History

Rhetoric Essay


Tube 3, 1:1, 000. Tube 4, 1:10, 000, and tube 5, 1:100, 000 one series was inoculated with typhoid bacillus all tubes were incubated for three days at 37 c chlorlyptus inhibited the growth of typhoid bacillus when added to the bouillon in the proportions of 1:10 the growth of anthrax bacillus was inhibited by chlorlyptus when it was added in the proportions of 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1, 000, as shown in the accompanying table the table was not submitted -- ed in one instance the growth was markedly inhibited by chlorlyptus when added in the proportion of 1:10, 000 experiment 3 -- germicidal action of chlorlyptus on typhoid bacillus -- bouillon cultures of typhoid bacillus forty-eight hours old, and a suspension of forty-eight-hour agar cultures of typhoid bacillus in sterile salt solution were used for the experiment chlorlyptus was added in the proportion of 1:1, 000. 1:1, 500. 1:100. 2 per cent. 3 per cent. 4 per cent.

Itresists poison, cools the blood, quenches thirst, cures the vertigo, ordizziness in the head college after the same manner is made syrups of grapes, oranges, barberries, cherries, quinces, lemons, woodsorrel, mulberries, sorrel, english currants, and other sour juices culpeper if you look the simples you may see the virtues of them:they all cool and comfort the heart, and strengthen the stomach, syrupof quinces stays vomiting, so doth all syrup of grapes syrupus corticum citriorum or syrup of citron pills college take of fresh yellow citron pills five ounces, the berriesof chermes, or the juice of them brought over to us, rhetoric essay two drams, springwater four pounds, steep them all night, boil them till half beconsumed, taking off the scum, strain it, and with two pounds and ahalf of sugar boiled it into a syrup. Let half of it be without musk, but perfume the other half with three grains of musk tied up in a rag culpeper it strengthens the stomach, resists poison, strengthensthe heart, and resists the passions thereof, palpitation, faintings, swoonings. It strengthens the vital spirits, restores such as are inconsumptions, and hectic fevers, and strengthens nature much you maytake a spoonful at a time syrupus e coralliis simplex or syrup of coral simple college take of red coral in very fine powder four ounces, dissolveit in clarified juice of barberries in the heat of a bath, a pound, ina glass well stopped with wax and cork, a digestion being made three orfour days, pour off what is dissolved, put in fresh clarified juice, and proceed as before, repeat this so often till all the coral bedissolved. Lastly, to one pound of this juice add a pound and a half ofsugar, and boil it to a syrup gently syrupus e coralliis compositus or syrup of coral compound college take of red coral six ounces, in very fine powder, andlevigated upon a marble, add of clarified juice of lemons, theflegm being drawn off in a bath, sixteen ounces, clarified juice ofbarberries, eight ounces, sharp white wine vinegar, and juice ofwood-sorrel, of each six ounces, mix them together, and put them ina glass stopped with cork and bladder, shaking it every day till ithave digested eight days in a bath, or horse dung, then filter it, ofwhich take a pound and a half, juice of quinces half a pound, sugar ofroses twelve ounces, make them into a syrup in a bath, adding syrup ofclove-gilliflowers sixteen ounces, keep it for use, omitting the halfdram of ambergris, and four grains of musk till the physician commandit culpeper syrup of coral both simple and compound, restore such asare in consumptions, are of a gallant cooling nature, especially thelast, and very cordial, good for hectic fevers, it stops fluxes, therunning of the reins, and the fluor albus, helps such as spit blood, and such as have the falling-sickness, it stays the menses half aspoonful in the morning is enough syrupus cydoniorum or syrup of quinces college take of the juice of quinces clarified six pounds, boil itover a gentle fire till half of it be consumed, scumming it, adding redwine three pounds, white sugar four pounds, boil it into a syrup, to beperfumed with a dram and a half of cinnamon, cloves and ginger, of eachtwo scruples culpeper it strengthens the heart and stomach, stays looseness andvomiting, relieves languishing nature. For looseness, take a spoonfulof it before meat, for vomiting after meat, for both, as also for therest, in the morning syrupus de erysimo or syrup of hedge-mustard college take of hedge-mustard, fresh, six handfuls, the rootsof elecampane, colt-foot, liquorice, of each two ounces, borrage, succory, maiden-hair, of each a handful and a half, the cordialflowers, rosemary and bettony, of each half a handful, annis seeds halfan ounce, raisins of the sun stoned, two ounces, let all of them, beingprepared according to art, be boiled in a sufficient quantity of barleywater and hydromel, with six ounces of juice of hedge-mustard to twopounds and a half, the which, with three pounds of sugar, boil it intoa syrup according to art culpeper it was invented against cold afflictions of the breastand lungs, as asthmas, hoarseness, &c you may take it either with aliquorice stick, or which is better, mix an ounce of it with three orfour ounces of pectoral decoction, and drink it off warm in the morning syrupus de fumaria or syrup of fumitory college take of endive, common wormwood, hops, dodder, hart-tongue, of each a handful, epithimum an