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Both those and also the bark of the tree, stop fluxes, and help the lungs querci of oak-tree both the bark of the oak, and acorn cups aredrying and cold, binding, stop fluxes and the menses, as also therunning of the reins. Have a care how you use them before due purging rhaphani of radishes i could never see any bark they had suberis of cork it is good for essaything else besides to stopbottles. Being dry and binding, stanches blood, helps fluxes, especially the ashes of it being burnt paulus sambuci, &c of elder roots and branches. Purges water, helps thedropsy cort medius tamaricis the middle bark of tameris, eases the spleen, helps the rickets use them as ash-tree bark tillim of line-tree boiled, the water helps burnings thuris of frankinsenses i must plead ignoramus ulmi of elm moderately hot and cleansing, good for wounds, burns, and broken bones, viz boiled in water and the grieved place bathedwith it woods and their chips, or raspings a gallochus, lignum aloes wood of aloes.

This wouldbe more likely to occur in a person previously subject to epilepticattacks hysterical convulsions and spasms may also be produced, both immediately and as a more remote result, usually in personspredisposed tetany and catalepsy are said to occur clonic spasms of the whole body and convulsive movements of the limbsare not very infrequent in essay paper a marked sensitiveness remainsfor a time in the limbs struck, so that if touched they are immediatelythrown into clonic spasms disturbances of sensation - pain occurs in nearly all paper it ismost frequently a secondary result of the burns reviews for essay writing services and other injuries not rarely, however, it exists as a direct symptom in the form of aburning or stinging neuralgia in the limb or limbs affected essaytimesthe first sensation on the recovery of consciousness seems to be painall over the body or confined to essay portions only, but the amountand character of the pain, aside from that produced by the injuries, varies much one patient had a burning pain in the back and leg lastingonly half an hour after recovery of consciousness in another casethere were pains all over at the end of the first week on the whole, severe pain in essay or all of the limbs, and less commonly in thehead, without paralysis and lasting essay days is not rare in one casereported by paige the patient had intense pain in the head, neck, arms, and chest. That in the head was constant, severe, and lasted sevendays, elsewhere less constant pain in the arms accompanied by paralysis and anæsthesia and lastingthree months has been reported headache is not rare as a later or secondary symptom disturbances of sensation other than pain are not rare a certain amount of hyperæsthesia almost always exists in the portionaffected immediately after the stroke this is often so marked thatit cannot be wholly due to the burns or other injuries it is usuallyvery temporary and ceases in a few hours in essay paper a permanent orlasting sensitiveness to the action of electricity is said to remain anæsthesia, loss or diminution of sensation, occurs either with orwithout paralysis in the paper reported by balfour, one boy saidhe could not feel his legs and another that his arms were cut off in a case reported by free there was loss of sensation in the rightupper extremity from the elbow to the fingers and in the left lowerextremity from the knee to the toes as a rule, the loss of sensationis temporary and quickly passes away, but it may last, in company withparalysis, for essay time in such paper either an organic lesion or atraumatic neurosis is to be suspected paræsthesiæ are very common after lightning stroke most frequent, perhaps, is the subjective sensation of numbness tingling, formication, and the sense of “pins and needles” may occur reflexes - as a rule, the deep reflexes seem to remain normal thesuperficial reflexes of the writings affected are at least temporarilyincreased special senses - sight - affections of the eye the eye and thesurrounding writings may be directly injured by burning we also find thesisserious conditions caused by the lightning the pathology of which willbe considered later when a person is first struck he may perceive aflash of light or a ball of fire before losing consciousness whileunconscious the pupils are usually dilated, but react sight may be atonce totally lost, but this is usually only temporary there may beamblyopia. Photophobia, lachrymation, and pain are not uncommon for atime cataract may be produced and other severe ocular affections mayresult hearing - sudden and total deafness may be caused by lightning, as inthe case of cook, where perforation of both tympana was found this mayprove to be only temporary, as in the case of nason, where the patient, though totally deaf at first, is reported as hearing fairly on thefifth day. On the seventeenth day, however, the hearing was still dull the deafness may be permanent with deafness tinnitus is apt to occur hyperacustia, or extreme sensitiveness to noise, has also been reportedin several paper smell and taste - the person affected essaytimes has noticed a smellresembling that of sulphur, and this has also been said to have beenapparent to others a metallic taste in the mouth is not rare general symptoms - when first struck by lightning and while stillunconscious, the patient has usually a flushed and reddened face, with dilated pupils immediately following, or perhaps without thispreliminary stage, appear the symptoms of collapse cyanosis may occur, and the patient may appear to be asphyxiated fever, not caused by injuries, may essaytimes occur, but certainly notto any extreme degree in thesis paper the temperature when taken wasnormal, and even in paper of severe stroke without serious surgicalinjury the temperature has not risen above 101° in these latter paperit is hard to say how far the temperature is affected by the burnswhich are always present the pulse is essaytimes slow, essaytimes rapid and feeble, or almostimperceptible. At times it is irregular the respiration is apt to be labored in paige case there was markeddyspnœa it may be almost imperceptible it is essaytimes slow andessaytimes rapid nausea and vomiting occur often after recovery of consciousness vertigo and reeling may exist from various causes it is probable that seminal emissions may occur at the moment of shock menstruation, when present, may be checked or may continue pregnantwomen do not necessarily abort pathology and pathological anatomy a few words must be said in regard to the pathological conditions whichmay be directly produced by lightning and can be detected during life the burns, wounds, ecchymoses, dendritic marks, and other externalsigns have already been fully considered certain pathological changes, however, have been found in the eyeswhich are capable of being verified during life in addition toswelling and œdema of the lids, to the injuries from burns and to thevarious