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At last with the honey, let them allbe made into troches culpeper it is excellently good against inward ulcers in what writingof the body soever they be it is chiefly used in compositions, astreacle and mithridate trochisci de eupatorio or troches of maudlin college take of the juice of maudlin made thick, manna, of eachan ounce, red roses half an ounce, spodium three drams and an half, spikenard three drams, rhubarb, asarabacca roots, annis seeds, of eachtwo drams let the nard, annis seeds, and roses, be beaten together, the spodium, asarabacca, and rhubarb by themselves, then mix the mannaand juice of maudlin in a mortar, add the powders, and with new juicemake it into troches culpeper obstructions, or stoppings, and swelling above nature, both of the liver and spleen, are cured by the inward taking of thesetroches, and diseases thereof coming, as yellow and black jaundice, thebeginning of dropsies, &c troches of gallia moschata college take of wood of aloes five drams, ambergris three drams, musk one dram, with mussilage of gum tragacanth made in rose water, make it into troches according to art culpeper they strengthen the brain and heart, and by consequenceboth vital and animal spirits, and cause a sweet breath they are of anextreme price, therefore i pass by the dose trochisci gordonii college take of the four greater cold seeds husked, the seedsof white poppies, mallows, cotton, purslain, quinces, mirtles, gumtragacanth, and arabic, fistic-nuts, pine-nuts, sugar-candy, penids, liquorice, french-barley, mussilage of fleawort seeds, sweet almondsblanched, of each two drams, bole-ammoniac, dragon-blood, spodium, red roses, myrrh, of each half an ounce, with a sufficient quantity ofhydromel, make it into troches according to art culpeper they are held to be very good in ulcers of the bladder, and all other inward ulcers whatsoever, and ease fevers coming thereby, being of a fine cooling, slippery heating nature trochisci hedichroi, galen for treacle college take of aspalthus, or yellow sanders, the leaves ofmastich, the roots of asarabacca, of each two drams, rhupontic, castus, calamus aromaticus, wood of aloes, cinnamon, squinanth, opobalsamumor oil of nutmegs by expression, of each three drams, cassia lignea, indian leaf or mace, indian spikenard, myrrh, saffron, of each sixdrams, amomus, or cardamoms the less, an ounce and an half, mastich adram, canary wine as much as is sufficient let the myrrh be dissolvedin the wine, then add the mastich and saffron well beaten, then theopobalsamum, then the rest in powder, and with the wine, make them upinto troches, and dry them gently culpeper they are very seldom or never used but in othercompositions, yet naturally they heat cold stomachs, help digestion, strengthen the heart and brain trochisci hysterici college take of asafœtida, galbanum, of each two drams and an half, myrrh two drams, castoreum a dram and an half, the roots of asarabaccaand long birthwort, the leaves of savin, featherfew, nep, of each onedram, dittany half a dram, with either the juice or decoction of rue, make it into troches according to art culpeper these are applied to the fœminine gender, help fits of themother, expel both birth and after-birth, cleanse women after labour, and expel the relics of a careless midwife trochisci de ligno aloes or troches of wood of aloes college take of wood of aloes, red roses, of each two drams, mastich, cinnamon, cloves, indian spikenard, nutmegs, parsnip seed, cardamoms the greater and lesser, cubebs, gallia moschata, citronpills, mace, of each one dram and an half, ambergris, musk, of eachhalf a scruple, with honey of raisins make it into troches culpeper it strengthens the heart, stomach, and liver, takes awayheart-qualms, faintings, and stinking breath, and resists the dropsy trochisci e mirrha or troches of myrrh college take of myrrh three drams, the meal of lupines five drams, madder roots, the leaves of rue, wild mints, dittany of crete, cumminseeds, asafœtida, sagapen, opopanax, of each two drams, dissolve thegums in wine wherein mugwort hath been boiled, or else research paper outline help juniper-berries, then add the rest, and with juice of mugwort, make it into trochesaccording to art culpeper they provoke the menses, and that with great ease tosuch as have them come down with pain take a dram of them beateninto powder, in a spoonful or two of syrup of mugwort, or any othercomposition tending to the same purpose sief de plumbo or sief of lead college take of lead burnt and washed, brass burnt, antimony, tuttywashed, gum arabic and tragacanth of each an ounce, opium half a dram, with rose-water, make them, being beaten and sifted, into troches trochisci polyidæ androm college take of pomegranate flowers twelve drams, roach album threedrams, frankincense, myrrh, of each half an ounce, chalcanthum twodrams, bull gall six drams, aloes an ounce, with austere wine, orjuice of nightshade or plantain, make them into troches according toart culpeper they are very good they say, being outwardly applied, bothin green wounds and ulcers i fancy them not trochisci de rhubarbaro or troches of rhubarb college take of rhubarb ten drams, juice of