ounce and a half, boilthem in four pounds of water till half be consumed, strain it, andadd the juice of fumitory a pound and a half, of borrage and bugloss, of each half a pound, white sugar four pounds, make them into a syrupaccording to art culpeper the receipt is a pretty concocter of melancholy, andtherefore a rational help for diseases arising thence, both internaland external, it helps diseases of the skin, as leprosies, cancers, warts, corns, itch, tetters, ringworms, scabs, &c and it is the betterto be liked, because of its gentleness it helps surfeits exceedingly, cleanses, cools, and strengthens the liver, and causes it to make goodblood, and good blood cannot make bad flesh i commend this receipt tothose whose bodies are subject to scabs and itch if you please you maytake two ounces by itself every morning syrupus de glycyrrhiza or syrup of liquorice college take of green liquorice, scraped and bruised, two ounces, white maiden-hair an ounce, dryed hyssop half an ounce, steep these infour pounds of hot water, after twenty-four hours, boil it till halfbe consumed, strain it, and clarify it, and with honey, penids, andsugar, of each eight ounces, make it into a syrup, adding, before it beperfectly boiled, red rose water six ounces culpeper it cleanses the breast and lungs, and helps continualcoughs and pleurisies you may take it with a liquorice stick, or addan ounce of it or more to the pectoral decoction syrupus granatorum cum aceto. Vulgo, oxysaccharum simplex or syrup of pomegranates with vinegar college take of white sugar a pound and a half, juice ofpomegranates eight ounces, white wine vinegar four ounces, boil itgently into a syrup culpeper look the virtues of pomegranates among the simples syrupus de hyssopo or syrup of hyssop college take eight pounds of spring water, half an ounce of barley, boil it about half an hour, then add the roots of smallage, parsley, fennel, liquorice, of each ten drams, jujubes, sebestens, of eachfifteen, raisins of the sun stoned, an ounce and a half, figs, dates, of each ten, the seeds of mallows and quinces, gum tragacanth tiedup in a rag, of each three drams, hyssop meanly dryed, ten drams, maiden-hair six drams, boil them together, yet so, that the roots mayprecede the fruits, the fruits the seeds, and the seeds the herbs, about a quarter of an hour. At last, five pounds of water beingconsumed, boil the other three being first strained and clarifiedinto a syrup with two pounds and a half of sugar culpeper it mightily strengthens the breast and lungs, causes longwind, clears the voice, is a good remedy against coughs use it likethe syrup of liquorice syrupus ivæ arthriticæ, sive chamæpityos or syrup of chamepitys college take of chamepitys, two handfuls, sage, rosemary, poleymountain, origanum, calaminth, wild mints, pennyroyal, hyssop, thyme, rue, garden and wild, bettony, mother of thyme, of each a handful, theroots of acorns, birthwort long and round, briony, dittany, gentian, hog fennel, valerian, of each half an ounce, the roots of smallage, asparagus, fennel, parsley, bruscus, of each an ounce, pellitory ofspain, an ounce and a half, stœchas, the seeds of annis, ammi, caraway, fennel, lovage, hartwort, of each three drams, raisins of the sun twoounces, boil them in ten pounds of water to four, to which add honeyand sugar, of each two pounds, make it into a syrup to be perfumed withsugar, nutmegs, and cubebs, of each three drams syrupus jujubinus or syrup of jujubes college take of jujubes, violets, five drams, maiden-hair, liquorice, french barley, of each an ounce, the seeds of mallows fivedrams, the seeds of white poppies, melons, lettice, seeds of quincesand gum tragacanth tied up in a rag of each three drams, boil them insix pounds of rain or spring water till half be consumed, strain it, and with two pounds of sugar make it into a syrup culpeper it is a fine cooling syrup, very available in coughs, hoarseness, and pleurisies, ulcers of the lungs and bladder, as alsoin all inflammations whatsoever you may take a spoonful of it once inthree or four hours, or if you please take it with a liquorice stick syrupus de meconio, sive diacodium or syrup of meconium, or diacodium college take of white poppy heads with their seeds, gathered alittle after the flowers are fallen off, and kept three days, eightounces, black poppy heads so ordered six ounces, rain water eightpounds, steep them twenty-four hours, then boil and press them gently, boil it to three pounds, and with twenty-four ounces of sugar boil itinto a syrup according to art syrupus de meconio compositus or syrup of meconium compound college take of white and black poppy heads with their seeds, fiftydrams, maiden-hair fifteen drams, jujubes thirty, the seeds of lettice, forty drams, of mallows and quinces tied up in a rag, a dram and ahalf, liquorice five drams, water eight pounds, boil it according toart, strain it, and to three pounds of decoction add sugar and penids, of each one pound, make it into a syrup culpeper meconium is nothing else but the juice of englishpoppies boiled till it be thick. It prevails against dry coughs, phthisicks, hot and sharp gnawing rheums, and provokes sleep it is anusual fashion for nurses when they have heated their milk by exerciseor strong liquor no marvel then if their children be froward then runfor syrup of poppies, to make their young ones sleep i would fain havethat fashion left, therefore i forbear the dose.

