Sample 5 Paragraph Essay

“the nutritional value of fats differ. The nutritional value of these fats and their increased efficiency by combination over all others have been determined by extensive clinical observation ”and also. “the russell emulsion is approximated in food value by no other emulsion or food product in existence ” “a ‘physiological’ emulsion is a predigested food it is absorbed with little assistance from the digestive juices, and with no waste of energy it is, therefore, the ideal food ”these are sample statements found in the pamphlet and accompanyingcircular a dozen or more pathologic conditions are mentioned in whichthis “ideal food” is specifically indicated. But we find, also, thiscurious statement. “patients can rarely take this dose speaking of themaximum dose of 2 ounces night and morning for more than three or fourweeks without showing symptoms of over-feeding ” this unguarded remarkabout an ingestion of 48 grams of fat daily prompts one to ask what iswrong with the “ideal predigested food ”russell is wedded to the idea that “lime starvation” is the main factorin tuberculosis, and insists on the importance of large amounts of fatfor the “lime starved ” “dr russell was the original interpreter of the lime starved state and originated the lime starvation treatment in tuberculosis he also first pointed out and emphasized the therapeutic importance of regarding the combination of lime phosphate and casein, as brought down by the rennet enzyme, as a chemical union ”this overworked lime-starvation theory certainly lacks any tangibleconfirmation see in this connection a recent paper by halverson, mohler and bergeim, in the journal, may 5, 1917, and to urge itto promote the sale of a fat preparation is preposterous on theuninitiated the exaggerated pseudo-scientific language of the pamphletand circular advertisement will probably make essay impression unfortunately such things count not only with the layman who, havingno technical knowledge of physiology, cannot be expected to weigh theevidence but also with those medical men who, while scientificallyeducated, are influenced by unscientific claims when plausiblypresented the pamphlet is a striking example of a style which isdangerous because it smacks of science the russell company sells also a mixture called “prepared green bone, ”said to be made by writingially digesting ground chicken bones withhydrochloric acid and pepsin and adding glycerin at the end of thedigestion the product is a sticky, unappetizing looking mass, put upin little earthenware boxes and advertised as a lime food, apparentlyto go along with the fat emulsion the greater value of a few glassesof milk daily is evidently overlooked “the russell emulsion” and “the prepared green bone” were declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies editorial comment -- there are always those who are ready to exploitthe unfortunate tuberculous it is, unfortunately, a fact that thesisphysicians accept as true, statements clothed with obscure andvoluminous quasi-scientific verbiage such men would laugh at thebald claim that the moon is made of green cheese. When, however, oneplausibly and with due solemnity, affirms that the nocturnal luminousearthly satellite is composed of an infinite aggregation of moleculesof bewildering and awe-compelling complexity, built up from therecently discovered polypeptids, the whole being of a verdant tint, theperson addressed looks impressed and opines that it sounds reasonable!. The advertising for the russell emulsion and the russell prepared greenbone is dangerous because it appeals to the thoughtless-- layman andphysician, alike -- from the journal a m a , june 23, 1917 brom-i-phos report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrybrom-i-phos national drug company, philadelphia was submitted to thecouncil with a label bearing the following statement. “‘alcohol 25 per cent ’ composition-- per fluidounce iodin 1 gr bromin 1 gr phosphorus 8-100 gr aromatic base q s ”a request for further information in regard to the composition ofbrom-i-phos was sent to the national drug company it was suggestedthat since the preparation cannot contain the stated amounts of freebromin, free iodin and free phosphorus, the form of combination inwhich these elements are present should be set forth in reply, the firm said, first, that “brom-i-phos consists of bromin, iodin, phosphorus, glycerin, wine, water and volatile oils the iodin isrubbed up with a small percentage of potassium iodid and 95 per cent alcohol, which solution is mixed with a solution of bromine andspirits of phosphorus which are combined with the base and aromatics ”the manufacturer also admitted that phosphorus reacts with brominand iodin and that other reactions might occur, but maintained thatit was “justified in assuming the greater writing, if not all of theseelements, are actually existent in the nascent state, ” and assertedthat its “printed formula complies with our working formula in point ofquantities involved as well as existence of elements in an uncombinedstate ”the a m a chemical laboratory reported, on the contrary, thatno free phosphorus, free bromin or free iodin could be found inbrom-i-phos, and that no bromate or iodate could be found.

