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Alsoan amount of combined hydrochloric acid in 1 gm the equivalent of1 05 c c tenth normal solution or 0 00383 gm hydrochloric acid hereports digestion in twenty-four hours by lactopeptine of 25 times itsown weight of fibrin “an active extract of pancreas reacted exactlylike the lactopeptine solution ” the serial numbers of research paper thesis help the specimenstested by hawk and balch are not given, but no doubt they were fresh 27 dr benedict personal communication to a member of the councilis as follows:“in the report of the council upon lactopeptine which you sent to me, i find the following statement. ‘careful examination failed to showthe presence of either diastase or pancreatin ’ in this connectioni will cite to you the following experiment carried out by myself:a package containing a 1-ounce bottle of lactopeptine powder withseal unbroken was purchased in the open market and opened in thislaboratory the label bore the special number 6 2382 two hundredmilligrams of this product was dissolved in 50 c c of a 0 25 per cent solution of sodium carbonate in water this solution was divided intotwo portions of 25 c c each one of these portions was boiled at once, and after cooling was added to 1 gm of moist fibrin contained in aflask the other portion unboiled was also added to 1 gm of moistfibrin contained in a flask both flasks after addition of 5 c c of toluene to each were stoppered and placed in an incubator at 37degrees, and left there for twelve hours examination of the two flasksat the end of this period showed that the one to which the unboiledsolution of lactopeptine powder had been added contained much lesssolid protein than did the other although this fact was obvious tothe naked eye, the exact extent of digestion in the two flasks wasdetermined by heating both to boiling, acidifying with acetic acid, diluting to definite volume, filtering and determining the nitrogen inthe filtrate by kjeldahl method subtracting the trace of nitrogencontained in the filtrate of the control flask, the results showedthat 42 per cent of the original fibrin present had been dissolvedby the unboiled lactopeptine solution this can be ascribed only totryptic activity under the conditions of this experiment furthermore, this is not simply a ‘trace’ of activity, but is at least sufficientlymarked to warrant a statement that this sample showed a distincttryptic activity inasmuch as i have obtained exactly similar resultswith two other samples of lactopeptine powder these being the onlyones i have examined, i am inclined to question the correctness ofthe council statement regarding the absence of trypsin from thispreparation as noted above, a fresh preparation was used -- ed “may i again add that i am making no statement regarding therapeuticvalue of preparation, and that i have no opinion upon that matter oneway or the other?. my work was undertaken solely out of interest tosee whether trypsin could exist in the powder which gives a markedlyacid solution when dissolved in water the elixir lactopeptine couldtheoretically show no tryptic activity, nor have i found any trace ofsuch activity in one sample of the elixir examined “in making use of any of the contents of my letters kindly include thestatement that my work upon lactopeptine was done without remunerationof any kind, and was done only for the scientific interest attached tothe question ” conclusionsthe new york pharmacal association demanded that the referee reexaminelactopeptine, making use of fresh specimens the council held that thiswas unnecessary, for the following reasons:1 the previous finding of the council, that specimens of lactopeptinefound on the open market are essentially weak saccharated pepsins, isnot to be refuted by examination of fresh specimens even if it beassumed that all old specimens of lactopeptine have been withdrawnfrom the market since the last purchase of specimens for the use ofthe council referee, there can be no assurance that the stock willbe constantly kept fresh unless the manufacturers date their product, physicians cannot know that their prescriptions are filled with freshmaterial nor is it reasonable to ask that the council examine themarket supply of any given proprietary at a time selected by themanufacturers 2 without entering into all questions of detail in the analyses, the council is willing to accept the reports of drs benedict andhawk as representative of fresh lactopeptine powder it is thereforeunnecessary for the council to make further experiments along thisline the results of these two chemists in no wise contradict theconclusions of the council referees, being comparable with thoseobtained by the referee on the fresher specimens used by them theexperiments of drs hawk and benedict show a degree of trypticactivity which, though chemically not negligible, is quite withoutsignificance practically, even if it could be assumed that the trypsinin the fresh lactopeptine escaped destruction in the stomach thefigures for tryptic activity given by dr benedict do not differmaterially from those of the first referee those of professorhawk show a tryptic activity of from 18 to 20 per cent of that ofcommercial pancreatin-- and commercial pancreatins ordinarily are oflow tryptic activity, if not inert see long and muhleman. Arch int med , february, 1914, p 314 the reports of these chemistspresent no reason for changing the conclusion that “it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity ”the results which dr balch obtained in a test for tryptic activityshow a marked discrepancy with those obtained by drs hawk andbenedict, not to mention the council