paralyses of the ocular muscles, changes in the tissues of theeye itself may occur in the first place we may find corneal opacitiesand adhesive iritis iridocyclitis may occur cataract formation isnot rare, and its causation has given rise to thesis theories opticneuritis and neuro-retinitis are essaytimes found. And we have essaytimesoptic atrophy structural changes in the choroid may also be causedby lightning rupture of the choroid, hemorrhage from the choroid andretina, and writingial detachment of the retina may occur from the shockwithout the patient being struck by the lightning and without ruptureof the external tissues ears - perforation of the tympanum is reported in more than one case autopsies we shall consider here the pathological conditions found in deaths fromelectricity, whether due to artificial or to atmospheric sources theresults are or may be the same in either, so far as we now know, and itis probable that the action of the electricity is practically the samein either case, only varying as regards the strength and tension of thecurrent rigor mortis - this has generally been found in paper of death fromartificial electricity in the case of jugigo, who was executed byelectricity, it was present four and one-half hours after death asregards its occurrence in death by lightning and the rapidity of itsonset, there has been much discussion it is certainly present in thesispaper, and the probability is there is nothing diagnostic in regard toit in deaths by lightning when absent, its absence is probably due tothe presence of essay external factor and has no relation to the form ofdeath we have, on the other hand, no proof that the rapidity of itsonset is increased coagulation of the blood - it has been observed frequently thatthe blood of persons struck by lightning does not coagulate readily sullivan states that in certain paper of complete disorganization afterlightning shock the blood is left fluid and incoagulable and its colorchanged to a deep black in one of the paper of death from artificialelectricity reported by grange, the heart was found sixty-two hoursafter death to be filled with liquid blood of a rosy vermilion color, which quickly became darker on contact with the air a spectroscopicexamination of the blood showed the normal lines of oxidized bloodreducible by sulphydrate of ammonium in a case reported by matzingerthe blood as submitted was black and perfectly fluid, the corpuscles, both red and white, were normal, and no fibrin was detected in thoseexecuted by electricity the blood seems to have been fluid and not inany way remarkable there seems to be no evidence that the bodies of those dying fromelectricity in any form suffer unusually rapid decomposition the only absolute sign of death from electricity is decomposition ofthe tissues, but the usual signs are to be relied upon to the sameextent as in ordinary paper of death internal organs - in the paper of death from mechanical electricityno changes in the internal organs other than those due to accidentaltraumata have been found, except a considerable degree of congestionand essaytimes minute hemorrhages in the heart substance beneath thepericardium and into the pulmonary air-vesicles and pleura in one ofgrange paper the heart was filled with liquid blood. In the other itwas completely empty, the right ventricle collapsed, the walls of theleft ventricle hard and contracted careful autopsies were made in the paper of the criminals executed byelectricity, but no important changes caused by the electric currenthave been detected either macroscopically or microscopically a fewpetechial spots tardieu spots are apt to be found underneath thepericardium in the heart tissue and essaytimes beneath the pleura theorgans were not extremely congested in the case of jugigo the vesselsof the spinal cord and its membranes contained if anything less bloodthan usual in this case the amount of blood found in the brain seemsto have been about normal, the vessels of the dura were moderatelydilated and those of the pia “in a medium state of congestion ” in thecase of kemmler the portion of the intracranial contents underneaththe head-electrode was essaywhat affected directly by the heat, themeningeal vessels in the dura were carbonized, and the brain cortexwas sensibly hardened to one-sixth of its depth, “where there was abroken line of vascularity ” the post-mortem temperature in this papereems to have remained unusually high, being 97° f in the fourthventricle and 99° f at the back of the neck three hours after death ina room where the temperature was only 83° in autopsies after death by lightning the results are in generalanalogous the brain and its membranes may be anæmic or congested effusions of blood may be found beneath the dura or in the brainsubstance itself, due to the laceration or injury of vessels ruptureof the brain is said to have occurred, and phayre reports a case inwhich the left hemisphere was entirely destroyed and changed into adark gray homogeneous fluid mass, only a small portion of the corpuscallosum remaining no extravasation of blood, laceration of thevessels or membranes, or injury of the bones was detected ecchymotic spots are frequently found beneath the serous membranes, pericardium, pleura, and peritoneum schmitz states that parenchymatous inflammation of the internal organsmay occur, and sullivan reports a case where the stomach was found tobe gangrenous over a large surface, the patient having lived severaldays paper of rupture of the heart, the liver, and the spleen arereported the medico-legal consideration of death by mechanical suffocation including hanging and strangulation by daniel smith lamb, a m , m d , pathologist army medical museum, washington, d c. Professor of anatomy medical dewritingment howard university, washington. Secretary association of american anatomists. Late acting assistant surgeon united states army. President of association of acting assistant surgeons u s a. Member of learned societies mechanical suffocation suffocation is the name applied to both the act of and conditionresulting from the deprivation of atmospheric air if the deprivationis due to mechanical interference, the term mechanical suffocation isused mechanical interference may be by pressure upon or obstruction withinessay portion of the respiratory tract suffocation by pressure uponthe neck is called hanging when the constricting force is theweight of the body itself. And strangulation in all other paper german writers designate strangulation by cords, ropes, and the likeas erdrosselung, and by the hand as erwürgung. French writers donot make this distinction in english the word throttling is probablyoftener applied to strangulation by the hand than by cords the term suffocation is also applied in a special sense to theact and result of pressure on the mouth, nose, or chest and abdomen, stopping the breathing. Or of obstruction within the respiratory tract;or of pressure upon the tract from the œsophagus, etc.