Also the wounded edges often pit on pressure with depressed fracture, on the other hand, the edge is at or about thelevel of the rest of the skull. It is sharper, more irregular, and lessevenly circular contusions and the resulting hematoma may occasionallyend by suppurating, but this event is rare contusions and contusedwounds may occasionally show the marks of a weapon, indicating thatthey were inflicted by another also the position of the injury willindicate its origin, whether it is accidental or inflicted by another, for the former would not naturally occur on the vertex unless the fallwas from a considerable height another result of injuries to the head, especially of contusions andcontused wounds, is fracture of the skull this may be simple orcompound, depressed or not, etc fractures are serious inasmuch asthey imply a degree of violence which may do damage to the brain the fracture itself, especially if properly treated, affords a goodprognosis, irrespective of any brain lesion one variety of fracture ofthe skull offers an exception to this favorable prognosis, and that isfractures of the base of the skull these may be fatal directly frominjury of the vital centres at the base of the brain or soon fatal fromhemorrhage in these writings or the fatal result may be secondary to aninflammation or meningitis which good treatment is often unable toprevent it should not be considered that these fractures are uniformlyfatal, for quite a considerable proportion recover fracture of thebase usually occurs as the result of a fall the injured person mayland on the feet or buttocks, and yet receive a fracture of the base ofthe skull, the force of the fall being transmitted through the spine tothe base of the skull fracture of the base of the skull usually occursfrom an injury to the vault, not by contre coup, but by extensionof a fissure found higher up in the skull this extension takes placein the same meridian line of the skull with that of the force whichproduced the fracture, and in this way the base of the skull isfractured in different writings according to the point and direction ofthe application of the force thus in case the force compresses theskull antero-posteriorly the fracture will pass antero-posteriorlytoward the base from the front or the back, whichever received the blow see fig 13 fractures of the vault of the skull occasionally occuropposite to the point struck. This may occur by contre coup, but notalways so, as not infrequently in such rare paper a close examinationmay reveal an extension of a fissure from the point injured to theopposite pole of the skull the shape and rarely the size of a fractureof the skull, especially if punctured in character, may show the shapeand more rarely the size of the instrument or object which producedit awriting from fracture of the base, the prognosis in fracture of theskull is serious, mainly on account of the danger of inflammation, which is greater in compound fractures, and also on account of the moreremote danger of irritation from depressed fragments causing epilepsy, insanity, etc , at a later period illustration. Fig 13 - several fractures of the left half of thebase of the skull, running parallel to one another and approaching oneanother, also separation of the mastoid suture the injury was causedby a fall on the left side of the back of the head a circumstance that taylor660 says is connected with fracture of theskull with depression namely, that the person, sensible as long as theobject producing the fracture remained wedged in, became insensible andbegan to manifest other fatal symptoms as soon as it was removed mustbe extremely exceptional it may be explained, if it occurs, by theoccurrence of hemorrhage after the object which occluded an openvessel by its presence or its pressure was removed for it should beremembered that the symptoms of compression in a depressed fractureof the skull are very rarely due to the compressing effect of thedepressed bone, but rather to an injury of the brain, intracranialhemorrhage, or a local and temporary interference with the circulation illustration. Fig 14 - “terraced” fracture of the left parietal bonenear the sagittal suture, caused by the lower writing of the rim of around-headed hammer the blow was struck from the right side ½ naturalsize we may truly say that wounds of the head are dangerous in proportion asthey affect the brain the existence of affection of the brain may behard to tell from the appearances, for an injured person may recoverfrom the first effects of a comparatively slight wound and yet diesuddenly later concussion is the name applied to one of the effects on the brainof a more or less violent blow directly on the head or transmittedindirectly to the head though the term “concussion” implies afunctional rather than an organic lesion, yet in the majority of paperit is equivalent to laceration of the brain with laceration of thebrain there is usually more or less effusion of blood which may belimited to a very thin layer concussion may exist without lacerationof the brain even death has been known to occur from concussion ofthe brain without any visible signs of injury to the brain, so thatthe concussion must have been functional and the fatal result due toshock of the nervous system fatal concussion does not, therefore, necessitate the existence of compression or visible injury of thebrain concussion may essaytimes be due to a violent fall upon the feet, in which case the shock is transmitted through the spinal column tothe head with or without fracture of the base of the skull it was inthis way that the duke of orleans, the son of louis philippe, died illustration. Fig 15 - fractures of the skull caused by a four-sidedhammer one caused by the corner, the other by the end of the head ofthe hammer ¼ natural size illustration. Fig 16 - four-sided fracture caused by a hatchet-shapedinstrument, the edges formed by depression of the broken outer table ofthe skull the symptoms of concussion show all degrees of severity thus theinjured person may become confused and giddy with or without falling, he may become pallid and nauseated and may vomit, but after a shortperiod he recovers gradually illustration.