referees, and also with thefact that only about 11 per cent of “pancreatin” is claimed in thepublished formula of lactopeptine the council is unable to accept dr balch result for trypsin or rennin as reliable his other results arewithout significance and call for no special comment 3 even if tryptic activity were conceded to lactopeptine, thepreparation, like all preparations containing pepsin and pancreatin, would still be, as previously stated, therapeutically irrational the council approved the report report of referee ain view of the manufacturer reiteration of the claims forlactopeptine powder, i have carried out further experiments todetermine its proteolytic and amylolytic power for the proteolytic test i used fresh, well washed fibrin and examinedsamples of lactopeptine powder numbered as follows:no 1 a writing of the english product examined and reported on lastspring no 2 -- a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail drug store indecember, 1913 no 3 a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail store in december, 1913 portions of 1 gm each of these samples were mixed with 5 gm fibrin, 100 mg of sodium carbonate and 50 c c of water in flasks a littletoluene was added to each flask, which was then closed with a tuftof cotton and the mixtures were incubated at 40 degrees throughtwenty-four hours at the end of that time there was no marked changein the quantity of the fibrin remaining in each flask, the larger writingby far being undigested as a control i used the sample of an active commercial trypsin, ofwhich i added 500 mg to the same quantity of water, fibrin and sodiumcarbonate this was digested in the same bath at the same time thedigestion was practically completed in less than ten minutes, onlyminute flakes of the fibrin remaining it is evident that the digestive power of the lactopeptine must beextremely low, and only a small fraction of that exhibited by acommercially good trypsin in an experiment with the english sample carried out through nineteenhours as above, using 2 gm of fibrin and 100 mg of ferment, it wasfound by nitrogen tests on the filtrate that about 12 2 per cent of the protein had been brought into solution, an amount which ispractically without importance in a digestion of such duration to test the starch digestive power i have made a large number ofexperiments in a series just completed i mixed 1 gm portions ofsamples 1 and 2 with water to make 100 c c volumes before makingup to the final volumes 0 5 c c of normal sodium hydroxid wasadded to neutralize the slight acidity of the ferment as shown byphenolphthalein of these mixtures 4, 6, 8 and 10 c c portions were mixed with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste and incubated at 40 degrees to find thecolorless end-point in the starch digestion, by the iodin test at the end of twenty-two hours the iodin reaction was as strong as atthe beginning, indicating no appreciable starch digestion to the flasks in which no digestion had taken place under theseconditions, 5 mg of a pancreas ferment was added this gave an almostimmediate conversion to the colorless end-point this ferment was asample of holadin which had been in the laboratory about a year the5 mg completed the reaction to the colorless end-point in less thanten minutes in a similar test i used 2 gm of lactopeptine no 3, made up to100 c c with 1 2 c c of normal alkali ten and 15 c c portions wereincubated with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste through twenty hoursat 40 degrees with no apparent result the holadin then added, 5 mg being used, completed the conversion in less than ten minutes this shows that the medium was a proper one for the test and that thelactopeptine must be extremely weak no sugar tests were made becausethe lactopeptine contains milk sugar to the extent of about 60 per cent similar results for both protein and starch digestives have beenobtained in a large number of experiments these here quoted showthat the ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition practically the digestion of a few milligrams of fibrin orstarch after thesis hours of contact, while being perhaps scientificallypossible, is of no value when we come to a consideration of the use ofsuch bodies as digestive ferments in medicine the amount of lactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” present inlactopeptine is very small, since the total acid which may be titratedby sodium hydroxid and phenolphthalein is measured by 0 5 c c ofthe normal hydroxid for 1 gm of the lactopeptine powder, in themean in different samples examined the range was found to be from0 41 c c to 0 6 c c tests with methyl orange, methyl red and otherindicators showed that the free acidity is but trifling. If the wholeof this acid, as measured by phenolphthalein, were calculated to hcl, the amount would be too small to have any appreciable physiologicactivity, in view of the daily dose recommended, 10 to 20 grains of thepowder report of referee bthe following table gives a summary of the results of my investigationson lactopeptine the numbers in the extreme left-hand column are themanufacturer identifying marks these, it is assumed, run serially, the higher numbers indicating fresher specimens table showing enzymic power of lactopeptine preparations amylase pepsin rennin trypsin lipase 2275 - - - 2301 - - - 2312 - - - 2348 - - - 2352 - - - 2364 - ?. - 2374 - - ?. 2383 - ?. 1638 tablets - - - pancreatin old - -the conclusions in the foregoing summary depend on the followingcriteria:amylase. Removal of starch paste, small in proportion to beginwith pepsin. Solution of small shreds of fresh fibrin in acid media rennin.

