 1st, 1891, orunless licensed by the regents of the university of the state of newyork and registered as required by the present law. Nor can any personlawfully practise medicine who has ever been convicted of a felony byany court, or whose authority to practise is suspended or revoked bythe regents on the recommendation of a state board laws of 1893, c 661, s 140 boards of examiners - there are three separate state boards of medicalexaminers of seven members each, representing respectively the medicalsociety of the state, the homœopathic medical society of the state, andthe eclectic medical society of the state the regents appoint examiners from lists of nominees furnished bythe said societies each nominee before his appointment is requiredto furnish to the regents proof that he has received the degree ofdoctor of medicine from essay registered medical school, and haslegally practised medicine in this state for at least five years ifno nominees are legally before them, the regents may appoint from themembers in good standing of such societies without restriction s 141 at any meeting of the boards of examiners a majority constitute aquorum, but questions prepared by the boards may be grouped andedited, or answer papers of candidates may be examined and marked, bycommittees duly authorized by the boards and by the regents s 144 qualification - the regents are required to admit to examination anycandidate who pays a fee of $25, and submits satisfactory evidence, verified by oath, if required, that he 1 is more than twenty-one years of age. 2 is of good moralcharacter. 3 has the general education required in all paper afteraugust 1st, 1895, preliminary to receiving the degree of bachelor ordoctor of medicine in this state.

In fact, there are numbers of people even to-day who believethat not natural, but supernatural and unearthly, factors are active inthe bodily ailments of mankind the idea of good and evil demons, however, now assumed a specificallychristian character which, it is true, greatly resembled the ancientbabylonian notion, excepting that the good demons were replaced byangels and saints, whereas the evil spirits were embodied in the devil both, saints as well as devils, were thenceforth destined to play awriting in the domain of medicine it is true, the general recognitionwhich they enjoyed during the middle ages and a considerable periodof modern times has probably now passed away, but there still existnumerous classes of our people in whom the medical rôle of saints aswell as devils is most willingly acknowledged we have referred elsewhere to the therapeutic accomplishments ofthe saints during the middle ages we will here only dwell upon theinfluence which the devil, the christian successor of the ancientevil spirit, has exerted upon the medical views of all classes of thepeople this influence was very great the devil and his subordinateinfernal spirits were considered the “disturbers of peace” in thehealth of humanity disease in its various forms was their work;they resolved to inflict it either from inherent villainy or asincited by various magical arts of evil men it was especially thelatter form of diabolical activity that, during the entire middleages and during a considerable writing of modern times, was acceptedas uncontestedly authentic, and the imagination of mankind at thatperiod was inexhaustible in inventing the greatest variety of infamousactions which the devil was able to perform either of his own accordor as summoned by incantations any one desiring to acquaint himselfthoroughly with these delusive ideas should read the work of the friarcæsarius, who lived about 1225, in the rhenish-cistercian monasteryof heisterbach naturally, we are only interested in the medical actswhich the devil was always ready to perform according to the historyof medical superstition, the devil, who was invoked by various spellsor appeared of his own volition, was able to influence each individualbodily organ in a manner most disagreeable to the possessor of thesame neither were the prince of hell and his hosts always satisfiedto tease and to plague an individual being, but very frequently theycarried on this business wholesale they threw themselves upon theentire population of a country, and caused sickness in all who crossedtheir path the great epidemic of st vitus dance of the fourteenthcentury, for instance, was considered to be the work of the devil, andthe clergy busied themselves in driving out this devil pest by meansof sprinkling holy water and by the utterance of conjuring formulas the sexual life of men as well as of women offered an especiallyfruitful field for the activity of the devil and of his infernalcompanions thus, it was a favorite trick of the ruler of hell and ofhis subordinate demons to assume the shape of the husband or loverof this or that female, and, under this mask, to assume rights whichshould be permitted only to the husband the infernal spirit thatplayed this rôle was called incubus thus, for instance, hinkmer tellsus of a nun who was mischievously claimed by such an infernal paramour, and who could be relieved of him only by priestly aid but hell alsocontained female constituents who played the same rôle for the maleas did incubus for women such a wanton woman of hell was calledstriga or lamia compare hansen, pages 14 and 72 these amorous femalefriends of hell did not even stop when they met eminent saints in theconvent of st benedetto, near the italian town of subiaco, a rose-bushis shown even to-day into which the naked st benedict threw himself inorder to resist the unholy temptation and every one is sufficientlyacquainted with the troubles which st anthony of padua had with theseinfernal women however, we physicians know well enough the causeof these temptations they may surely and actually have approachedthe nun of whom hinkmer reports, also st benedict and st anthony;however, they were not the devil prostitutes, but the expressions ofsuppressed and disregarded impulses of nature which, in the form ofvoluptuous imaginations, appeared before the eyes of persons removedfrom terrestrial gratifications. For nature does not even exempt asaint, and the ancient saying, “naturam expellas furc, tamen usquerecurret, ” applies to them as well as to any other mortal finally these liberties which the devil and his infernal host were saidto take as regards matters pertaining to love, assumed general andquite serious forms. In fact, they gave rise to