a adhesiveness and detachability b strength of film at 38 c a b c d e f 1 “parowax, ” 50 8 32 5 29 0 a adheres and stand oil co of ind detaches well. rather hard b pliable and strong 3 “paraffin 118-120 f , ” 46 8 28 5 24 5 a does not adhere stand oil co of ind well. Detaches easily b pliable but not strong 4 “paraffin 120-122 f , ” 47 2 29 0 24 5 a adheres well. stand oil co of ind detaches well b pliable and fairly strong 5 “paraffin 123-125 f , ” 48 8 31 5 28 5 same as 4 stand oil co of ind 6 “paraffin 128-130 f , ” 52 0 33 0 30 0 a adheres well. stand oil co of ind detaches not so easily b pliable and strong 7 “texwax, ” texas co , 51 2 32 5 29 8 same as 6 port arthur, texas 8 “paraffin wax 122-124 f , ” 50 6 36 0 34-35 a unsatisfactory. warren refining co , does not adhere warren, pa b only slightly pliable. too tough 9 “paraffin no 910, ” 47 0 30 5 26-27 a adheres well. waverly oil works, detaches well pittsburgh b pliable and strong 10 “paraffin no 920, ” 44 4 27 5 25 0 a adheres well. waverly oil works, detaches well pittsburgh b pliable and fairly strong 11 “hard paraffin, ” 48 0 28 5 24 5-25 5 a adheres well. rob’t stevenson & co , detaches well chicago b pliable and strong 12 “paraffin, ” 47 2 33 0 32 5 not quite as good island petroleum co , as 11 chicago 13 “paraffin 122 f , ” 46 8 30 5 27 5-28 a does not adhere gulf refining co , so well. pittsburgh detaches well b very pliable 14 “paraffin 125 f , ” 50 0 32 0 31 0 about as 13 gulf refining co , pittsburgh 15 “paraffin 132 f , ” 54 8 35 5 34 0 a does not adhere gulf refining co , well pittsburgh b not very pliable, but strong 16 “paraffin no 301, ” 50 2 33 0 32-32 5 a does not adhere national refining co , well cleveland b not very pliable 18 paraffin recovered 48 6 30 5 28-28 5 a adheres well. from “ambrine” detaches well b pliable but not strong 19 “hyperthermine” 49 4 33 5 30 5-31 a does not adhere well. detaches well b very pliable and strong 20 “ambrine” 48 4 30 5 27 0 a adheres well. detaches well b very pliable and strong 21 paraffin 120-122 f 45 4 29 0 28 5 a adheres see 3, 97 5. Excellently. olive oil, 1 5. Detaches well asphalt, 4 drops b very pliable and strong 22 “parowax” see 1, 97 5.

Deutsch med wchnschr 32:587, 1906 illustration. How the exploiters of formamint capitalize the medicalprofession miniature reproductions of typical formamint advertisementsappearing in the newspapers rosenberg20 corroborates this statement he also found that agarplates of bacillus prodigiosus were killed by formamint solutionsin about four hours he fails, however, to give the strength of hisformamint solutions 20 rosenberg. Therap d gegen 7:55, 1905 wingrave21 suggests the use of formamint for infants!. he recommendsthat a tablet be crushed and wrapped in “butter cloth ” the ends of thecloth are to be tied with thread, the formamint is to be moistened, andthe packet is to be held in the mouth of the baby several times eachday 21 wingrave. Lancet, london 2:1067, 1906 young22 published the results of essay experiments by himself anddelépine on the human throat they dissolved a tablet in the mouth andmade swab cultures with the following results. Immediately after taking the tablet 0 colonies 10 minutes after taking the tablet 35 colonies 30 minutes after taking the tablet 150 colonies22 young. Lancet, london 1:975, 1908 they found no staphylococci at any time other results of swabbingvarious writings of the throat before and after the use of formamint, reported by these investigators, show enormous reductions in the count, claimed to be due to the action of formamint the count was made onagar at 37 c , but they fail to state the time elapsing between takingthe formamint and making the swab young also reports favorableclinical results in paper of scarlet fever, diphtheria, sore throat, and the like it must be noted, however, that they state that the mouthand fauces must first be thoroughly cleansed by swabbing and douchingbefore formamint is used the “chemical compound” claimthe claims made in the advertising literature of formamint are veryextravagant thesis are highly improbable these statements will bediscussed later the statement is made that formamint is a new chemical compound. “formamint is pentamethanallactose, 5 choh c₁₂h₂₂o₁₁ it is an original combination of formaldehyde with lactose, a definite chemical compound the formaldehyde molecule is locked up in it until solution in the saliva takes place, when the formaldehyde is liberated in its nascent state and is therefore active without being irritant ”furthermore the makers contend that this new chemical compound isentirely harmless for example, daus, 5 in an article on “thedisinfectant action of formic aldehyde on mucous membranes, ” declares. “no indication of irritant or other injurious action made its appearance even after large doses the urine remained free from albumin and sugar ”such statements as these are found in the advertising literature. “formamint tablets are absolutely harmless and innocuous, even to little children ” “when dissolved in the saliva, formamint tablets liberate slowly nascent formaldehyde in a most active yet non-irritant form ”they maintain that formamint is not only absolutely harmless, butactually beneficial to the tissues it may be used “to tone up andstrengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness, and allay irritation insingers, public speakers, ” etc the claims urged as to its germicidal power are indeed glittering this“new chemical compound” is claimed to liberate formaldehyd in essay newand peculiar condition which, while it has a soothing and tonic effecton the cells of the human tissues, can at the same time quickly killany form of bacterial life “dissolving readily, it releases its germicidal, antiseptic qualities, which impregnate the saliva and are carried naturally and easily around the mouth and in the deepest crevices of the throat-- destroying the germs where they are causing the mischief formamint prevents and destroys infectious germ life in a soothing grateful way ” “in the saliva it frees a germicide, fatal to germs but harmless to the most delicate membranes and flowing into every tiny corner of the gums, tonsils and throat, into places where no gargle ever reaches, it most effectively disinfects the throat ”the claims as to the preventive and curative