That in such a case the statute isnot to be so construed as to be used as a weapon of defence to a writingyso charged instead of a protection to his victim ” accordingly it washeld that the evidence was not to be excluded under the statute butthe rule is still applicable to criminal actions in a later case, where the accused was indicted for abortion, the same court held, thatwhere the patient was living and the disclosure tended to convict hertoo of crime or to cast discredit and disgrace upon her, the evidenceof her physician as to information acquired by him in attendanceupon her was inadmissible in the trial of the man charged with thecrime 250 in a still later case, 251 the general term of the supremecourt held, where the accused was on trial for murder and he hadconfided to a physician what he had done, that the physician could notdisclose the confidence the rule deducible from these decisions seemsto be that in new york the privilege extends to criminal actions, eventhough they be trials for murder, and even though the person accusedbe the patient, reviews for essay writing services but that the statute will be applied only for theprotection of the patient, and where it is apparent that no injury canpossibly be done to the patient or his memory by the admission of theevidence, and the interests of justice demand the disclosure, for thepunishment of a person for an injury done to the patient involving aviolation of the criminal law, and the patient is not alive to waivethe privilege, that the disclosure is not forbidden in new york efforts have been made to exclude from the operation ofthe statute other classes of actions, to which it has been urged thatthe reasons for the enactment do not apply, or in which the mischiefalleged to be wrought by its enforcement has been suggested as groundfor believing that the legislature could not have intended to includethem of these, actions for divorce on the ground of adultery are oneclass. But it has been held that they constitute no exception 252testamentary causes - in new york it was long supposed that thepolicy of the law excepted probate proceedings. It was so held bythe surrogate of new york city;253 and also by the general termof the supreme court, 254 by which it was stated that the practicehad prevailed for a half-century in will paper, 255 but the courtof appeals, 256 has decided that testamentary paper constitute noexception to the rule, the judge who delivered the opinion statingthat there is no more reason for allowing secret ailments of a patientto be brought to light in a contest over his will than in any othercase, and that if mischief be wrought by the law the remedy lies withthe legislature and not with the courts the legislature has sinceafforded the remedy, 257 but not to the extent of adopting the rule ofthe earlier paper in indiana, in an action to set aside a will, thetestimony of the testator physician has been excluded 258 and inmichigan and missouri it seems that testamentary paper are no exceptionto the general rule 259lunacy and habitual drunkenness - it has been claimed in new yorkthat inquisitions of lunacy are an exception, and recently it has beenheld that the alleged lunatic physician may testify as to his mentalcondition because no one is better qualified to testify, 260 but thisdecision seems to be at variance with the principle of the decisionsof the court of appeals with reference to testamentary paper, andpresents no satisfactory reason for a distinction in a similar case inthe supreme court, chambers, it was held that a medical attendant at anasylum could not testify 261 it has also been held that a physiciancannot make an affidavit as to the appearance and condition of hispatient to support a petition for the appointment of a committee forhim as an habitual drunkard 262fraud - still another class of actions in which contending principleshave been invoked to make an exception in the law of privilege, isactions on life-insurance contracts the contract of insurance isuberrimæ fidei, and the defence of fraud in the application isfrequently interposed to defeat a claim under a policy medicaltestimony would often be the most satisfactory evidence to establishthe fraud, and efforts have been made to introduce it under thatexcuse, but without avail in the case of dilleber vs home lifeinsurance company, in the supreme court of new york at generalterm, 263 the question seems to have been directly before thecourt, and davis, p j , dissenting, insisted that the suppressionof a physician testimony ought not to be permitted so as to coverup a fraud, but the majority of the court held otherwise. The casewas subsequently overruled, but not on the ground urged by justicedavis 264 the number of insurance paper in which the rule has beenenforced seems to leave it beyond question that it will not be relaxedfor the purpose of establishing fraud, 265 although that announcementhas not been specifically made there seems no reason that the ruleshould be relaxed in that regard when it is not relaxed to establishthe crime of the patient. Though the mischief that may be done in suchpaper is apparent 266the witness - the statutory provisions as to the professionalstatus of the witness whose testimony is excluded have already beenshown 267 the facts which establish the relation of physicianand patient will be treated later 268 the witness is a member ofa profession, but there is very little discussion in the paper asto what constitutes a physician or surgeon 269 the language ofthe statutes as well as their policy and intent has been said toplainly embrace a physician who casually or in any way attends andprescribes for a patient, whether he be a family physician or the usualmedical attendant or not 270 the spirit of the acts would protectcommunications made to any person attending the patient in the acceptedcapacity of physician or surgeon wherever that might have happened, though the letter would confine it in essay instances to duly authorizedor duly licensed persons it does not seem to have been establishedwhether such authority or license must have been granted under thelaws of the state where the trial is conducted, nor how the severalstatutes apply to communications made elsewhere, especially in statesor countries where authority or license to practise is not required bylaw it has been said with reference to the new york law that it isabsolutely necessary that the witness should be a duly qualifiedphysician;271 and it has been held that the words “duly authorized”mean those persons who are not prohibited by the penal code frompractising, so that an unlicensed physician may be compelled todisclose confidential communications 272 whether the same rule wouldbe applied with reference to information obtained in another state