maudlin made thick, bitter almonds, of each half an ounce, red roses three drams, theroots of asarabacca, madder, indian spikenard, the leaves of wormwood, the seeds of annis and smallage, of each one dram, with wine in whichwormwood hath been boiled, make them into troches according to art culpeper they gently cleanse the liver, help the yellow jaundice, and other diseases coming of choler and stoppage of the liver trochisci de santalis or troches of sanders college take of the three sanders, of each one ounce, the seeds ofcucumbers, gourds, citruls, purslain, spodium, of each half an ounce, red roses seven drams, juice of barberries six drams, bole-ammoniachalf an ounce, camphire one dram, with purslain water make it intotroches culpeper the virtues are the same with troches of spodium, both ofthem harmless trochisci da scilla ad theriacam or troches of squils, for treacle college take a squil gathered about the beginning of july, of amiddle bigness, and the hard writing to which the small roots stick, wrapit up in paste, and bake it in an oven, till the paste be dry, and thesquil tender, which you may know by piercing it with a wooden skewer, or a bodkin, then take it out and bruise it in a mortar, adding toevery pound of the squil, eight ounces of white orobus, or red cicersin powder, then make it into troches, of the weight of two drams apiece, your hands being anointed with oil of roses dry them on thetop of the house, opening towards the south, in the shadow, oftenturning them till they be well dry, then keep them in a pewter or glassvessel troches of spodium college take of red roses twelve drams, spodium ten drams, sorrelseed six drams, the seeds of purslain and coriander, steeped in vinegarand dried, pulp of sumach, of each two drams and an half, white starchroasted, balaustines, barberries, of each two drams, gum arabic roastedone dram and an half, with juice of unripe grapes, make it into troches culpeper they are of a fine cooling binding nature, excellent infevers coming of choler, especially if they be accompanied with alooseness, they also quench thirst trochisci de terra lemnia or troches of earth of lemnos college take of earth of lemnos, bole-ammoniac, acacia, hypocystis, gum arabic toasted, dragon blood, white starch, red roses, roseseeds, lap hematitis, red coral, amber, balaustines, spodium, purslainseeds a little toasted, olibanum, hart-horn burnt, cypress nuts, saffron of each two drams, black poppy seeds, tragacanth, pearls, ofeach one dram and an half, opium prepared one dram, with juice ofplantain, make it into troches sief de thure or sief of frankincense college take of frankincense, lap calaminaris, pompholix, of eachten drams, cyrus forty drams, gum arabic, opium, of each six drams, with fair water make it into balls. Dry them and keep them for use trochisci e violis solutivi or troches of violets solutive college take of violet flowers meanly dry, six drams, turbith oneounce and an half, juice of liquorice, scammony, manna, of each twodrams, with syrup of violets, make it into troches culpeper they are not worth talking of, much less worth cost, thecost and labour of making trochisci de vipera ad theriacum or troches of vipers, for treacle college take of the flesh of vipers, the skin, entrails, head, fat, and tail being taken away, boiled in water with dill, and alittle salt, eight ounces, white bread twice baked, grated and sifted, two ounces, make it into troches, your hands being anointed withopobalsamum, or oil of nutmegs by expression, dry them upon a sieveturned the bottom upwards in an open place, often turning them tillthey are well dried, then put them in a glass or stone pot glazed, stopped close, they will keep a year, yet is it far better to maketreacle, not long after you have made them culpeper they expel poison, and are excellently good, by a certainsympathetical virtue, for such as are bitten by an adder trochisci de agno casto or troches of agnus castus college take of the seeds of agnus castus, lettuce, red roseflowers, balaustins, of each a dram, ivory, white amber, bole-ammoniacwashed in knotgrass water two drams, plantain seeds four scruples, sassafras two scruples, with mussilage of quince seeds, extracted inwater of water-lily flowers, let them be made into troches culpeper very pretty troches and good for little trochisci alexiterii renodæus college take of the roots of gentian, tormentil, orris florentine, zedoary, of each two drams, cinnamon, cloves, mace, of each half adram, angelica roots three drams, coriander seeds prepared, roses, ofeach one dram, dried citron pills two drams, beat them all into powder, and with juice of liquorice softened in hippocras, six ounces, makethem into soft paste, which you may form into either troches or smallrolls, which you please culpeper it preserves and strengthens the heart exceedingly, helpsfaintings and failings of the vital spirits, resists poison and thepestilence, and is an excellent medicine for such to carry about themwhose occasions are to travel in pestilential places and corrupt air, only taking a very small quantity now and then troches of annis seed mesue college take of annis seeds, the juice of maudlin made thick, ofeach two drams, the seeds of