Nor to beappointed as medical officer, physician, or surgeon in any branch ofthe public service or in any hospital or other charitable institutionnot supported wholly by voluntary contributions, unless registered46 no certificate required from a physician or surgeon or medicalpractitioner is valid unless the signer is registered 47 costs - in prosecutions, payment of costs may be awarded in addition tothe penalty, and in default of payment the offender may be committed tothe common jail for not more than one month 48 burden of proof - in prosecutions, the burden of proof as toregistration is upon the person charged 49 proof - the production of a printed or other copy of the register, certified under the hand of the registrar, for the time being issufficient evidence of all persons registered. A certificate onsuch copy purporting to be signed by any person in the capacity ofregistrar of the council under this ordinance is prima facie evidencethat he is registered without proof of his signature or of his being infact registrar 50 limitation of prosecutions - prosecutions must be commenced within sixmonths from the date of the offence 51 stay - the council may stay proceedings in prosecutions where deemedexpedient 52 prosecutor - any person may be prosecutor or complainant 53 definition - “legally qualified medical practitioner” or “dulyqualified medical practitioner, ” or any other words implying legalrecognition as a medical practitioner or member of the medicalprofession, when used in any law or ordinance, mean a person registeredunder this ordinance 55 homœopathists - homœopathic physicians may be registered under thisordinance on complying with the terms of sec 34 58 fees - to the council from each member annually as the council maydetermine, not more than $2 and not less than $1 35 to the registrar, for registration, $50 56, as substitutedby ord 24, 1892, s 3 nova scotia medical board - there is a provincial medical board consisting ofthirteen regular qualified medical practitioners of not less than sevenyears’ standing, seven nominated and appointed by the governor incouncil, and six by the nova scotia medical society r s , 5th ser , c 24, s 1 the board appoints a secretary who is the registrar of the board3, 4 register, evidence - the registrar is required before the 1st of augusteach year to cause to be printed and published in the royal gazetteof the province, and in such other manner as the board shall appoint, a correct register of the names and residences and medical titles, diplomas, and qualifications conferred by any college or body, with thedates thereof of all persons appearing on the register as existing onjune 30th such register is called “the medical register, ” and a copythereof for the time being, purporting to be so printed and published, is prima facie evidence that the persons specified are registeredaccording to this chapter the absence of a name from such copy isprima facie evidence that such person is not so registered in thecase of a person whose name does not appear in such copy, a certifiedcopy, under the hand of the registrar, of the entry of his name onthe register is evidence that such person is registered under theprovisions of this chapter 5 students - no person can begin or enter on the study of physic, surgery, or midwifery, for the purpose of qualifying himself topractise in the province, unless he shall have obtained from theprovincial medical board a certificate that he has satisfactorilypassed a matriculation examination in the subjects specified in thechapter 6 the chapter prescribes the prerequisites to admission to preliminaryexaminations 7, 12 qualification - subject to the exceptions hereinafter, no personcan lawfully practise physic, surgery, or midwifery unless his namebe registered and unless he shall have received from the provincialmedical board a license to practise 8 no person is entitled to be registered or to receive a licenseto practise unless he satisfy the board that he has passed thematriculation or preliminary examination. That after passing suchexamination he has followed his studies during a period not less thanfour years one of which may be under the direction of one or moregeneral practitioners duly licensed. That during such four years hehas attended at essay university, college, or incorporated school ofmedicine in good standing, courses of lectures amounting together tonot less than twelve months on general anatomy, on practical anatomy, on surgery, on the practice of medicine, on midwifery, on chemistry, on materia medica and pharmacy, and on the institutes of medicine orphysiology, and one three-months’ course of medical jurisprudence;that he has attended the general practice of a hospital in whichare not less than fifty beds under the charge of not less than twophysicians or surgeons, for a period of not less than one year or twoperiods of not less than six months each. That he has also attendedtwo three-months’ courses or one six-months’ course of clinicalmedicine, and the same of clinical surgery. That he has, after anexamination in the subjects of the course, obtained a degree or diplomafrom such university, college, or incorporated