bya physician duly authorized to practise there although prohibited frompractising in new york, is a question that is suggested as a casewithin the reason of the law but outside of its letter, and one whichdoes not seem to have been answered in new york, in an action by a physician for compensation for hisservices, it was held that a person who merely answered for a physicianat his office in his absence, and was not himself a physician, is not awitness whose testimony is privileged 273in missouri it has been held that a drug and prescription clerk isnot a privileged witness 274 the question arose in the same state, whether a dental surgeon is forbidden to testify under the statute, butits determination was not essential to the judgment and it was leftunanswered 275to establish the privilege it is necessary that the person who insistsupon it to exclude testimony should show by competent evidence that thewitness belongs to the class privileged under the law 276 but wherethe physician testified that he was a regular practising physician andattended in that capacity, and he was not examined further as to hisdue authority, it was held that a failure to produce his license couldnot be urged on appeal as reason for compelling him to testify 277the court said that if the privilege were the physician he might, ifthe objection were taken, be required to prove by the best evidencethat he was duly authorized, but as it is the patient privilege, inthe absence of objection to the sufficiency of the proof, the patientis entitled to the benefit of the presumption that the physician hadthe license which the law requires to entitle him to practise waiver of the privilege who may waive - those states in which the law provides for a waiverhave been enumerated;278 in others the courts have determined thatthe privilege of waiving is implied in the reason for the law inindiana it has been held that although the statute contains in termsan absolute prohibition, it creates no absolute incompetency andthe privilege may be waived by the person for whose benefit it ismade or his legal representative 279 under the michigan law itwas claimed that the physician is forbidden to reveal confidenceseven though he have his patient consent, but it has been held thatthe law only creates a privilege on the same footing with otherprivileged communications, which the public has no interest insuppressing when there is no desire for suppression on the writing ofthe person concerned 280 in missouri too the patient may waive theprivilege 281the protection vouchsafed by the law is designed for the benefit of thepatient, and therefore the physician himself cannot waive it 282 thepatient can disclose his own physical condition if he so desires 283but the physician cannot refuse to testify if the patient waives theprivilege 284the patient can waive the privilege during his life 285as it existed prior to 1891 the new york law provided that theprohibition should operate unless it was expressly waived upon thetrial or examination by the patient 286 this was interpreted to meanthat the patient himself was the only person who could make a waiver;and that, therefore, the possibility of waiver ceased with the deathof the patient, while the privilege of secrecy continued unabated, so that those claiming under the deceased patient could not waivethe privilege, nor insist upon the testimony of the physician, eventhough their interests were in jeopardy on account of his silence 287it seems, however, that a patient can during his lifetime waive theprivilege, the waiver to take effect after his death 288 the expresswaiver required by the statute may be given by the patient attorney, because of the nature of the attorney agency in conducting an actionfor the patient 289none of the other statutes are in the exact terms of the new yorkstatute, but those of california, colorado, idaho, minnesota, montana, nevada, north dakota, ohio, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wyoming provide that the testimony shall not be given unless thepatient consent. In iowa, the waiver provided for is that of theperson in whose favor the prohibition is made. And in nebraska, ofthe writingy in whose favor the provision is enacted in indiana, the privilege extends beyond the death of the patient, andit may be waived by the writingy who may be said to stand in the place ofthe deceased and whose interests may be affected by the disclosure 290in michigan, what the patient may do in his lifetime, those whorepresent him after his death may also do for the protection ofthe interests which they claim under him 291 in missouri therepresentatives of the patient may waive;292 and where the disputeis between devisees and heirs at law all claiming under a deceasedpatient, either the devisees or heirs may call the attending physicianof the testator as a witness regarding information acquired by him inhis professional attendance 293 in nevada it has been said that theparents of a seven-year-old infant, may waive for the infant 294objections to the admission of privileged communications. When andby whom made - having considered who can waive the privilege, itis material to discuss also the question who may insist upon theenforcement of the law if the protection were only enforced on theclaim of privilege by the patient, the very object of the statuteswould be defeated in the large majority of instances because of theabsence of the patient and every one interested in his behalf toassert his right it rests, therefore, with any writingy to raise theobjection and assert the prohibition but it seems that the physicianhimself, unless a writingy, cannot make the objection 295 it seems tohave been thought in essay of the paper that the right to insist uponthe enforcement of the law is coupled with an interest derived fromthe patient this idea started from the language used in the earlypaper enforcing the privilege at the instance of those claiming underdeceased patients;296 and it led to essay confusion where the rightof representatives to waive the privilege was denied. But it seemsto be clear that the right to object differs from the right to waivein that the latter is necessarily and logically dependent upon therelation between the patient and his representative, while the formeris obviously suggested as the best method of enforcing the law inindiana it has been said that the statute gives to the representativeof a deceased patient the right to object;297 but that this is notby reason of the relationship appears from another case in the samestate, where on an application for a new trial the court voluntarilyrefused to grant one for newly discovered evidence disclosed to itby a physician affidavit, on the ground that if the patient shouldobject in the new trial the evidence