dill, spikenard, mastich, indian leaf ormace, the leaves of wormwood, asarabacca, smallage, bitter almonds, of each half a dram, aloes two drams, juice of wormwood so much as issufficient to make it into troches according to art culpeper they open obstructions of the liver, and that very gently, and therefore diseases coming thereof, help quartan agues you canscarce do amiss in taking them if they please but your palate trochisci diarhodon mesue college take of the flowers of red roses six drams, spikenard, woodof aloes, of each two drams, liquorice three drams, spodium one dram, saffron half a dram, mastich two drams, make them up into troches withwhite wine according to art culpeper they wonderfully ease fevers coming of flegm, as quotidianfevers, agues, epiatos, &c pains in the belly trochisci de lacca mesue college take of gum lacca cleansed, the juice of liquorice, maudlin, wormwood, and barberries, all made thick, rhubarb, longbirthwort, costus, asarabacca, bitter almonds, madder, annis, smallage, schænanth, of each one dram, with the decoction of birthwort, schænanth, or the juice of maudlin, or wormwood, make them into trochesaccording to art culpeper it helps stoppings of the liver and spleen, and feversthence coming, it expels wind, purges by urine, and resists dropsies pastilli adronis galen college take of pomegranate flowers ten drams, copperas twelvedrams, unripe galls, birthwort, frankincense, of each an ounce, alum, myrrh, of each half an ounce, misy two drams, with eighteen ounces ofaustere wine, make it into troches according to art culpeper this also is appropriated to wounds, ulcers, and fistulas, it clears the ears, and represses all excressences of flesh, cleansesthe filth of the bones trochisci musæ galen college take of alum, aloes, copperas, myrrh, of each six drams, crocomagma, saffron, of each three drams, pomegranate flowers half anounce, wine and honey, of each so much as is sufficient to make it upinto troches according to art culpeper their use is the same with the former crocomagma of damocrates galen college take of saffron an hundred drams, red roses, myrrh, of eachfifty drams, white starch, gum, of each thirty drams, wine, so much asis sufficient to make it into troches culpeper it is very expulsive, heats and strengthens the heart andstomach trochisci ramich mesue college take of the juice of sorrel sixteen ounces, red roseleaves, an ounce, myrtle berries two ounces, boil them a littletogether, and strain them, add to the decoction, galls well beaten, three ounces, boil them again a little, then put in these followingthings, in fine powder. Take of red roses an ounce, yellow sanders, ten drams, gum arabic an ounce and an half, sumach, spodium, of eachan ounce, myrtle berries four ounces, wood of aloes, cloves, mace, nutmegs, of each half an ounce, sour grapes seven drams, mix them alltogether, and let them dry upon a stone, and grind them again intopowder, and make them into small troches with one dram of camphire, and so much rose water as is sufficient, and perfume them with fifteengrains of musk culpeper they strengthen the stomach, heart, and liver, as also thebowels, they help the cholic, and fluxes of blood, as also bleedingat the nose if you snuff up the powder of them, disburden the body ofsalt, fretting, choleric humours you may carry them about you, andtake them at your pleasure troches of roses mesue college take of red roses half an ounce, wood of aloes twodrams, mastich, a dram and an half, roman wormwood, cinnamon, indianspikenard, cassia lignea, schœnanth, of each one dram, old wine, anddecoction of the five opening roots, so much as is sufficient to makeit into troches according to art culpeper they help pains in the stomach, and indigestion, theilliac passion, hectic fevers, and dropsies, in the beginning, andcause a good colour trochisci diacorallion galen college take of bole-ammoniac, red coral, of each an ounce, balaustines, terra lemnia, white starch, of each half an ounce, hypocistis, the seeds of henbane, opium, of each two drams, juice ofplantain so much as is sufficient to make them into troches accordingto art culpeper these also stop blood, help the bloody flux, stop themenses, and are a great help to such whose stomachs loath theirvictuals i fancy them not trochisci diaspermaton galen college take of the seeds of smallage, and bishop weed, of eachan ounce, annis and fennel seeds, of each half an ounce, opium, cassialignea, of each two drams, with rain water, make it into trochesaccording to art culpeper these also bind, ease pain, help the pleurisy hæmoptoici pastilli galen college take of white starch, balaustines, earth of samos, juiceof hypocystis, gum, saffron, opium, of each two drams, with juice ofplantain, make them into troches according to art culpeper the operation of this is like the former troches of agarick college take of choice agarick three ounces, sal gem six drams, ginger two drams, with oxymel simplex, so much as is sufficient, makeit into troches according to art oils simple oils by expression oil of sweet almonds college take of sweet almonds not corrupted, as thesis as you will, cast the shells away, and blanch them, beat them in a stone mortar, beat them in a double