effects of the preparationcover a large portion of the category of human ailments and distresses the following quotations indicate essay of its supposed properties. “ it is therefore self-evident that formamint should be looked upon as a necessary writing of the treatment of all forms of tonsillitis ” “the value of formamint is equally great in diphtheric tonsillitis, or as a prophylactic ” “the extraordinary success which i had with formamint in a school epidemic of scarlet fever during may and june, 1907, was the determining factor which induced me to abandon the use of inhalations, gargles, local applications in the treatment of diseases of the throat, and to use formamint exclusively for the future ” “there are naturally thesis similar conditions in which formamint may be used as a prophylactic, notably scarlet fever, mumps, streptococcal and staphylococcal sore throats, ‘milk outbreaks’ of sore throat, drain throats, hospital throats, and the like ” “formamint tablets are indicated in angina, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, glossitis, ulceration, spongy or bleeding gums, pyorrhea alveolaris, ‘smoker sore throat, ’ abscess or boils, etc ” “as a prophylactic against diphtheria, scarlet fever, influenza, measles, epidemic poliomyelitis, and other pathogenic micro-organisms to neutralize putrefaction products in and about the teeth, correct fermentative processes, deodorize and purify the breath, etc ” “to tone up, and strengthen the tissues, prevent hoarseness and allay irritation in singers, public speakers, neutralize the effects of dust-infection or disinfect the saliva or sputum in influenza, tuberculosis, etc ”one man declares that along with specific constitutional treatment he“had the best results from the use of formamint tablets” in a case ofsyphilitic ulceration of the tongue in short, formamint is recommended for the treatment or preventionof almost everything, from a bad breath to such grave conditions asscarlet fever, diphtheria and tuberculosis, conditions in which adelay in proper treatment-- for instance, in diphtheria, a failure toadminister antitoxin-- may result in the death of the patient a series of investigations was therefore undertaken in order todiscover whether the extravagant claims regarding the germicidal powerof formamint could be verified experimental datatwo fifty-cent bottles of wulfing formamint were purchased in theopen market and were kept well stoppered to prevent deterioration qualitative tests showed the presence of formaldehyd and the amount wasdetermined quantitatively by the hydrogen peroxid method as given bysutton 23 the results were respectively, 1 99 per cent and 2 03 percent of formaldehyd 23 sutton. Volumetric analysis, edition 10, p 390 illustration. Two formamint advertisements reproduced in miniaturetypical of those appearing in a certain type of medical journals essay determinations were made of the germicidal power of formamintin vitro, that is, under controlled laboratory conditions atwenty-four-hour plain agar culture of staphylococcus aureus waswashed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chloridsolution a 1:100, 000 dilution of this was made in each of three flaskscontaining 100 c c of sterile saliva flask 1 contained 1 per cent offormamint, flask 2, 5 per cent. Flask 3, containing no formamint, waskept as a control at intervals samples were removed and dilutions madeand plated in duplicate on standard agar the plates were incubatedtwenty-four hours at 37 c , and plates containing less than 200colonies were counted the results are given in table 1 after sevendays there was no appreciable difference in the plates another test was made by adding a 1 per cent formamint solution toplain agar plates inoculated with b coli a twenty-four-hour plainagar culture of b coli was washed off in 10 c c of sterile 0 85 percent sodium chlorid solution a 1:1, 000, 000 dilution was made of thisand 1 c c added to each plate varying amounts of 1 per cent solutionof formamint were added to each plate they were incubated seventy-twohours at 37 c after seven days’ incubation the count was the same theresults are given in table 2 another experiment was made thus. One loopful of a twenty-four-hourplain agar culture of streptococcus lacticus was mixed with a tubeof north medium one loopful from the inoculated tube was mixed with asecond tube of north medium both tubes were poured into petri dishesand allowed to cool one half of each plate was well smeared with a 10per cent solution of formamint in saliva after twenty-four hours’incubation at 37 c , only a few colonies appeared on the side to whichthe formamint had been applied, while the other half was thicklycovered with colonies table 1 -- showing time in which cultures of staphylococcus aureus werekilled by different amounts of formamint amount of formamint| period of |average count| count on flask in saliva |standing at 37 c | when plated |of saliva without per cent | hours | | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1 | 3 | 32 | 3200 1 | 6 | 0 | 7000 5 | 1 | few | 5000 5 | 2 | 0 | 4100 5 | 3 | 0 | 3200* 5 | 6 | 0 | 7000* -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- * the last two observations were made at the same time as on the 1 percent solutions this work so far corroborates that reported in the literature quotedby the manufacturers but the fact that a compound is a germicide whenbrought into intimate contact with bacteria in a solution or medium ina test tube or flask does not prove that it will be effective when usedin the human throat the alleged germicidal actionan attempt was made to discover whether or not the claims advanced bythe manufacturers as to the perfect germicidal action of formamint inall the nooks and crannies of the mouth and throat could be confirmed table 2 -- count of b coli cultures with different amounts of formamint no c c of 1 per cent formamint 0 0 1 0 3 0 5 0 7 1 0 1 5 2 0 3 0 count 160 33 39 26 15 12 2 0 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the first step in attacking this problem was to make comparative countsof the number of bacteria in the throat before and after the use offormamint the methods employed were as follows. The throat was gargledwith 50 c c of sterile 0 85 per cent sodium chlorid solution ineach case the same length of time, as far as possible, was used in theprocess the liquid was collected in a sterile flask the gargling in aseries of experiments was begun not less than two hours after a meal after essay preliminary work the following dilutions of the 50 c c ofsalt solution were found sufficient. 