would be excluded 298 in thisstate it has been held that the widow of the patient cannot object tothe disclosure, if his administrator with the will annexed waives theprivilege 299in michigan it has been said that the physician cannot avail himselfof the statute for his own benefit. But that was in a case where thecommunication was not really of the privileged class 300 in newyork, in proceedings to which a physician was a writingy an examinationof his books of account before trial has been refused on the ground ofprivilege, and for the same reason a motion to direct a physician toturn his books of account over to a receiver has been denied 301in montana it has been said that when the patient consents no one elsecan object to the reception of the physician testimony 302in new york it has been said that the benefits of the law are to bedispensed alike to those familiar with and those ignorant of itsexistence and applicability, and it is therefore no reason to refuseits enforcement, that the patient did not know that his communicationwas privileged 303but, as in other paper of the receipt of improper evidence, it wouldseem that the objection should be made at the time it is offered, andif the objection is not then made, it will not avail to raise it lateror on appeal 304 it should not be prematurely made 305 in newyork where in pursuance of a special feature of practice in probateproceedings, 306 certain witnesses are regarded as the surrogatewitnesses though produced at the instance of the contestant, and thecontestant, after giving notice that the evidence of physicians as suchwitnesses was material, refused to examine them, and the surrogaterequired the proponent to suggest a line of examination, it was heldthat it did not lie with the contestant to object to the physicians’testimony as privileged, because she had lost her right to object bygiving notice that the evidence of those witnesses on these points wasmaterial 307objection cannot be raised in the progress of an examination after theforbidden testimony has been in writing received without objection. Forthat would unjustly enable a writingy to open the door and get in all hedesired and then to close it to the disadvantage of his adversary. Whenthe door is once properly opened the examination may be continued untilit is complete, despite the objection of the writingy at whose instance itwas begun 308in indiana, where there was no objection, it was held that the evidenceshould not be withdrawn from the consideration of the jury or itsweight diminished by comments on its value as matter of law 309but when such evidence has already been admitted in the face ofobjection, it is not necessary for the writingy to object again, asnothing is waived by conforming with a rule already laid down 310where it is apparent that no harm is done to the objecting writingy by animproper ruling on the receipt of privileged communications, no weightwill be given to an exception to such ruling 311what constitutes a waiver of the privilege - the statutory provisionsas to what constitutes a waiver have been set forth above 312 incalifornia it has been held that cross-examination of the physicianby the patient, calling for privileged matter, is a waiver ofprivilege 313 in indiana it has been held that consent to disclosurecannot be inferred from the patient simply giving the name of hisfamily physician in applying for a policy of insurance on his life, and that a waiver in such an application should be evidenced by astipulation too plain to be misunderstood 314 and a physicianstatements of the cause of his patient death, furnished to aninsurance company, in pursuance of a stipulation of a policy thatsatisfactory proof of death shall be submitted to the company, are notrendered admissible by that stipulation 315it has also been held that consent to the evidence of one physicianis no consent that another physician may divulge confidentialcommunications;316 and that the physician cannot testify that hefound no evidence of injury on the examination of his patient, inorder to contradict her;317 the patient had already testified asto her condition and what the physician had done, but not as toanything said to her by her physician. She had expressly declinedto testify concerning communications except as to his prescriptionfor her injury, and without asking him to disprove her assertionsthe trial court permitted him to say that he had found no evidenceof injury. This was held to be error it has also been held that thetaking of a physician deposition and filing it, for the purposeof breaking the force of his testimony in a deposition taken by theopposite writingy, is no consent in itself to the reading of the otherwritingy deposition 318 but when, in an action against a physician formalpractice, the patient testifies as to the manner of treatment, thephysician is then at liberty to introduce the testimony of himself oranother physician as to the facts thus put in issue by the patient 319in iowa it has been held that the testimony of a patient regarding thecondition of his health is not a waiver of privilege, so as to allowhis opponent to introduce the testimony of his physician to contradicthim 320in michigan a physician has been allowed to contradict his patient asto the time when her trouble commenced, but on the ground that it hadnot been shown that the information was necessary to enable him toprescribe 321 but it has been held that waiver as to one physician isnot waiver as to another regarding a different time 322in missouri, the calling of a physician by the patient as a witnessto testify as to information acquired while attending, is awaiver 323 but offering one physician as a witness is not a waiverof the privilege with reference to another 324 an applicant forinsurance may, by an express waiver in his application, make anefficient waiver, binding upon any one claiming under the contract ofinsurance 325in nevada a waiver has been implied from the testimony of the patientand her mother, where the patient was an infant seven years ofage 326 and it was said that the parents of such an infant may makethe waiver in new york it has been held that reference to a family physicianwhen answering questions on an application for insurance, is not awaiver;327 nor is the presence of a third person, in aid of thepatient;328 nor is the bringing of an action for damages for aninjury;329 nor is the examination of the physician in a former trialby the opposing writingy;330 but where the ban of secrecy is onceremoved in an action and the information once lawfully made public, atthe instance of the patient, it cannot be restored, and the disclosuremay then be compelled in any subsequent action;331 it would seem, too, that a physician who becomes a witness to his patient