vessel, and press out the oil without heat culpeper it helps roughness and soreness of the throat and stomach, helps pleurisies, encreases seed, eases coughs and hectic fevers, by injection it helps such whose water scalds them. Ulcers in thebladder, reins, and matrix you may either take half an ounce of it byitself, or mix it with half an ounce of syrup of violets, and so takea spoonful at a time, still shaking them together when you take them:only take notice of this, if you take it inwardly, let it be new drawn, for it will be sour in three or four days oil of bitter almonds college it is made like oil of sweet almonds, but that you need notblanch them, nor have such a care of heat in pressing out the oil culpeper it opens stoppings, helps such as are deaf, being droppedinto their ears, it helps the hardness of the nerves, and takes awayspots in the face it is seldom or never taken inwardly oil of hazel nuts college it is made of the kernels, cleansed, bruised, and beat, andpressed like oil of sweet almonds culpeper you must put them in a vessel viz a glass, or essay suchthing and stop them close that the water come not to them when you putthem into the bath the oil is good for cold afflictions of the nerves, the gout in the joints, &c college so is oil of been, oil of nutmegs, and oil of mace drawn oleum caryinum college is prepared of walnut kernels, in like manner, save onlythat in the making of this essaytimes is required dried, old, and ranknuts oleum chryessaylinum college is prepared in the same manner of apricots, so is alsooils of the kernels of cherry stones, peaches, pine-nuts, fisticnuts, prunes, the seeds of oranges, hemp, bastard saffron, citrons, cucumbers, gourds, citruls, dwarf elder, henbane, lettuce, flax, melons, poppy, parsley, radishes, rape, ricinum, sesani, mustard seed, and grape stones culpeper because most of these oils are out of use, i took not thepains to quote the virtues of them. If any wish to make them, let themlook to the simples, and there they have them. If the simples be not tobe found in this book, there are other plentiful medicines conducing tothe cure of all usual diseases. Which are oil of bays college take of bay-berries, fresh and ripe, so thesis as you please, bruise them sufficiently, then boil them in a sufficient quantity ofwater till the oil swim at top, which separate from the water, and keepfor your use culpeper it helps the cholic, and is a sovereign remedy for anydiseases in any writing of the body coming either of wind or cold college common oil of olives, is pressed out of ripe olives, notout of the stones oil of olives omphacine, is pressed out of unripeolives oil of yolks of eggs college boil the yolks till they be hard, and bruise them withyour hand or with a pestle and mortar. Beat them in an earthen vesselglazed until they begin to froth, stirring them diligently that theyburn not, being hot, put them in a linen bag, and sprinkle them witharomatic wine, and press out the oil according to art culpeper it is profitable in fistulas, and malignant ulcers, itcauses the hair to grow, it clears the skin, and takes away deformitiesthereof, viz tetters, ringworms, morphew, scabs simple oils by infusion and decoction oil of roses omphacine college take of red roses before they be ripe, bruised in a stonemortar, four ounces, oil omphacine one pound, set them in a hot sun, in a glass close stopped, a whole week, shaking them every day, thenboil them gently in a bath, press them out, and put in others, use themin like manner, do so a third time. Then keep the oil upon a pound ofjuice of roses oil of roses complete, is made in the same manner, with sweet and ripe oil, often washed, andred roses fully open, bruised, set in the sun, and boiled gently in adouble vessel, only let the third infusion stand in the sun forty days, then keep the roses and oil together in the same manner is made oil of wormwood, of the tops of commonwormwood thrice repeated, four ounces, and three pounds of ripe oil;only, the last time put in four ounces of the juice of wormwood, whichevaporate away by gentle boiling oil of dill.

Medicine, as often as it required a spiritual essaything to explainthe manifestations of the body, has always regarded this unknownquantity as thoroughly substantial it has not, indeed, been possibleto determine more precisely research paper outline help the material nature of this great unknown, altho such attempts are by no means wanting in democritus, galen, andothers. Still it was always considered a corporeal thing supernaturalqualities were ascribed to it only after death, but so long as the soulanimated the body, united with the latter, it was a terrestrial being, and as such obeyed the laws of terrestrial substance it was possiblefor medical science, therefore, to reckon with it in the explanationof pathological processes without necessarily expecting a reproach thatsupernatural agencies were called in for assistance medicine, therefore, altho it has traveled the samediagnostico-theoretical road as natural science, has not, like thelatter, directly produced superstition it is true, it has calledforth innumerable erroneous hypotheses but a wrong hypothesis, althoit may be nonsensical to the