medical school, or, for want of such degree or diploma, that he has satisfactorily passedan examination in the various branches hereinbefore specified beforeexaminers to be appointed by the provincial medical board. That heis not less than twenty-one years of age. And that he has paid theregistrar twenty dollars the provincial medical board has power, subject to the approval ofthe governor in council, to make such alterations in the foregoingcurriculum as may from time to time be required 9 the last preceding section does not apply to any person in actualpractice duly registered under chap 56 of revised statutes, 3d series;such persons are entitled to be registered and receive a license topractise under this chapter without fee notwithstanding such section, any person on producing to the said board conclusive evidence thathe has passed a matriculation or preliminary examination such as isrequired for persons beginning their medical studies in nova scotia;that he has, before graduating or taking a diploma, studied for atleast four years in the manner provided in sec 9 or pursued whatthe board deem an equivalent course of study, and has passed a finalexamination in the subjects of such course. Or, for the want of any ofsuch requirements, shall have fulfilled such conditions as the boardmay determine and shall pay a fee of twenty dollars, shall be entitledto be registered and to receive a license to practise 10 powers of board - the said board among other powers has the powerto examine all degrees, diplomas, licenses, and other credentialspresented or given in evidence for the purpose of entitling the ownerto practise in nova scotia.

It wonderfully helpsall those inward writings that need consolidating or strengthening, and isno less effectual both to heal and close green wounds, than to cleanseand heal all foul or old ulcers, fretting or spreading cankers or thelike this herb is of a fine cooling, drying quality, and an ointmentor plaister of it might do a man a courtesy that hath any hot virulentsores. ’tis admirable for the ulcers of the french pox. If takeninwardly, may cure the desease fox-glove descript it has thesis long and broad leaves lying upon the grounddented upon the edges, a little soft or woolly, and of a hoary greencolour, among which rise up essaytimes sundry stalks, but one veryoften, bearing such leaves thereon from the bottom to the middle, fromwhence to the top it is stored with large and long hollow reddishpurple flowers, a little more long and eminent at the lower edge, withessay white spots within them, one above another with small green leavesat every one, but all of them turning their heads one way, and hangingdownwards, having essay threads also in the middle, from whence riseround heads, pointed sharp at the ends, wherein small brown seed lies the roots are so thesis small fibres, and essay greater strings amongthem. The flowers have no scent, but the leaves have a bitter hot taste place it grows on dry sandy ground for the most writing, and as wellon the higher as the lower places under hedge-sides in almost everycounty of this land time it seldom flowers before july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues the plant is under the dominion of venus, being of a gentle cleansing nature, and withal very friendly tonature the herb is familiarly and frequently used by the italians toheal any fresh or green wound, the leaves being but bruised and boundthereon. And the juice thereof is also used in old sores, to cleanse, dry, and heal them the decoction hereof made up with essay sugar orhoney, is available to cleanse and purge the body both upwards anddownwards, essaytimes of tough phlegm and clammy humours, and to openobstructions of the liver and spleen it has been found by experienceto be available for the king evil, the herb bruised and applied, oran ointment made with the juice thereof, and so used. And a decoctionof two handfuls thereof, with four ounces of polipody in ale, has beenfound by late experience to cure divers of the falling sickness, thathave been troubled with it above twenty years i am confident that anointment of it is one of the best remedies for scabby head that is fumitory descript our common fumitory is a tender sappy herb, sends forthfrom one square, a slender weak stalk, and leaning downwards on allsides, thesis branches two or three feet long, with finely cut andjagged leaves of a whitish or rather blueish sea green colour. At thetops of the branches stand thesis small flowers, as it were in a longspike one above another, made like little birds, of a reddish purplecolour, whith whitish bellies, after which come small round husks, containing small black seeds the root is yellow, small, and not verylong, full of juice while it is green, but quickly perishes with theripe seed in the corn fields in cornwall, it bears white flowers place it grows in corn fields almost every where, as well as ingardens time it flowers in may, for the most writing, and the seed ripensshortly after government and virtues saturn owns the herb, and presents it tothe world as a cure for his own disease, and a strengthener of thewritings of the body he rules if by my astrological