1:1, 000, 1:10, 000 and 1:100, 000 plates were made in duplicate from each dilution and incubatedseventy-two hours at 37 c the counts were made on plates containingless than 200 colonies except where otherwise noted standard agar wasused the mediums were always prepared in the same way all the work was carried out under conditions as nearly naturalas possible the formamint was taken according to the directionsaccompanying the trade package every opportunity was given theformamint to penetrate all the crypts and recesses about the mouthand throat the tablet was allowed to dissolve as slowly as possible, the time usually being five to six minutes, and saliva was thoroughlyforced around the mouth before being swallowed plating was alwaysdone immediately after gargling so that no growth could occur in thesalt solution the results are given in table 3 the numbers areaverage counts from several plates and calculated to show the number ofbacteria washed out by the 50 c c of salt solution table 3 -- showing that formamint does not greatly decrease the numberof bacteria in the throat | | |no found |no found | time |amount of|in throat |in throat conditions of test | since |formamint| before | after |preceding| used | use of | use of | test | |formamint |formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- normal | | 0 | 15, 600, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 38, 500, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 30, 500, 000| normal | | 0 | 12, 500, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 14, 500, 000| | 1 hour | 0 | 23, 500, 000| tablet dissolved in mouth | 6 days | 1 tablet| | 15, 000, 000 and throat gargled one | | | | hour later | | | | throat again gargled two | 1 hour | 0 | | 10, 050, 000 hours after formamint | | | | was used | | | | normal | 7 days | 0 | 62, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 72, 500, 000| normal | | | 61, 000, 000| tablets were taken, one | 2 days | 12 | | 39, 100, 000 per hour, and throat | | | | gargled onehour after | | | | last tablet was taken | | | | throat was again gargled 2| 1 hour | 0 | | 59, 000, 000 hours after taking last | | | | tablet | | | | normal | 5 days | 0 | 35, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 62, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 | 72, 000, 000| one tablet was taken each | 4 days | 24 | |175, 000, 000 half hour for 12 hours | | tablets | | consecutively throat was| | | | gargled one hour after | | | | last tablet was taken | | | | throat was again gargled | 1 hour | 0 | |168, 750, 000 two hours after last | | | | tablet was taken | | | | normal | 3 days | 0 |129, 600, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 |177, 000, 000| normal | 1 hour | 0 |147, 000, 000| normal | 3 days | 0 | 79, 000, 000| one tablet was taken | 1 hour | 1 | | 83, 200, 000 immediately after preced-| | | | ing gargle throat was | | | | again gargled at end of | | | | one hour | | | | throat was again gargled 2| 1 hour | 0 | |134, 750, 000 hours after tablet was | | | | taken | | | | normal conditions except | 19 days | 0 | 32, 600, 000| that mouth and teeth were| | | | throughly washed with | | | | soap just before gargling| | | | same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 33, 125, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 40, 375, 000| teeth were not washed | 2 days | 0 | 33, 500, 000| otherwise normal con- | | | | ditions | | | | same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 43, 330, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 54, 000, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 50, 000, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 67, 000, 000| mouth and teeth thoroughly| 2 days | 0 | 5, 270, 000| washed with soap just | | | | before throat was gargled| | | | same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 10, 916, 000| same as above | 1 hour | 0 | 8, 275, 000| normal conditions, but 1 | 3 days | 0 |228, 750, 000| c c of sterile rabbit | | | | blood was added to each | | | | plate | | | | count from the same gargle| 0 | 0 | 60, 625, 000| as above no blood used | | | | in the plates | | | | normal conditions, but | 1 hour | 0 |431, 250, 000| count was made on blood | | | | agar | | | | count from the same gargle| 0 | 0 | 59, 625, 000| asabove no blood used in| | | | the plates | | | | normal conditions, count | 2 days | 0 |683, 300, 000| was made on blood agar | | | | same gargle as above, but | 0 | 0 | 58, 500, 000| count was made on plain | | | | agar | | | | one tablet was taken just | 1 hour | 1 tablet| |558, 300, 000 after preceding gargle | | | | after one hour throat was| | | | again gargled count on | | | | blood agar | | | | same gargle as above, but | 0 | 1 tablet| | 55, 875, 000 count was made on plain | | | | agar | | | | normal conditions | 2 days | 0 | 79, 125, 000| one tablet was taken just | 1 hour | 1 tablet| | 56, 250, 000 ten minutes before gargle| 16 min | | | was made | | | | normal conditions | 2 days | 0 | 46, 750, 000| one tablet was taken just | 1 hour | 1 tablet| | 38, 500, 000 ten minutes before throat| | | | was gargled | | | | teeth and mouth were thor-| 5 days | 0 | 47, 370, 000| oughly washed with soap | | | | just before gargle was | | | | made | | | | teeth washed as above and | 1 hour | 1 tablet| | 21, 225, 000 1 tablet taken 10 minutes| | | | before gargle was made | | | | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- finally a determination was made of the number of streptococci in thethroat before and after the use of formamint the throat was gargledin the manner previously described the streptococcus count was madeby the dilution method as given by heinemann 24 culture tubes wereused instead of fermentation tubes one per cent dextrose broth wasthe medium employed one cubic centimeter was added to each of a seriesof ten tubes for each dilution and the following dilutions were used:1:10, 000, 1:100, 000 and 1:1, 000, 000 24 heinemann. Laboratory guide in bacteriology, p 86 the results given in table 4 are the average count