It helps bruisesand falls, and is as gallant a remedy to drive out the small pox andmeasles as sample 5 paragraph essay any is. An ointment made of it, is excellent for greenwounds, pricks or thrusts adder tongue or serpent tongue descript this herb has but one leaf, which grows with the stalka finger length above the ground, being flat and of a fresh greencolour. Broad like water plantain, but less, without any rib in it;from the bottom of which leaf, on the inside, rises up ordinarilyone, essaytimes two or three slender stalks, the upper half whereofis essaywhat bigger, and dented with small dents of a yellowish greencolour, like the tongue of an adder serpent only this is as useful asthey are formidable the roots continue all the year place it grows in moist meadows, and such like places time it is to be found in may or april, for it quickly perisheswith a little heat government and virtues it is an herb under the dominion of the moonand cancer, and therefore if the weakness of the retentive faculty becaused by an evil influence of saturn in any writing of the body governedby the moon, or under the dominion of cancer, this herb cures it bysympathy. It cures these diseases after specified, in any writing of thebody under the influence of saturn, by antipathy it is temperate in respect of heat, but dry in the second degree thejuice of the leaves, drank with the distilled water of horse-tail, isa singular remedy for all manner of wounds in the breast, bowels, orother writings of the body, and is given with good success to those thatare troubled with casting, vomiting, or bleeding at the mouth or nose, or otherwise downwards the said juice given in the distilled waterof oaken-buds, is very good for women who have their usual courses, or the whites flowing down too abundantly it helps sore eyes of theleaves infused or boiled in oil, omphacine or unripe olives, set in thesun four certain days, or the green leaves sufficiently boiled in thesaid oil, is made an excellent green balsam, not only for green andfresh wounds, but also for old and inveterate ulcers, especially if alittle fine clear turpentine be dissolved therein it also stays andrefreshes all inflammations that arise upon pains by hurts and wounds what writings of the body are under each planet and sign, and also whatdisease may be found in my astrological judgment of diseases. And forthe internal work of nature in the body of man. As vital, animal, natural and procreative spirits of man. The apprehension, judgment, memory. The external senses, viz seeing, hearing, smelling, tastingand feeling. The virtuous, attractive, retentive, digestive, expulsive, &c under the dominion of what planets they are, may be found in myephemeris for the year 1651 in both which you shall find the chaffof authors blown away by the fame of dr reason, and nothing butrational truths left for the ingenious to feed upon lastly to avoid blotting paper with one thing thesis times, and alsoto ease your purses in the price of the book, and withal to make youstudious in physic. You have at the latter end of the book, the wayof preserving all herbs either in juice, conserve, oil, ointment orplaister, electuary, pills, or troches agrimony descript this has divers long leaves essay greater, essay smallerset upon a stalk, all of them dented about the edges, green above, andgreyish underneath, and a little hairy withal among which arises upusually but one strong, round, hairy, brown stalk, two or three feethigh, with smaller leaves set here and there upon it at the topthereof grow thesis small yellow flowers, one above another, in longspikes. After which come rough heads of seed, hanging downwards, whichwill cleave to and stick upon garments, or any thing that shall rubagainst them the knot is black, long, and essaywhat woody, abiding thesisyears, and shooting afresh every spring. Which root, though small, hatha reasonable good scent place it grows upon banks, near the sides of hedges time it flowers in july and august, the seed being ripe shortlyafter government and virtues it is an herb under jupiter, and the signcancer.