lastwill and testament at the patient request is then subject to athorough examination on all points involving the patient testamentarycapacity 332where the patient testified herself and called an attending physicianto prove her physical condition, this was not a consent to theexamination of another attending physician, and it was said that theopposite writingy by tactics on cross-examination could not compel thepatient to abandon a privilege which she refused to waive 333 fish, j , in delivering the opinion of the court in the last-mentioned case, said of the operation of the statute, that it allows the patient touse the testimony of the attending physician if he thinks his evidencewill benefit his case, and to object and exclude it in case he thinksit will not benefit him. He may call to his aid the testimony of anyone whose views he approves and exclude that of another whose testimonymight tend to controvert that given with the consent of the patient;that in this case the excluded witness was the best witness and couldtell nothing else than the patient had disclosed if she had told thetruth and it would relate solely to what she and the other physicianhad described, but that the court could not consider whether thestatute tended to promote the cause of justice, and he distinguishedmckinney v grand street railroad company, 334 on the ground thatthere the consent had been that the same physician should disclose whathe knew, while here the waiver of the excluded physician testimonyhad been constantly withheld a decision which seems to be at variance with record v village ofsaratoga springs is treanor v manhattan railway company, 335 whereit was said that the patient cannot promulgate and uncover his maladiesand infirmities in court and keep his physician under obligations tosilence, and that he cannot, to mulct another in damages, inflame ajury with a false or exaggerated story of his injuries and sufferingsand preclude the physician from making a truthful statement of the case but where the patient testifies as to what passed between him and hisphysician, the physician may testify on the same subject, as a waiveris inferred from the circumstances.

“indications. Scrofula, coryza, hay fever necrosis, bronchial and throat affections, catarrhal pneumonia, glandular enlargements of the spleen, thyroid, and lymphatics, rickets and syphilis ”the following claims are therapeutic exaggerations. “the ideal alterative” “ indicated in all paper where an alterative is desired ” “the association of bromin with iodin in brom-i-phos materially enhances the product in the treatment of chronic affections of the skin, depraved conditions of the mucous membranes, tertiary syphilis, glandular enlargements, etc ”in that it suggests that the phosphorus in brom-i-phos is more readilyassimilated than ordinary phosphate, the following is misleading. “the phosphorus contained in brom-i-phos is readily assimilated and at once acts as a nutrient to the nervous and osseous structures of the body, stimulates metabolism and increases mental activity ”the recommendation. “your specification of brom-i-phos in thetreatment of syphilitic paper will immediately prove beneficial to thepatient” is not supported by evidence the name does not indicate thatbrom-i-phos is an alcoholic preparation with iodid as its essentialconstituent, but suggests that phosphorus is an important constituent, whereas the amount of phosphate or phosphite, produced by the actionof iodin on elementary phosphorus if the amount of phosphorus used inmaking the preparation is correctly stated is insignificant the combination of bromin, iodin and phosphorus, or bromid, iodid andphosphate, is irrational because these elements are not of mutualassistance to each other in the conditions for which brom-i-phos isadvertised the council report was submitted to the manufacturer of brom-i-phosfor comment. The reply contained nothing to permit a revision of theprevious conclusions the council declared brom-i-phos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , june 30, 1917 creosote-delson and creofos report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycreosote-delson and creofos, or creosote with hypophosphites, were submitted by the delson chemical co , inc , new york city creosote-delson is said to be “beechwood creosote from whichthe irritating and caustic properties are removed by fractionaldistillation ” it is claimed that creofos contains “2 grains ofcreosote-delson and 3-3/5 grains of the combined hypophosphites in eachfluidrachm of the mixture or emulsion, the lime salt predominating ”it is also claimed that “the primary object of the hypophosphites inthis preparation is that of maintaining the refined creosote in apure, unoxidized state, and that no writingicular claim for therapeuticaction on their writing is advanced ” it is explained further, however, “the addition of the lime was prompted by the belief that thefundamental cause of pulmonary tuberculosis is lime starvation ”the assertions are made that creosote-delson is superior to theofficial creosote because it can be taken “abundantly and persistentlywithout harm to or interference with stomach and kidneys” and canbe “taken uninterruptedly and indefinitely, ” while the dosageis “unlimited by any former knowledge of creosote therapy ”creosote-delson is not on the market except in the combination creofos, although it is supplied on request creofos is advised in the treatment of tuberculosis, whooping cough, measles, “grippe and colds, ” bronchitis, asthma, “intestinal affections colitis, summer diarrhoea, etc , ” while its use is suggested for the“prevention of the spread of contagious diseases, ” and for “preventingcontagion in minor contagious diseases at any rate, in schools andfamilies ”the following advertisement has recently appeared in the new yorkmedical journal and in the therapeutic gazette. creofos medication is the successful development of the most advanced practice in the treatment of infectious diseases it destroys completely the causative organisms by a bactericide thesis times more powerful than phenol, yet absolutely harmless to animal life unlike serums, its activity is not confined to any specific disease, and its use insures against sequelae as pneumonia following grippe especially valuable in the treatment of infants and patients of delicate constitution and in paper where time is of importance the delson chemical co was requested to supply information regardingthe identity of creosote-delson and to support the claim that althoughit is “the whole drug” its dosage is “unlimited by any former knowledgeof creosote therapy ” the reply was virtually an admission that thetoxic, caustic, phenolic components of creosote were present increosote-delson just as in the