from a number ofdilutions and are reported as the total number washed out by the50 c c of salt solution table 4 -- showing that formamint fails to reduce the number ofstreptococci in the throat | | | no found | no found | time | amount of | in throat | in throat conditions | since | formamint | before | after of test | preceding | used | use of | use of | test | | formamint | formamint -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - normal | | 0 | 1, 200, 000 | | | | | one tablet was| | | | taken and | | | | throat gargled| | | | one hour later| 4 days | 1 tablet | |14, 750, 000 | | | | normal | 3 days | 0 | 9, 950, 000 | | | | | one tablet was| | | | taken and | | | | throat gargled| | | | ten minutes | | | | later | 1 hour | 1 tablet | | 8, 000, 000 discussionthe contention that formamint contains formaldehyd was confirmed byanalysis the manufacturers also maintain that formamint is a new, definitechemical compound, consisting of five molecules of formaldehyd andone molecule of lactose, and that when dissolved in the saliva theformaldehyd is liberated in essay new and peculiar form, which theycall nascent formaldehyd this new kind of formaldehyd is, accordingto the advertising literature, especially powerful in its germicidalproperties and at the same time has absolutely no irritating or harmfuleffects not a chemical compoundthoms, 25 retained as an expert by the german government, decided, after a series of chemical investigations, that formamint was nota definite chemical compound, but that it was probably a solidsolution of formaldehyd in lactose he proved that when the processof manufacture was carried out in exactly the way called for by theformamint patents, compounds containing a greater or less per cent offormaldehyd could be made while the other properties remained similarto those of formamint the composition of the final product dependedon the proportion of the components used in the process thereforeformamint did not form a safe means of uniform dosage 25 thoms. Arb a d pharm inst d universität, berlin 11:210, 1914 as a result of thoms’ work the german courts held that formamint wasnot a new chemical compound consequently the formamint patent number189036 was annulled in berlin, nov 29, 1913 again the contention that formaldehyd in the nascent or activecondition is less poisonous and irritating than in its ordinary form iscontrary to what would be expected from the behavior of such compounds if it were liberated, as claimed, in the “nascent” condition, it wouldbe, for that very reason, not only more active but also more harmful as a matter of fact, formamint did have an irritant effect on theworker who carried out these investigations when one tablet wastaken each hour for twelve consecutive hours, marked irritation ofthe intestinal tract resulted there was almost sufficient nausea tocause vomiting and uneasiness in the alimentary canal following theexperiment when the twenty-four tablets were taken the results weresimilar but more pronounced this is decidedly in contradiction to theassertions of the manufacturers otto seifert, 26 moreover, cites the following.

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Thymustablets-armour as a matter of record, the descriptive articles for pineal gland, redbone-marrow and thymus gland, which appeared in new and nonofficialremedies, 1918, are given below pineal glandthe functions of this gland have not yet been established but thereis essay pathological and essay experimental evidence that there isa relation between the gland and essay processes of development andgrowth. The nature of this relation is unknown adiposis is a frequentsign of disturbed pineal function, but observers are not agreed whetherto interpret this as indicating hypofunction or hyperfunction, orpossibly a concurrent disturbance of the pituitary in essay instancesintravenous injections of pineal extract have seemed to cause adistinct fall in blood pressure it has been inferred from observationsin paper of pineal tumors in the young that the gland in youngindividuals furnishes a secretion which inhibits growth, writingicularlythe development of the reproductive glands, but the results ofexperimental administration of pineal substance orally have led otherobservers to infer that the pineal secretion favors physical andpossibly mental and sexual development it has been suggested that, asall evidence points to the fact that the function of the pineal glandis one of early life, extract of adult pineal glands might be expectedto be inert experiment has also indicated greater activity in glandsobtained from young animals than in those obtained from older ones thecouncil has decided to admit preparations of pineal gland to new andnonofficial remedies simply for experimental purposes red bone-marrowred bone-marrow consists largely more than 90 per cent of fat innew-born animals a third or more of this fat consists of lecithin the marrow of the bones of new-born animals contains iron up to 1per cent or more in various forms of organic combination bothlecithin and iron decrease rapidly in the first weeks after birth the commercial preparations contain very variable amounts of theseconstituents actions and uses -- red bone-marrow is supposed to stimulate theformation of red blood corpuscles. Whatever action it may have in thisdirection is probably due largely to the iron and lecithin which itcontains it is said to be useful in simple and pernicious anemias thymus glandlittle is known as to the functions of the thymus, but it is believedto have an important relation to growth there also seems to be essayrelation between the thymus and thyroid, for the former is frequentlyabnormal in diseases involving the latter hyperthyroidism the use of thymus is purely empirical it has been employed in thetreatment of hyperthyroidism, rickets, tuberculosis, hemophilia, andinfantile marasmus and atrophy. Its use in the latter conditionsis said to be the most promising it is claimed on very doubtfulgrounds to exert a essaywhat favorable effect in certain paper ofcancer -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 69 piperazine and lycetol omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of piperazine and lycetol has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary piperazine diethylenediamene and lycetol a