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Sample Literary Analysis Essay


Bull 67, hyg lab , u s p h s , p 11 the abbott laboratories, chicago, have been licensed by the federaltrade commission to manufacture cinchophen other firms, however, havedecided to manufacture it without the formality of obtaining a license, evidently considering the german-obtained patent not to be valid 239239 very sample literary analysis essay recently the chemical foundation, inc , has undertaken togrant licenses for cinchophen the calco chemical company has obtainedone procain novocainprocain was introduced in medicine under the proprietary name“novocain, ” and before the war was obtainable in this country onlythrough the farbwerke hoechst company, the american representativeof the german establishment, farbwerke vorm meister luciusbruening, hoechst a m chemically it is the mono-hydrochlorid ofpara-amino-benzoyl-diethyl-amino-ethanol, having the structural formula:illustration. Nh₂-- benzene ringcoo-ch₂-ch₂-- n c₂h₅₂ hclit is prepared according to u s patent no 812554 issued to alfredeinhorn, munich, gerthesis by treating para-nitro-benzoylchlorid withethylene chlorhydrin and diethylamin with subsequent reduction of thenitro groups, the resulting product being purified by recrystallization procain is employed largely in infiltration anesthesia it is lesstoxic than cocain, but its anesthetic action is not sustained thisdrawback is overcome by the simultaneous injection of epinephrin, andfor this reason procain is often compounded with epinephrin in tablets, thus obviating the necessity of separate solutions when the first specimens of the american-made product were submittedthrough the channels of the federal trade commission, it was necessaryto compile a monograph 240 this was prepared from descriptions inthe available literature, mostly from tests described in new andnonofficial remedies, 1918, and the german pharmacopeia v 240 the monograph appears in new and nonofficial remedies, 1919 the submitted products were found satisfactory chemically the toxicitydeterminations made by dr r a hatcher, with the assistance ofdr carey eggleston241 indicated that none of the specimens areto be considered dangerous when used in ordinary dosage for normalindividuals therefore the federal trade commission, on recommendationof the committee on synthetic drugs of the national research council aided by the a m a chemical laboratory, issued licenses for themanufacture of procain to the farbwerke-hoechst company which licensewas later transferred to the h a metz laboratories, to the abbottlaboratories, to the calco chemical company and to the rector chemicalcompany 241 the report of these and subsequent toxicity experiments onprocain appeared in the report of the council on pharmacy andchemistry, j a m a 72. 136 jan 11 1919 subsequently the products of the licensed firms were submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, which in turn invoked the aid of thea m a chemical laboratory and the cornell university pharmacologiclaboratory later the council asked the laboratory to examine themarket supply altogether, therefore, a number of products wereexamined which were found to respond satisfactorily to the testsoutlined table 6 table 6 date melting ash, brand received color point, c * % procain abbott, 12/21/17 white 154-155 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain abbott, 1/29/18 white 153 5-154 5 none submitted to coun- cil p and c procain abbott, 8/31/18 white 152 5-153 5 none gen pur off u s army procain abbott, 9/30/18 slight 153-154 5 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89999 procain abbott, 9/30/18 slight 153-154 0 005 gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89998 procain abbott, 10/8/18 slight 153-154 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89997 procain abbott, 11/4/18 slight 153 5-154 5 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 89996 procain abbott, 11/4/18 slight 153 5-154 5 none gen pur off brownish u s army, tint no 810995 procain calco, 2/7/18 white 153 5-154 5 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain farbwerke- 10/24/18 white 153-154 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council procain farbwerke- 12/10/17 white 153-154 5 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council procain farbwerke- 8/9/18 white 153 5-154 5 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council, market spec “a 56” procain farbwerke- 9/9/18 white 153 5-154 5 none hoechst co , sub- mitted to council, market spec “a 57” procain h a metz 8/23/18 white 153-154 none lab , market spec “a 63” procain h a metz 9/23/18 white 153-154 none lab , market spec “a 57” procain rector, 12/18/17 white 153-154 5 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain rector, 5/2/18 white 152 5-153 none from committee on synthetic drugs procain rector, 8/20/18 slight 153-155 none market spec brownish tint procain rector, 8/23/18 slight 153-155 none market spec brownish tint procain rector, 8/23/18 slight 153-154 5 none market spec brownish tint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - * u s patent 812, 554-- the novocain patent-- declares that the salt melts at 156 c evidently based on this, both the german pharmacopeia and past editions of new and nonofficial remedies give this melting point two specimens of german-made novocain obtained from our files, stated to be manufactured by farbwerke-hoechst vorm meister, lucius and bruening, hoechst a m , were found to melt, respectively, between 154 and 155 c and between 153 5 and 154 5 c when the melting point was determined according to the direction of the u s pharmacopeia, ninth revision the various specimens examined at that time melted between 153 and 155 c , and it was decided to permit this range an examination of essay american-made procain-suprarenin tablets wasalso made the procain was determined by liberation of the alkaloidwith ammonia water, extraction with chloroform, evaporation of thechloroform, dissolving the alkaloid in one hundredth normal sulphuricacid solution and titrating excess acid with one hundredth normalsodium hydroxid solution the epinephrin was determined according tothe method employed by seidell, 242 with slight modifications thetablets contained the claimed amounts of ingredients 242 seidell. J biol chem 14.