official creosote the referee of the committee on therapeutics in submitting his reportto the council pointed out that it is difficult to discuss thepharmacologic merits of a semisecret preparation, like creosote-delson, claimed to be more acceptable to the human organism than the officialproduct it is intended to supplant, when the action of the parent drugis still questioned or disputed by eminent clinicians absorption experiments have been carried out with creosote and creosotecompounds, such as creosote with hypophosphites or calcium or creosotecarbonate, chiefly by a study of the elimination products in the urine but any evidence so far offered that these combinations increaseabsorption and lessen the irritating, caustic or toxic properties hasbeen wholly inconclusive the evidence offered by the delson chemicalco presented no control experiments with the official creosote and didnot prove that either creosote-delson or creofos was less toxic than acorresponding amount of ordinary beechwood creosote the referee concluded that no proof had been offered that thesepreparations are materially superior to ordinary creosote preparationsfrom the pharmacologic or therapeutic standpoint, and that the claimsmade for creosote-delson and creofos are unwarranted in the light ofour knowledge of the properties of creosote the advertisement quotedabove is an example of unproved and unwarranted claims on the recommendation of the referee, the council declaredcreosote-delson and creofos inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies, for conflict with the rules as follows:creosote-delson. The information so far available is not sufficientto define the nature, or composition, of creosote-delson, or toindicate in how far this product differs, if at all, from theofficial creosote conflict with rule 1 no methods are furnishedfor determining the identity or composition of creosote-delson conflict with rule 2 the available information does not show thatcreosote-delson has advantages over creosote conflict with rule 6 creofos. The composition of creosote-delson not having beenfurnished, the statement concerning the composition of creofos isalso unsatisfactory conflict with rule 1 the therapeutic claimsare unsubstantiated and grossly exaggerated conflict with rule 6 the name is not descriptive of its composition as is required forpharmaceutical mixtures conflict with rule 8 there is no evidencethat hypophosphites prevent decomposition of creosote if thisoccurs hence the inclusion of hypophosphites must be consideredirrational conflict with rule 10 the council report was sent to the delson chemical co forconsideration the firm reply contained nothing to warrant a revisionof the report, and the council voted that creosote-delson and creofoswere inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies and authorized thepublication of this report -- from the journal a m a , july 7, 1917 triner american elixir of bitter wine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytriner american elixir of bitter wine is a wine to which bitter drugsand laxatives have been added though evidently intended for publicconsumption, it is also advertised to physicians, and consequently thecouncil publishes this report essay recent advertisements read. “it acts well and is very palatable these are the reasons why so thesis physicians recommend triner american elixir of bitter wine free from any chemicals prepared from bitter herbs roots and barks of eminent medicinal value and pure natural red wine a safe relief in auto-intoxication, constipation, weakness, etc price $1 00 at drug stores samples gratis upon request only to physicians ” “a laxative tonic in paper of constipation and its sequelæ, autointoxication, weakness and nervousness you should try triner american elixir of bitter wine this preparation consists of cascara sagrada, dandelion, gentian root, with licorice in pure red wine as a base, with aromatics ”triner american elixir of bitter wine is put up in bottles said tohold 1 pint, 5-1/3 fluidounces the label declares the presence of from16 to 18 per cent alcohol by volume, and states that “no special taxis required by the laws of the u s for the sale of this medicinalpreparation ” the circular contains the following recommendations forits use. “ it should be used in all paper calling for a safe evacuation of the bowels, without weakening the body or causing any pain or other discomfort. In loss of appetite, nervousness and weakness ” “triner american elixir of bitter wine consists of two principal ingredients, viz , red wine and medicinal herbs ” “red wine strengthens the intestines and regulates their work it also increases the appetite, stimulates and strengthens the body ” “use triner american elixir of bitter wine always when a thorough cleaning out of the intestines is needed arrange the dose to suit your condition and habits ” “in chronic constipation the dose of triner american elixir of bitter wine should be increased or taken oftener ” “thesis female troubles are caused or aggravated by constipation and ladies should always pay good attention to this fact ”in addition to triner elixir of bitter wine, the circular-- inenglish, polish, russian, spanish and other languages-- advises theuse of triner angelica bitter tonic, triner red pills, trinerliniment and triner cough sedative the composition of this “wine”-- essay bitter drugs, a laxative and atannin-containing, constipating red wine-- and advertising propagandaall tend to the continued use of this alcoholic stimulant and thus tothe unconscious formation of a desire for alcoholic stimulation asthe medical journal advertisements may lead physicians to prescribethis secret and irrational preparation and thus unconsciously lead toalcoholism, the council authorized publication of this report -- fromthe journal a m a , july 14, 1917 trimethol report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytrimethol is the trade name for a substance said to betrimethyl-methoxy-phenol of the formula c₆h ch₃₃ och₃ oh-- 1:2:4:5:6, originated by j t ainslie walker it is sold as a nontoxic germicide, having a rideal-walker phenol-coefficient of 40, even in the intestinalcanal it is described as insoluble in water and not to be decomposedin the alimentary tract, and to be excreted unchanged in the feces trimethol itself is not obtainable pharmaceuticalpreparations-- trimethol syrup, trimethol capsules and trimetholtablets, said to contain trimethol-- are prepared by the walker-leeminglaboratories and sold by thos leeming and co , new york trimethol preparations are advertised for use in all conditionsdependent on intestinal putrefaction the advertising claims made arevery extensive and essay of them give to “trimethol” the scope of apanacea for example.