methyl derivative ofdiethylenediamene were accepted for new and nonofficial remedies in1906 both piperazine and lycetol were asserted to be efficient uricacid solvents and efficacious remedies in the treatment of gout andrheumatism these products have been retained until now because therewas no investigation which definitely showed their uselessness as uricacid solvents, though their use is generally admitted to have beendisappointing from an exhaustive and critical study of the available evidence, hanzlik jour lab & clin med , february, 1917 concluded thatscientific evidence, though limited, and clinical opinion indicate thatpiperazine is valueless in gout and that there is sufficient scientificevidence to indicate the worthlessness of lycetol the referee in charge of piperazine and lycetol recommended that theseproducts be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies for the reasonthat they have been sufficiently tried to justify the conclusion thatthey are not of value the period of acceptance having expired, thecouncil directed that piperazine and piperazine tablets the bayercompany, inc and lycetol the bayer company, inc be omitted fromnew and nonofficial remedies -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 70 stanolind liquid paraffin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryas explained in the report which follows, “stanolind liquid paraffin”was omitted from new and nonofficial remedies at the request of theproprietors announcement of this omission was made in the preface tonew and nonofficial remedies, 1918, but publication of the councilreport was postponed pending actual conflict with the rules thecouncil now authorizes publication of the report because a circularindirectly advertising the product to the public was found enclosedwith the trade package of stanolind liquid paraffin w a puckner, secretary stanolind liquid paraffin was admitted to new and nonofficial remediesin 1916, when its method of marketing conformed to the rules of thecouncil this brand of liquid petrolatum, by action of the council, has been omitted from new and nonofficial remedies on request of thestandard oil company of indiana, its manufacturer, who wrote to thesecretary of the council stating that. “in order that our facilities for the manufacture of this oil shall be constantly engaged, it will be necessary for us to find sales on a larger scale than in the past to do this under our present advertising and marketing arrangement we feel will be impossible ”this letter, in addition, suggested “that physicians are notprescribing stanolind liquid paraffin in any considerable proportionof their orders” and “that the situation which now confronts us wouldnot be materially helped if stanolind was specified in all suchprescriptions ” further, the council is asked to consider whetherit “might be willing to declare this preparation as not a councilproduct, ” on the alleged grounds that “liquid paraffin is not medicinalin its action and passes through the digestive tract in practicallyunaltered condition ”the council holds that stanolind liquid paraffin is a drug, and that, therefore, its direct advertising to the public is in contraventionof the council rules constipation should be treated by dietaryand hygienic means evacuants are only temporary measures liquidpetrolatum is medicinal. It greatly modifies the intestinal flora. Itacts as a lubricant and emollient. It modifies the absorptive powersof the intestinal mucous membrane. It is capable of influencing thedigestion of fats in short, liquid petrolatum, being a drug, itsindiscriminate and excessive use should not be encouraged -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 72 westerfield digitalis tablets report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary westerfield digitalis tablets the westerfield pharmacal co , dayton, ohio are claimed to represent a fat free tincture of digitalis and tobe “enteric coated ” it is claimed that because of this coating thesetablets pass the stomach unchanged and dissolve in the intestine, andthat this obviates any possibility of gastric disturbance the circular which sets forth the asserted advantages of the tabletsstates that digitalis contains a fat which is an irritant to thegastric membrane it also contains the following. “we feel no hesitation in saying that if this remedy is given a fair trial where it is properly indicated, the result obtained will be a gratifying surprise “it is a common expression from physicians who have tried this remedy to say, ‘surely i have never used digitalis before ’”if these quotations mean anything, they imply that these tabletspresent a distinct advance in digitalis therapy there is no warrantfor such a claim the statement with reference to the occurrence of anoil in digitalis is writingly false and writingly misleading tincture ofdigitalis, which the tablets are claimed to represent, is fat free;the fixed oil that is present in the drug is not soluble in 70 percent alcohol, the menstruum used for the preparation of the officialtincture of digitalis furthermore, a fairly large amount of this oil such as is present in 100 therapeutic doses of the drug is incapableof causing gastric disturbance gastric disturbance is a side actionthat is inseparable from slight overdosage with all true digitalisbodies and is not in any way due to local gastric action the claimthat such action is prevented by the use of enteric pills or tablets isobviously false and misleading the alleged “common expression from physicians who have tried thisremedy” does not constitute acceptable evidence of the value of thepreparation the council declared westerfield digitalis tablets inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies because unwarranted therapeutic claims aremade for this product when the preceding report was submitted to the westerfield pharmacalco , a reply was received indicating that the firm did not knowthat progressive manufacturers had discontinued the claim that “fatfree” digitalis preparations were devoid of gastric effects it alsosubmitted a revised circular, which, however, reiterated the claim thatthe tablet presented a distinct advance in digitalis therapy in that itwas “fat free, ” and coated to prevent disintegration in the stomach since tincture of digitalis and extract of digitalis