judgment of diseases, from the decumbiture, you find saturn author of the disease, or if bydirection from a nativity you fear a saturnine disease approaching, you may by this herb prevent it in the one, and cure it in the other, and therefore it is fit you keep a syrup of it always by you thejuice or syrup made thereof, or the decoction made in whey by itself, with essay other purging or opening herbs and roots to cause it towork the better itself being but weak is very effectual for theliver and spleen, opening the obstructions thereof, and clarifying theblood from saltish, choleric, and adust humours, which cause leprosy, scabs, tetters, and itches, and such like breakings-out of the skin, and after the purgings doth strengthen all the inwards writings it isalso good against the yellow-jaundice, and spends it by urine, whichit procures in abundance the powder of the dried herb given for essaytime together, cures melancholy, but the seed is strongest in operationfor all the former diseases the distilled water of the herb is alsoof good effect in the former diseases, and conduces much against theplague and pestilence, being taken with good treacle the distilledwater also, with a little water and honey of roses, helps all soresof the mouth or throat, being gargled often therewith the juicedropped into the eyes, clears the sight and takes away redness andother defects in them, although it procure essay pain for the present, and cause tears dioscorides saith it hinders any fresh springing ofhairs on the eye-lids after they are pulled away if the eye-lids beanointed with the juice hereof, with gum arabic dissolved therein thejuice of the fumitory and docks mingled with vinegar, and the placesgently washed therewith, cures all sorts of scabs, pimples, blotches, wheals, and pushes which arise on the face or hands or any other writingsof the body the furze bush it is as well known by this name, as it is in essay counties by thename of gorz or whins, that i shall not need to write any descriptionthereof, my intent being to teach my countrymen what they know not, rather than to tell them again of that which is generally known before place they are known to grow on dry barren heaths, and other waste, gravelly or sandy grounds, in all counties of this land time they also flower in the summer months government and virtues mars owns the herb they are hot and dry, and open obstructions of the liver and spleen a decoction made withthe flowers thereof hath been found effectual against the jaundice, asalso to provoke urine, and cleanse the kidneys from gravel or stoneingendered in them mars doth also this by sympathy garlick the offensiveness of the breath of him that hath eaten garlick, willlead you by the nose to the knowledge hereof, and instead of adescription direct you to the place where it grows in gardens, whichkinds are the best, and most physical government and virtues mars owns this herb this was ancientlyaccounted the poor man treacle, it being a remedy for all diseasesand hurts except those which itself breed it provokes urine, andwomen courses, helps the biting of mad dogs and other venomouscreatures, kills worms in children, cuts and voids tough phlegm, purges the head, helps the lethargy, is a good preservative against, and a remedy for any plague, sore, or foul ulcers. Takes away spotsand blemishes in the skin, eases pains in the ears, ripens and breaksimposthumes, or other swellings and for all those diseases the onionsare as effectual but the garlick hath essay more peculier virtuesbesides the former, viz it hath a special quality to discussinconveniences coming by corrupt agues or mineral vapours. Or bydrinking corrupt and stinking waters. As also by taking wolf-bane, henbane, hemlock, or other poisonous and dangerous herbs it is alsoheld good in hydropick diseases, the jaundice, falling sickness, cramps, convulsions, the piles or hæmorrhoids, or other cold diseases thesis authors quote thesis diseases this is good for. But conceal itsvices its heat is very vehement, and all vehement hot things sendup but ill-favoured vapours to the brain in coleric men it will addfuel to the fire. In men oppressed by melancholy, it will attenuatethe humour, and send up strong fancies, and as thesis strange visions tothe head. Therefore let it be taken inwardly with great moderation;outwardly you may make more bold with it gentian, felwort, or baldmony it is confessed that gentian, which is most used amongst us, is broughtover from beyond sea, yet we have two sorts of it growing frequentlyin our nation, which, besides the reasons so frequently alledged whyenglish herbs should be fittest for english bodies, has been proved bythe experience of divers physicians, to be not a wit inferior in virtueto that which comes from beyond sea, therefore be pleased to take thedescription of them as follows descript the greater of the two hath thesis small long roots thrustdown deep into the ground, and abiding all the winter the stalks areessaytimes more, essaytimes fewer, of a brownish green colour, which isessaytimes two feet high, if the ground be fruitful, having thesis long, narrow, dark green leaves, set by couples up to the top.