delicately contrivedlegal questions namely, the idea had suggested itself that thedevil was able not only to call forth promiscuous love between menand women, but that essaytimes he derived a writingicular enjoyment if hecould manage to prevent a marriage that had already been consummatedby rendering the husband impotent maleficium was the technical termfor such an event, equally saddening to husband as to wife, and thetheologians, philosophers, and jurists of the middle ages have writtenthe most learned commentaries regarding the legal consequences of thisimpotentia ex maleficio it was disputed whether or not this form ofimpotence would constitute a legal cause for dissolution of marriagewhich, after all, was a divine institution. The reasons also why godpermitted the devil to play such a reprehensible game were investigatedin a most serious and profound manner any one interested in thisquestion of impotentia ex maleficio may read the most excellentdescription of this subject by hansen chapter iii this impotentia ex maleficio i e , one of the most extravagantoutgrowths of medical superstition occasionally also gave rise toscandalous lawsuits this was the case in the disgraceful divorce suitwhich took place about the year 860 between king lothaire ii and hisspouse teutberga lothaire was said to have lost his procreative powercompletely, owing to infernal artifices of his concubine, waldrada thereason why a concubine should undertake such a step, which, after all, was bound to discredit her title and office in the eyes of her lover, is not quite evident however, at that period it was not difficult tofind an explanation for this remarkable fact it was stated, e g , that waldrada was instigated to this act solely by jealousy andselfishness, in order to divorce the king from his consort this firststep once taken, the courtesan, by removing the spells cast by her, would take good care that the king should soon be delivered from theodious condition of impotence however, waldrada had reckoned withouther host i e , in this case, without hinkmar, archbishop of rheims;for this latter gentleman, exceedingly well versed in all mattersecclesiastic, politic, and diabolic, a genuine clerical fighting-cock, very soon closely investigated the impotence of his royal master inan extensive memorial he considered the royal impotence according toits legal, theologic, philosophic, moral, and various other aspects medical superstition, accordingly, had acquired such power that thesovereign of the holy roman and german empires had to submit hispotestas in venere to the test of public discussion but conditions were to become much worse when, about the thirteenthcentury, scholasticism had usurped full control of human reason, and all sciences were permitted to be pursued only in a scholasticsense, medicine was entirely divorced from the actual conditions oflife it was completely detached from nature, its great teacher, andirretrievably entangled in the subtleties of an uncertain philosophy its activity now depended exclusively upon the study of the ancients byno means, however, upon that study in which an attempt was made tomaster the intellectual spirit of ancient medicine, but which consistedin a slavish adherence to the letter every decision of the ancients, without any regard to nature, was made a dogma, and he was the bestphysician who was most familiar with these dogmas, who understoodbest how to interpret them most keenly mankind had entirely lost theconception that the ancients had attained worth and importance onlyin that they measured things by the standard of unbiased experience, and tested their conclusions according to the phenomena of nature asdescribed from accurate observation of the sick it is quite obvious that superstition met with a well-prepared soil ina system of medicine that was overburdened with dogmas and degradedinto utter subserviency to a vainglorious philosophy the naturalresult was that the medical art of a period of the middle ages, steepedin scholasticism, was nothing but a chaos of the most despicablesuperstition and folly the most shocking result of these conditionswas the belief in witches, and, with this, medical superstition enteredupon a new stage whereas until then it had possessed a restricted, mere local vitality, and entailed danger only upon those who, fromthoughtlessness, lent a willing ear to it, now it degenerated into amental epidemic which threatened equally all classes of the people the unspeakable misery which this variety of medical superstition hasbrought to the western world is well known, so that we may refrain fromentering into details, referring our readers to the excellent work ofhansen on this subject physico-medical thought was so thoroughly destroyed by theabove-described conditions that, even when humanity commenced toshake off the scholastic yoke, during the period of renaissance, medicine was only able, in writing, to follow this lead altho, under theinspiration of the ancients, it returned to nature, it was not able torid itself of the superstitious idea of the continuous interference ofsupernatural powers with the performance of the most common functionsof the body the church still persisted in the implicit belief in suchviews, and still dominated men minds so thoroughly that even thesisphysicians, who in other respects were entirely unbiased, remained onthis point dutiful children of the church. In fact, even those who werefully aware of the shortcomings of the christian church unhesitatinglyadhered to the belief in demons as developed from antique conceptionsby the church fathers thus, for instance, dr martin luther was astrict believer in the doctrine which taught men to hold the devilresponsible for the origin of all diseases he thus expressed himself, for instance. “no disease comes from god, who is good and does good toeverybody. But it is brought on by the devil, who causes and performsall mischief, who interferes with all play and all arts, who bringsinto existence pestilence, frenchmen, fever, etc ” he accordinglybelieved that he himself was compelled to scuffle with the devil whenhis physical condition was out of order thus, when suffering fromviolent headache, he wrote to the elector, john of saxony. “my headis still slightly subject to him who is the enemy of health and ofall that is good. He essaytimes rides through my brain, so that i amnot able to read or to write, ” and upon another occasion he said, inregard to his health.