are practicallydevoid of fatty material, and since it is now well known that thefat does not cause gastric disturbance and that therapeutic dosesof digitalis do not exert a local irritant action on the stomach, the manufacturer product and the claims made for it merely tend toperpetuate old errors the council declared westerfield digitalis tablets inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies on the ground that this presents anunessential modification of pills of an official substance it directedpublication of its report with this explanation -- from reports ofcouncil on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 75 xeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report onbismuth tribromphenate-merck and xeroform-heyden these two productswere found not to comply with the standards for bismuth tribromphenateadopted for new and nonofficial remedies, and hence could not beretained as the manufacturers of both products announce that effortstoward the production of a satisfactory product are continued, theomission of the two brands is without prejudice to their reacceptancewhen a satisfactory product becomes available w a puckner, secretary the referee in charge of bismuth preparations submitted the followingreport of the a m a chemical laboratory which shows thatxeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck do not comply with theadopted standards for bismuth tribromphenate essay time ago a request was received from the medical section of the national council of defense for a report on a brand of bismuth tribromphenate in accordance with this request the firm product was examined, and at the same time and for comparison, an examination was also made of a specimen of bismuth tribromphenate received from merck and company, october, 1915, and of another specimen of bismuth tribromphenate “xeroform-heyden” obtained from the chicago branch of the heyden chemical works in april, 1918 the examination brought out that the bismuth tribromphenate submitted to the national council of defense contained a large amount of uncombined tribromphenol, while the specimen of xeroform-heyden contained an excessive quantity of bismuth when the latter finding was submitted to the heyden chemical works, the firm stated. “the product had to be made in this country after importations from europe became impossible and the first lots were not fully up to the standard ” the firm stated that it could now furnish a product which it considered fully equal to that which was previously imported, and offered to submit “samples of the new material ” having been requested to do so, a specimen of xeroform-heyden was received from the heyden chemical works, new york this and a second specimen, purchased from a chicago wholesale drug house, were examined whereas the standards for bismuth tribromphenate which had been formulated by the laboratory and accepted by the heyden chemical works required that the product should contain from 40 to 49 per cent of bismuth and contain not more than 3 3 per cent of uncombined tribromphenol, the specimen purchased in chicago contained 67 7 per cent of bismuth, while the specimen received direct from the heyden chemical works contained 24 per cent of uncombined tribromphenol when this result was reported to the heyden chemical works, the firm replied. “it seems that we are not yet in a position to supply a product that answers a uniform standard and that we have to continue our efforts in this direction “we will take this matter up with you again as soon as we have been successful ” at the time when the preceding examination was being made, bismuth tribromphenate-merck could not be obtained from the chicago wholesale houses a request sent to merck and company for a specimen of the market supply brought the information that the product was temporarily unavailable though unable to supply the product, the firm gave valuable advice for a revision of the essaywhat loosely drawn tests for bismuth tribromphenate in new and nonofficial remedies, 1918 recently november, 1918 merck and company sent a specimen of its product labeled “bismuth tribromphenate-merck” “merck and company, new york, distributors and guarantors, ” and wrote “ you will notice this sample conforms in nearly all details to the tests we submitted with our letter of june 4th we have been able to produce better goods, but just at present unsatisfactory starting material confronts us the sample conforms to n n r , 1918, but will not meet the test for uncombined tribromphenol submitted by you in your letter of september 4th ” examination of the specimen demonstrated that it was soluble to a considerable extent in alcohol the n n r , 1918, description provides that it should be only slightly soluble in alcohol and according to the standards adopted for new and nonofficial remedies, 1919, contains 18 per cent uncombined tribromphenol more than five times the permitted amount in view of the laboratory report, the referee recommended that theacceptance of xeroform-heyden and bismuth tribromphenate-merck bewithdrawn, without prejudice to their reinstatement when satisfactoryproducts are again offered for sale the council adopted therecommendation of the referee, and accordingly xeroform-heyden andbismuth tribromphenate-merck are omitted from new and nonofficialremedies, 1919 when the laboratory findings with regard to xeroform-heyden and theaction of the council deleting the article from new and nonofficialremedies was reported to the heyden chemical works, the firm expressedregret that efforts to produce a product equal to that formerlyobtained from gerthesis had so far not been successful and announcedthat it had decided to withdraw xeroform-heyden from the market for thepresent when merck and company was advised in regard to the report of thelaboratory and the council action, this firm questioned thefeasibility of producing a product meeting the council standards andsuggested that the test for free tribromphenol be revised to permit asmuch as 15 per cent of this constituent when merck and company wasreminded that its product, submitted in 1915, essentially complied withthe adopted standards and that the estimate of the therapeutic valueof bismuth tribromphenate is based on a product essentially free fromalcohol-soluble material, the firm replied.