“the data which your committee has been able to obtain have not convinced it that the results of treatment obtained by the use of dr glover serum are better than those obtained by similar methods introduced by others, and which have ultimately disappointed the hopes entertained of them ”the committee report deals with the claims that dr glover has madefor his serum, both experimental and clinical it seems that dr glover has claimed that, experimentally, he had 1 cultured cancercells and from these cells had isolated and cultured an organism whichhe declared was confined to, and present in, every type of cancer. 2 produced cancer in a number of animals by inoculation with thesecells and organisms. 3 obtained a serum-- from a horse that had beeninjected with cultures of these cells and organisms-- which, wheninjected into experimental animals rendered them immune to inoculation, and 4 produced improvement or cure in paper of human cancer by theinjection of his serum the committee reported that it was unableto obtain any evidence to substantiate dr glover claims on theexperimental aspect of the question as dr glover had refused to permitrepresentatives of the committee to visit his laboratory. Had refusedthe request of the committee to be allowed to examine his cultures andexperimental material. Had not acceded to the request of the committeethat he demonstrate his ability to culture cancer cells and organismsand to produce cancer by inoculation or to immunize animals against it the committee attempted also to collect information which wouldenable it to pass on the clinical claims made by dr glover, first, as to whether he has succeeded in producing cures, either regularlyor occasionally, in paper definitely established as cancer and, second, to enable the committee to decide whether his serum in paperdefinitely established as cancer produces improvement beyond that whichoccasionally occurs spontaneously or under palliative measures on bothof these points, the committee reported that it found no evidence towarrant the hope that a specific cure for cancer has been discovered bydr glover or that the serum had produced a cure in any case definitelyestablished as cancer it should be understood, that the committee investigations andfindings were completed before the present advertising campaign of theglover serum was initiated -- from the journal a m a, feb 5, 1921 glyco-thymoline and poliomyelitisone characteristic of the “patent medicine” business is that it tradeson fear should an epidemic occur the market is flooded with newnostrums purporting to cure or prevent the disease in question, whilethe manufacturers of older “patent medicines” revamp their advertisingso as to make it appear that their preparations are all that standbetween the scourge and the public one has but to remember “peruna”exploitation of the yellow fever epidemic in new orleans essay years agoand the way in which the exploiters of “pond extract” played on thefears of the public at the time of the former meningitis epidemic innew york city at present the public is much exercised over the epidemic of infantileparalysis anticipating that the nostrum fraternity would attempt toreap a golden harvest from the public distress, the federal officialsissued a bulletin of warning on the subject naturally, the bulletinwas addressed to the lay public, the government assuming thatphysicians knew enough to avoid being misled by any such advertisingcampaigns apparently, the assumption is too broad at any rate, themanufacturers of “glyco-thymoline” are circularizing physicians, one ofwhom writes as follows.

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In experiment 5, using 8 c c of gastric juice, theaction fell to 6 drops from an original secretion of 20 of interestalso is the rate at which we get complete destruction of secretin this is practically 2 hours for 2 c c with secretin giving originally110 drops experiment 2, fig 1, or 30 minutes for 5 c c with asecretin giving originally 53 drops experiment 6 these results arepractically parallel, though they were obtained with different samplesof gastric juice and in different experiments table 1 -- the destruction of secretin by human gastric juice | | secretion of pancreatic juice in drops | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- no |quan-|10 c c c| the secretin after incubation |10 c c of | tity|secretin| with human gastric juice |secretin exper-|of |control -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -control iment|gas- |-- begin-| | | | | | |-- end of | tric| ning |dig |secre-|dig |secre-|dig |secre-|experi- |juice|experi- |time, | tion |time, | tion |time, | tion | ment |used, | ment |hrs |rate |hrs |rate |hrs |rate | |c c | | | | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 2 | 28 |6 | 0 |4 | 0 |2 | 0 | 16 2 | 2 | 110 |2 | 7 |1-1/2| 18 |1 | 18 | 41 3 | 2 | 40 |1 | 7 | 3/4| 7 | 1/4 | 8 | 31 4 | 1 | 21 | 1/2| 11 | 1/4| 12 | 1/60| 14 | 18 5 | 8 | 20 | 1/2| 1 | 1/4| 3 | 1/60| 6 | 18 6 | 5 | 53 | 1/2| 2 | | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- we also tried the effect of keeping the digestive time constant andvarying the amount of gastric juice employed increasing the quantityof gastric juice used increases the quantity of secretin destroyed table 2 table 2 -- experiment 7* pancreatic preparation juice drops 10 c c secretin 20 10 c c secretin digested with 0 5 c c gastric juice 15 10 c c secretin digested with 3 c c gastric juice 13 10 c c secretin digested with 10 c c gastric juice 8* the digestive time was kept constant at fifteen minutes the gastricjuice used had been diluted with stomach washings the reader will observe in table 1 that the results obtained fromthe control injection of secretin at the beginning of the experimentis uniformly greater than that sample 5 paragraph essay obtained after several injections ofdigested secretin in view of the established fact that equal quantities of secretin cangenerally be relied on to produce results, 21 one might suggest