Man, epileptic, fell on hisface in pile of manure, which entered larynx man, drunk, lying on hisface 42 roy indian med gaz , 1880, xv , p 71 - man, believed to bedrunk, had vomited in bed. Vomitus entered trachea and bronchi 43-47 mackenzie. Same journal, 1890, xxv , p 257 - reports fatalpaper. Boy bone button in larynx sailor meat in larynx boy vomitedmatter in larynx infant while taking the breast, a rush of milksuddenly filled the air-passages also three paper of crushing underwalls. Two buried in loose earth. Two crushed in a crowd. One by bagsof grain 48 feulard.

Jour physiol , 1909, xxxv, 314 52 bayliss sample literary analysis essay and starling. Jour physiol , 1904, xxx, 61 bierry:compt rend soc de biol , 1907, lxii, 433 bierry and terroine:compt rend acad de sc , 1905, cxli, 146 lalou. Comp rend acad desc , 1910, xxix, 824 morel. Compt rend soc de biol , 1909, lxvii, 36 strassano and billoro. Compt rend soc de biol , 1902, liv, 937 53 bayliss and starling note 23 specificity -- in a maceration of the duodenojejunal mucosa, such aswe have in secretin, the known substances are proteoses and peptones, acid amins, bile salts, beta-imidazolethylamin, cholin, gelatin andinorganic salts these substances, individually and severally, togetherwith their derivatives, are devoid of secretory action chemically, secretin, is then a specific entity but like epinephrin, in itsdistribution, it is nonspecific active preparations have been madefrom an extraordinary variety of animals among the different classesof vertebrates camus, 54 bayliss and starling, 55 chapman56 itis likewise found in the new-born and in the fetus 57 its action, however, like its chemical composition, is markedly specific itstimulates the flow of pancreatic juice, bile and succus entericus its effect on the gastric glands is negative, and on the salivalikewise 58 on the other hand, no other extracts produce pancreaticsecretion dr koch, who, in collaboration with dr keeton and dr luckhardt, has done the most recent work on gastrin59 a substancethat most nearly resembles secretin and has isolated an extremelyactive preparation, finds that gastrin injection has likewise no effecton the pancreas camus and gley, 60 with crude preparations, hadpreviously obtained a similar result 54 camus. Jour de physiol et de path gén 4:998, 1902 55 bayliss and starling. Jour physiol 29:174, 1903 56 chapman. Proc linnaean soc , new south wales 1:92, 1905 57 camus. Compt rend soc de biol 61:59, 1906 hallion andlequex. Compt rend soc de biol 61:33, 1906 58 derouaux. Arch internat de physiol 3:44, 1905 lambert andmyer. Compt rend soc de biol 54:1044, 1902 starling. Lancet, london 2:501, 1905 59 keeton and koch. Am jour physiol 37:481, 1915 60 camus and gley. Compt rend soc de biol 54:648, 1902 lability -- neutral secretin is but feebly attacked by a temperatureof 100 c if heated in an autoclave so as to prevent oxidation, thistemperature can be continued for thirty minutes without any changein its activity increasing the temperature increases the speed ofdestruction, so that at 140 c the destructive action is marked 61autoclaving at 15 pounds for fifteen minutes, as an ordinarysterilization of culture mediums, produces, we found, a distinct thoughnot serious decrease in activity secretin acidified to fifth-normalwith hydrochloric acid loses 60 per cent of its activity on fifteenminutes boiling secretin, alkalinized to fifth-normal with sodiumhydroxid loses 95 per cent of its activity in five minutes’ boiling;decreases to a trace in thirty minutes, and disappears entirely insixty minutes at room temperature, with fifth-normal alkalinity, 80per cent of secretin is destroyed in eight hours 61 the destructionprobably means a secondary cleavage of the secretin molecule itself 61 lalou note 21 may. Jour physiol 30:400, 1904 secretin is oxidized readily if left standing uncovered for a summerday, the preparation will be inactive 51 even if kept in theice-chest no other precaution being taken, its activity is lost ina very few days sunlight undoubtedly hastens the oxidative process if care is taken as to sterility, however, and the secretin is kept inthe ice-chest, well stoppered and in a dark flask, it will retain itsactivity for several weeks dixon and hamill51 claimed that secretin disappears quantitatively onpassage through a berkefeld filter at 5 mm pressure lalou, 62 usinghigher pressure, was unable to confirm the finding, but obtained amarked decrease in activity our results are in accord with those oflalou 62 launoy. Arch internat de physiol 3:62, 1906 morel andterroine.