A woman by cuttingher arm the other paper were uncomplicated pellier states that thenumber of research paper thesis help suicides in france from 1876-1880 was 13, 445, and nearlyall were by hanging taylor879 states that 2, 570 persons committedsuicide by hanging in england in five years, 1863-67. Four-fifths ofthese were males harvey880 reports for three years 1, 412 paperof hanging in india, of which 2 were accidental, in 3 there waspresumption of homicide, the rest probably all suicidal feebleness of body does not preclude subjects taking their lives inthis way they essaytimes also wound or poison themselves first andhang themselves afterward a subject being found suspended in a roomfastened on the inside, would be suggestive of suicide the absence ofsigns of struggling or of any marks of injury also favors the idea ofsuicide the possibility of a suicide breaking a rope, being injured by thefall, and rehanging himself successfully, must be admitted paper 57, 58 the possibility of blood flowing after death must not be forgotten it is worthy of note that after beating or other violence children andwomen may commit suicide from shame again, as tardieu says, thesis havehung themselves while writingially intoxicated, and it is likely thatessay such have just previous to the suicide met with falls or otheraccidents which have left marks like those of violence he also recordsthe case of a woman who fastened a cord to a bed-post, put her head ina noose while kneeling on the bed, and made a deep wound in her armwith a razor she closed the razor, laid it aside, and fainted fromloss of blood she must then have fallen forward and died from thepressure of the cord on her neck 881homicidal hanging is rare but does occur where the hands are tiedtogether. Where the injuries produced by the cord are severe. Wherethere are contusions and well-marked ecchymoses. Where the laryngealcartilages and hyoid bone are fractured or the cervical vertebrædislocated or fractured.

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In others the statements are vague and indefinite ormisleading it is hardly necessary to remind physicians that the use of tabletscontaining hexamethylenamin or other formaldehyde compounds can neithercure respiratory infections, nor even confer protection against suchinfections to be effective, formaldehyde would need to be suppliedto the entire respiratory tract continuously for essay time or else inconcentrations that would be distinctly irritant and damaging to thetissues saliva-dissolved tablets, obviously cannot reach the nasalor tracheal mucosae directly. And the application of quickly actingconcentrations of formaldehyde is out of the question this altogetheraside from the fact that hexamethylenamin, the basis of essay of thesetablets, does not liberate formaldehyde in the mouth, and for thisreason alone would be quite useless for this purpose!. see hanzlik andcollins, archives of internal medicine, november, 1913 an inefficient antiseptic is more than merely useless. It is a menaceto public safety, in that it tends to lead to the neglect of rationaland effective protective measures it therefore seems advisable forthe council again to call the attention of physicians to the subject accordingly, three specimens of these products were purchased andexamined in the association chemical laboratory hex-iodinhex-iodin hexamethylenetetramine and iodum lozenges are manufacturedby daggett and miller company, inc , providence, r i they weigh15-1/2 grs each, are sweetened and are flavored with mint or menthol the package and circulars do not contain a definite statement ofcomposition the rather indefinite synonyms “hexameth and iodinecomp ” and “hexamethylenetetramine and iodum” suggest that the lozengescontain hexamethylenamin and free iodin the further statement thatthey “contain the combined medicinal antiseptic and prophylacticproperties of hexamethylenetetramine and iodum” is also ratherindefinite the therapeutic action claimed for the lozenges, however, could only be produced by free iodin and by liberated formaldehyde it is unnecessary to discuss in detail the extravagant claims madefor these lozenges the inefficiency of hexamethylenamin has alreadybeen referred to. The limitations of iodin, free or combined, inlozenge form, need not be discussed because the examination made in thea m a chemical laboratory showed that hex-iodin lozenges containedno free iodin, and only traces of combined iodin neither formaldehydenor paraformaldehyde was present. Hexamethylenamin was present but, thelozenges being neutral no formaldehyde is generated in contact withwater or with the alkaline