thatthe injections of the split products of secretin have inhibited to essaydegree the action of the pancreas we can submit the data in table 3in support of this view, showing among other things that the action ofsecretin is not influenced by previous injections of inert depressorsubstances, though it by the injection of the cleavage products ofsecretin the various injections in the experiments were made at aboutfifteen-minute intervals we have carefully analyzed the reaction in blood pressure that followsthe injection of the various preparations we find no constant effect digested secretin gives a fall in blood pressure that is at times less, at times equal, and at other times greater fig 1 than that producedby the original preparation besides the bearing that it has on the therapeutic use of secretin, this destructive action of the digestive enzymes is also of primephysiologic interest failure to realize it has led to misconceptionsas to the intrinsic nature of secretin table 3 -- experiments 8 and 9 pancreatic preparations juice drops experiment 8. 10 c c secretin, five injections of inert depressor substances 29 10 c c secretin, two injections of completely digested secretin 28 10 c c secretin, eight injections of inert depressor substances 16 10 c c secretin 16 experiment 9. 10 c c secretin control, beginning of experiment 21 10 c c secretin, after thirty minutes incubation with 1 c c boiled gastric juice 27 10 c c secretin, after thirty minutes incubation with 1 c c fresh gastric juice 11 10 c c secretin control, end of experiment 18the findings of lalou, confirmed by us, explain the anomaly that hasled delezenne88 to put forward the antisecretin theory 88 delezenne and pozerski. Jour de physiol , 14:540, 1912 secretin has no action when given by mouthit is a constant claim that so thesis and complex are the factorsconcerned in physiologic processes, that it is not unusual for clinicaldeductions to establish themselves in the face of a priori laboratorydicta we considered it desirable, therefore, to test the action ofsecretin, orally administered, in the most direct manner, and the onefreest from possible criticism with this in view, we performed aseries of experiments on normal unanesthetized dogs having permanentpancreatic fistulas method -- in the operations for permanent pancreatic fistulas wefollowed closely the technic developed by pawlow, 89 and withexcellent results the dogs maintain themselves in splendid conditionif proper care is taken this consists in feeding them only with breadand milk, and giving sodium bicarbonate daily the dogs were giventhis treatment in the evening so that experimental procedure might becarried on in the day with empty stomach under constant conditions freshly prepared secretin in large quantities was given by stomachtube to these dogs, and the response of the pancreas studied andcompared with the response obtained from control preparations the samepreparation was generally not given on consecutive days 89 pawlow. Ergeb de physiol , o , p 266, 1902 table 4 -- detail of typical experimentsdogs with pancreatic fistulas, showing that secretin given by mouth hasno action on the pancreas | rate of secretion of pancreatic | juice in c c per hr -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- | continuous | continuous | secretion | secretion material fed by stomach tube | before feeding | after feeding |-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- |first|second|third|first|second|third |hour | hour |hour |hour | hour |hour -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 150 c c active secretin, | | | | | | slightly acid | 6 5| 3 6 | 3 9 | 20 0| 6 0 | 8 0 150 c c active secretin, | | | | | | slightly alkaline | 13 0| 11 0 | 5 0 | 23 0| 26 0 | 12 0 150 c c secretin passed | | | | | | through berkefeld | 7 8| 7 5 | 7 4 | 23 0| 13 0 | 11 0 150 c c extract of colon | 11 6| 12 0 |11 4 | 30 0| 19 6 | 14 8 150 c c extract of gastric | | | | | | mucosa | 10 0| 7 0 | 8 0 | 23 0| 7 5 | 4 0 150 c c extract of muscle | 6 9| 11 0 | 6 4 | 35 0| 5 0 | 7 0 150 c c 0 4% hcl | | | | | | diluted to 250 c c | 6 0| 8 0 | 4 0 | 33 0| 36 0 | 17 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -results -- we have data from six dogs with a total of seventy-sixexperiments as shown in table 4, the administration of secretin causesan increase in the flow of pancreatic juice, but the administrationof inert substances as extracts of colon, gastric mucosa or musclecauses a like increase the activity of the secretin may be reduced toa low value by exposure to sunlight, or filtering through a berkefeldfilter, yet the response of the pancreas is not correspondinglyreduced the secretion that occurs in the control paper, every onewill admit, is but secondary to the production of gastric juice withits accompanying hydrochloric acid, that is, excited by virtue of theextractives and water in the preparations such, we can prove, is theonly action of secretin a mixture of gelatin, peptone and salt water, the chief incidental constituents of a secretin preparation, gives asstriking results as ever obtained from secretin administration yetthe objection may be made that the response of the pancreas that isdue to the incidental constituents of secretin is maximal, and thatthe secretin consequently has no opportunity to display its writingicularpotency but, as inspection of the accompanying tables illustrate, the administration of hydrochloric acid shows that the response is byno means maximal let us cite a striking experiment for three hoursbefore the administration of hydrochloric acid, the secretion in cubiccentimeters was respectively 29 4, 11 75 and 35 4 c c. For the threehours after, respectively 88 0, 49 0 and 40 5 c c illustration. Fig 1 -- tracings reduced two-thirds showing failureof secretogen, elixir secretogen, and duodenin to stimulate the flow ofpancreatic juice even when administered intravenously in amounts threetimes greater than that recommended to be given by mouth dog. Lightether anesthesia.