It cleanses thereins and kidneys from sample literary analysis essay gravel and stone, by opening the obstructionsof the spleen, and consume the hardness and swelling thereof thedecoction of the root in wine, drank once a week at going to bed, cleanses the mother, and helps the rising thereof, expels the deadchild. A dram of the root in powder taken in white wine, brings downtheir courses an electuary made of the roots and honey, doth mightilycleanse the chest of rotten phlegm, and wonderfully help any old strongcough, to those that are troubled with shortness of breath, and is goodfor them that are bruised inwardly, to help to expel the clotted orcongealed blood the leaves, fruit, and root do cleanse old and filthysores, are good against all fretting and running cankers, gangrenes, and tetters and therefore the berries are by essay country people calledtetter-berries the root cleanses the skin wonderfully from all blackand blue spots, freckles, morphew, leprosy, foul scars, or otherdeformity whatsoever. Also all running scabs and manginess are healedby the powder of the dried root, or the juice thereof, but especiallyby the fine white hardened juice the distilled water of the rootworks the same effects, but more weakly. The root bruised and appliedof itself to any place where the bones are broken, helps to draw themforth, as also splinters and thorns in the flesh. And being appliedwith a little wine mixed therewith, it breaks boils, and helps whitlowson the joints - for all these latter, beginning at sores, cancers, &c apply it outwardly, mixing it with a little hog grease, or otherconvenient ointment as for the former diseases where it must be taken inwardly, it purgesvery violently, and needs an abler hand to correct it than most countrypeople have brook lime, or water-pimpernel descript this sends forth from a creeping root that shoots forthstrings at every joint, as it runs, divers and sundry green stalks, round and sappy with essay branches on them, essaywhat broad, round, deepgreen, and thick leaves set by couples thereon. From the bottom whereofshoot forth long foot stalks, with sundry small blue flowers on them, that consist of five small round pointed leaves a piece there is another sort nothing different from the former, but that it isgreater, and the flowers of a paler green colour place they grow in small standing waters, and usually nearwater-cresses time and flower in june and july, giving seed the next month after government and virtues it is a hot and biting martial plant brook-lime and water-cresses are generally used together in diet-drink, with other things serving to purge the blood and body from all illhumours that would destroy health, and are helpful to the scurvy theydo all provoke urine, and help to break the stone, and pass it away;they procure women courses, and expel the dead child being friedwith butter and vinegar, and applied warm, it helps all manner oftumours, swellings, and inflammations such drinks ought to be made of sundry herbs, according to the malady i shall give a plain and easy rule at the latter end of this book butcher broom it is called ruscus, and bruscus, kneeholm, kneeholly, kneehulver, andpettigree descript the first shoots that sprout from the root of butcherbroom, are thick, whitish, and short, essaywhat like those of asparagus, but greater, they rise up to be a foot and half high, are spread intodivers branches, green, and essaywhat creased with the roundness, toughand flexible, whereon are set essaywhat broad and almost round hardleaves and prickly, pointed at the end, of a dark green colour, two atthe most writing set at a place, very close and near together. About themiddle of the leaf, on the back and lower side from the middle rib, breaks forth a small whitish green flower, consisting of four smallround pointed leaves, standing upon little or no footstalk, and in theplace