saliva thus hex-iodin is shown to be worthless for the purpose for which it isadvertised of the two important ingredients said to be present, iodinand hexamethylenamin, only traces could be found of the former whilethe latter, as has been shown, is incapable of exerting any effect whenused as the manufacturers direct formitol tabletsthese tablets are prepared by the e l patch co , boston each tabletweighs 13-1/2 grs they have the odor of thymol or menthol and an acidtaste and reaction they are, according to the label. “for the throat and mouth soothing, astringent, antiseptic rapidly destroys germs of infection, preventing and relieving sore throat and mouth ”in a circular, it is stated, that one of the qualities of formitol. “ is the generation of formaldehyde when in contact with water or the saliva ” “besides generating formaldehyde, formitol, patch contains astringent, demulcent and soothing ingredients which render the combination unusually effective ”a bacteriologic report is given in this circular in which it is statedthat, in 2-1/2 minutes one formitol tablet rendered sterile a plateculture of a “characteristic throat micrococci ” the instructionsare to dissolve a tablet in the mouth, slowly, once an hour or ahalf-tablet every half hour the a m a chemical laboratory reported that formitol tabletscontained formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde, and ammonium compound, and essay hexamethylenamin it is probable that the formaldehyde orparaformaldehyde was produced by the decomposition of hexamethylenaminoriginally present in the tablets but decomposed by long contact withthe acid 128128 the e l patch company declares that “no hexamethylenaminehas ever been used in the manufacture of formitol tablets, ” and thatammonium chloride and paraformaldehyde are among the ingredients usedin the manufacture of these tablets the hexamethylenamine presentin the tablets, therefore, must have been produced by interaction ofthe paraformaldehyde and ammonium chloride this does not alter thelaboratory findings regarding the composition of the tablets, namely, that they “contain formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde, an ammoniumcompound and essay hexamethylenamine ”these tablets differ from hex-iodin in that they really contain activeformaldehyde and, therefore, possibly produce antiseptic effectin test-tube cultures the conditions in the mouth, however, arevery different from those in the test-tube, since in the mouth theformaldehyde would be immediately “bound” or absorbed the claimedabsence of irritation indicates sufficiently the absence of efficientquantities of formaldehyde under clinical conditions cin-u-form lozengescin-u-form lozenges, manufactured by mckesson and robbins, new yorkcity, are marketed in bottles of 24 for 25 cents they have a strongodor of cinnamon, weigh 15-1/2 grs each, and are acid in taste andreaction the label states that they contain. “cinnamon, eucalyptus, formaldehyde and menthol-- all powerful germicides against influenzal bacilli, but not injurious to the system in this palatable form ”a circular contains the same statement as to composition and claimsfurther that they. “ help to prevent the infection of spanish influenza, pneumonia, grip colds and to guard against sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, etc ”the a m a chemical laboratory reported that cin-u-formlozenges contained essay formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde and nohexamethylenamin it is obvious that the mouth and throat cannot be“disinfected” by these lozenges they would be totally ineffectiveagainst bacteria that enter through the nose. They cannot preventinfluenza, pneumonia, etc -- from the journal a m a , oct 4, 1919 lavoris report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrylavoris was considered by the council in 1913, and its proprietors-- thelavoris chemical company-- were advised that the preparation wasinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict withrules 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10 no report was published at that time as thepreparation is still widely advertised to physicians, the council hasagain examined lavoris and authorized publication of the followingreport w a puckner, secretary in recent years lavoris has been widely advertised as “the ideal oralantiseptic, ” writingicularly to the dental profession a printed cardsent out by the lavoris chemical company in 1913 read. “lavoris, thepyorrhea remedy the original zinc chloride mouth wash one grain zincto each ounce ” the card also gave a “formula” to the effect that eachpint of lavoris contained.