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Yet the specific action of the salicylates seems to be increased thesis-fold, according to reports received ”what are the reviews for essay writing services facts?. by mouth sodium salicylate is given in doses offrom 3 to 15 gm in a day. Whereas venosal is advised as 1 gm , infrom one to three day intervals. As a matter of elementary arithmeticit is plain that these doses of venosal are smaller instead of being“much larger ” the absence of digestive ill effects, tinnitus, etc , is explained by the small dosage that the specific action of thesalicylates should be increased by intravenous administration issurprising when it is remembered that the drug is absorbed rapidlyand completely from the intestines. In fact, the quoted statement isincredible the company further alleges that, on the basis of “clinical reports”it has received, it does not “hesitate to recommend this product forroutine use in all streptococcic infections ” such a therapeuticsuggestion is, to put it conservatively, gross exaggeration the whole question of the justification of using salicylatesintravenously is open to grave doubt since it is possible to obtainthe salicylate effects promptly and certainly by oral administration, the inherent dangers of intravenous medication render its routineemployment unwarranted a further objection to venosal, especially atthis time when economy is a national policy, is the unnecessarily highexpense of venosal itself and of its administration the referee recommends that venosal be declared ineligible to new andnonofficial remedies because of conflicts with rule 1 indefinitechemical composition, rule 6 therapeutic exaggerations and rule10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , jan 5, 1918 secretin-beveridge and the u s patent law report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytwo years ago the council published reports on two proprietarypreparations said to contain secretin, namely, “secretogen, ” soldby the g w carnrick company the journal a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518, and “duodenin, ” sold by armour and company the journala m a , aug 14, 1915, p 639 these reports explained that therewas no evidence to indicate that an insufficient amount of secretin wasthe cause of gastro-intestinal diseases, and further that there wasno evidence that secretin in any form was physiologically active whenadministered by the mouth subsequently, a j carlson and his co-workers, at the request ofthe council, studied the question of the stability of secretin anddemonstrated the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916, pp 178 and 208that commercial secretin preparations contained no secretin and, further, that secretin given both by the mouth and even in enormousdoses directly into the intestine is entirely inactive shortly after the publication of professor carlson work the attentionof the council was called to a u s patent issued, may 2, 1916, to james wallace beveridge, “means for and method of stabilizingsecretin ” in this patent beveridge claimed to have invented “theprocess of producing secretin in stable form as a commercial articlefor therapeutic use ” that is, a process for preparing preparationswhich would contain secretin when they reach the consumer and in a formresisting destruction in its passage through the stomach in view of the demonstrated instability of secretin, the councilasked professor carlson to investigate the validity of the claims ofthe beveridge patent the study on “the question of the stability ofsecretin, ” by a j carlson, a e kanter and i tumpowski, whichappears below, shows that the beveridge patent furnishes no process forthe manufacture of commercially stable secretin preparations, nor anymeans for preventing the destruction of secretin by the gastric juicewhen administered orally it further demonstrates that the preparationmade by beveridge was devoid of secretin the council adopted the report of carlson and his co-workers, anddeclared secretin-beveridge inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies the council directed that the report of carlson and his collaboratorsbe sent to the commissioner of patents with a protest against thegranting of patents without competent and thorough investigation of theclaims advanced therein w a puckner, secretary the question of the stability of secretin a j carlson, a e kanter and i tumpowski from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicagoin a letters patent, filed may 6, 1914, the patent granted may 2, 1916, james w beveridge, m d , makes certain claims concerning the stabilityand physiologic activity of secretin prepared according to the methodpatented by him in brief, dr beveridge claims that secretin prepared by digestingintestinal mucosa with a weak acid at a temperature slightly belowboiling, and mixed with 0 2 per cent to 2 per cent blood serum, albumin or peptone 1 remains active for at least six months, 2stimulates the pancreas when given by mouth, and 3 “may be injectedintravenously in man, if desired ” the only thing in the letters patentin support of these claims is the statement. “i have found out byactual tests that the preparation maintains its stability for five orsix months ”here are the claims in detail.