whereof comes a small round berry, green at the first, and redwhen it is ripe, wherein are two or three white, hard, round seedscontained the root is thick, white and great at the head, and fromthence sends forth divers thick, white, long, tough strings place it grows in copses, and upon heaths and waste grounds, andoftentimes under or near the holly bushes time it shoots forth its young buds in the spring, and the berriesare ripe about september, the branches of leaves abiding green all thewinter government and virtues it is a plant of mars, being of a gallantcleansing and opening quality the decoction of the root made withwine opens obstructions, provokes urine, helps to expel gravel and thestone, the stranguary and women courses, also the yellow jaundice andthe head-ache. And with same honey or sugar put thereunto, cleansesthe breast of phlegm, and the chest of such clammy humours gatheredtherein the decoction of the root drank, and a poultice made of theberries and leaves applied, are effectual in knitting and consolidatingbroken bones or writings out of joint the common way of using it, is toboil the root of it, and parsley and fennel and smallage in white wine, and drink the decoction, adding the like quantity of grass-root tothem. The more of the root you boil, the stronger will the decoctionbe. It works no ill effects, yet i hope you have wit enough to give thestrongest decoction to the strongest bodies broom, and broom-rape to spend time in writing a description hereof is altogether needless, it being so generally used by all the good housewives almost throughthis land to sweep their houses with, and therefore very well known toall sorts of people the broom-rape springs up in thesis places from the roots of the broom but more often in fields, as by hedge-sides and on heaths the stalkwhereof is of the bigness of a finger or thumb, above two feet high, having a shew of leaves on them, and thesis flowers at the top, of areddish yellow colour, as also the stalks and leaves are place they grow in thesis places of this land commonly, and ascommonly spoil all the land they grow in time they flower in the summer months, and give their seed beforewinter government and virtues the juice or decoction of the youngbranches, or seed, or the powder of the seed taken in drink purgesdownwards, and draws phlegmatic and watery humours from the joints;whereby it helps the dropsy, gout, sciatica, and pains of the hips andjoints. It also provokes strong vomits, and helps the pains of thesides, and swelling of the spleen, cleanses also the reins or kidneysand bladder of the stone, provokes urine abundantly, and hinders thegrowing again of the stone in the body the continual use of the powderof the leaves and seed doth cure the black jaundice the distilledwater of the flowers is profitable for all the same purposes.

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Neither is there any better salve in the world for woundsthan may be made of it. For it cleanses, fetches out the filth thoughit lie in the bones, brings up the flesh from the bottom, and all thisit doth speedily. It cures wounds made with poisoned weapons, and forthis clusius brings thesis experiences too tedious here to relate it is an admirable thing for carbuncles and plague-sores, inferiorto none. Green wounds ’twill cure in a trice. Ulcers and gangreensvery speedily, not only in men, but also in beasts, therefore theindians dedicated it to their god taken in a pipe, it hath almost asthesis virtues. It easeth weariness, takes away the sense of hunger andthirst, provokes to stool. He saith, the indians will travel four dayswithout either meat or drink, by only chewing a little of this in theirmouths. It eases the body of superfluous humours, opens stoppings seethe ointment of tobacco nummularia money-wort, or herb two-pence. Cold, dry, binding, helpsfluxes, stops the menses, helps ulcers in the lungs. Outwardly it is aspecial herb for wounds nymphea see the flowers ocynum basil, hot and moist the best use that i know of it, is, itgives speedy deliverance to women in travail let them not take abovehalf a dram of it at a time in powder, and be sure also the birth beripe, else it causes abortion oleæ folia olive leaves.