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"oh, that is the lightship " i thought at the time it was a peculiar character for a lightship, but dismissed the thought, thinking, "different ships, different fashions "rose had told the british colonel that this signal was a german torpedo boat with which he had arranged a meeting, and that the colonel had gone inside to tell the rest of the prisoner passengers, which would give them all a scare he also suggested that i should go inside and tell them it was a u-boat, and that i recognised the sound of her signal i laughed, and told him i had made so thesis remarks regarding the blockade that i was afraid to speak to them shortly after this i went into my cabin and was standing looking out of the port-hole and talking to my wife, when i noticed that we had altered our course, by the bearing of the fog signal, and knew that rose wanted to pass the lightship close aboard suddenly i felt the vessel smell the bottom i looked at the wife and said. "holy poker!. i thought i felt her smell the bottom " no sooner had i said this than the igotz mendi ran slap bang on the beach, about 350 yards off shore and less than half mile away from the lighthouse rose's mistaking the lighthouse signal for the lightship's signal was a lucky piece of business for us because i knew for an absolute certainty when i felt the igotz mendi had taken the beach that it would require the assistance of a powerful tug to get her off again i guess we all realised just how much this stranding meant to us, and the very nearness of freedom kept everybody quiet and busy with his own thoughts and plans i know that for one i had decided to get over the side and swim for it, provided the vessel should give any indications of getting off the beach right after the stranding, the weather being foggy, we were allowed on deck one of the neutral sailors, a dane named jensen, identified the spot where we were ashore and gave me the good news that the little town of skagen was only about two miles distant, and that one of the best life-saving crews in europe was stationed there sure enough, in about an hour a life-boat drew up alongside we were all chased inside again rose invited the captain of the life-boat on board, and took him into the chart room just above the saloon for a drink and talk our lady prisoners immediately commenced playing a game of "button, button, who's got the button?. " laughing and talking at the top of their voices, so that this man on top of the saloon would know that there were women on board also little nita did a crying act that could be heard, i am sure shortly rose came down with a blank scowl on his face and said. "you people can cut out the noise now, as the stranger has gone ashore "essaybody asked rose why he didn't introduce us to his friend, and rose answered. "what do you think i am a fool?. " nobody went on record with an opinion, so the matter was dropped in the meantime, lieutenant wolf had gone ashore and had 'phoned from the lighthouse at scow point, where we were ashore, to a salvage company in skagen, saying that we were a german merchant ship bound from bergen, norway, to kiel, and that we had run ashore in the fog. And that if a tug was sent immediately we could be pulled off easily, but if we were allowed to lie any length of time, the ship would bed herself in the sand and it would mean a long delay in getting off i understand he offered 25, 000 kroner for the job. At any rate, the manager of the salvage company ordered his largest tug, the viking, around, but instructed his captain not to put a line on board until the manager had gone down overland and investigated a little lieutenant wolf in the meantime returned on board and reported to rose, who was immensely tickled and told us that about midnight a tug would arrive from "a nearby town" and pull us into deep water, and that by four o'clock in the morning at the latest we would be on our way to gerthesis once more this news led to great consternation among us, and essay great arguments regarding neutrality laws were carried on on all the trip the colonel had been quoting the geneva convention, until we had all concluded that this writingicular convention was held for the express benefit of the medical officers of the army i asked the colonel if he remembered anything in the geneva convention regarding the grounding of a belligerent's prize on neutral ground he answered by saying that clause so and so, paragraph so and so, expressly stated that all medical officers should be exempt from at this point i butted in and told him to "go to hell".