utmost and give rise to the most seriouspractical consequences, is by no means superstition. For both errorand superstition so far as it is a question of medical matters are tworadically different conceptions, because the former concerns itselfonly with natural, the latter with supernatural factors yet it is quite conceivable that the dissemination of an intellectualprinciple can be furthered and promoted without overt advocacy of theprinciple itself, and this was the relation that existed for thousandsof years between medicine and superstition. For we learn from thisinvestigation that the representatives of medicine were too often readyto admit all kinds of superstitious views into medicine wheneverreligion, philosophy, and natural science have seriously attempted toinfluence medicine in a manner promoting superstition, medical scienceyielded to these attempts, and this is the only reproach which can bejustly laid at the door of our science however, this reproach is mitigated if we consider that medicine didnot accord a home to superstition of its own free will, or even froma predilection for the heresies of other disciples, but it did sounder compulsion. For the religious, the philosophical, the physicalviews which forced the entrance of superstition into medical sciencewere almost always the views of a formidable writingy it is a factsufficiently demonstrated by history that powerful and far-reachingpredilections of the popular mind resistlessly hurry along whatever isin their path such mental currents are the products of their period;they are the immediate result of the general sentiment and feelingof their time, and for this very reason they successfully overcomeresistance the opinion of a single individual may raise a protestagainst the spirit of the age, but this resistance is always bound tobe in vain the opinion of a single individual, even if it actuallyrepresents the truth, is absolutely powerless to resist the spirit ofthe age which, with elemental force, compels obedience therefore, thecourageous, truth-seeking resistance which was offered to the heresiesof medicina astrologica by pico of mirandola and girolamo fracastoriwas bound to be futile, because astrology was a genuine child of itstime, and therefore held irresistible sway over thought and sentiment if religion and philosophy so often interfered with the development ofmedicine, this was only possible because the general tendency of thecontemporary mind was thoroughly absorbed in this or that religious orphilosophical idea for each domain of human activity must needs be amere reflection of the tendency which guides the mind of its period this is a law which, with iron force, dominates the development ofculture superstition in medicine, therefore, was bound to flourish andthrive whenever it harmonized with the spirit of the age this law, tho it may have checked the development of our science, nevertheless holds out the certain promise of a period, theintellectual power of which will thoroughly clear away all relics ofsuperstition, which, still persisting in the minds of the thesis, drivesthem to the faith-curist and to the quack viimedical superstition and insanitythe history of medicine is conjoined with the evolution of theologyto an extent which makes them almost inseparable, and this maybest be seen from a study of the management of the insane, whichis a continuous record of cruelty based upon medico-theologicalsuperstition perhaps the most heartrending chapter of unphilosophicaltheology teems with the narration of thousands of unfortunatebeings murdered, tortured, and mishandled by the finesse in theinterpretation of biblical texts the greatest triumph of modernmedicine has consisted in unfettering the views of effete centuries, born of superstition and misconception, and in placing the treatmentof the insane upon a humane, often even a curative, plane as otherafflictions of humanity were attributed to the agency of evil spirits, this was writingicularly the case with insanity. For if the evil one foundit an easy task to control the corporeal acts of humanity, his powerover the mental functions of the person afflicted was even greater hence, it was not the person who acted, but the evil spirit in him thus, the devil and his minions were the specific pathogenic agents this conception was not universal, for history shows us that clearthinkers, far in advance of their times, had an almost correct viewof the nature of insanity namely, that it was due to an affection ofthe mind among such men were hippocrates, aretæus, soranus, galen, aurelianus, etc , and essay of the mohammedan physicians these apostlesof science taught that insanity was a disease of the brain, and themost efficient remedy, mild, palliative treatment the belief which had flourished in most of the oriental religions fromremote antiquity, that the power of evil demons was the active causeof disease, writingicularly that lunacy was due to diabolic possession, became rooted in the early christian church and flourished for eighteencenturies, each leaf of this malignant plant representing countlessunfortunates sacrificed to superstition later it was thought that themoon had a direct influence upon perturbation of the mind.

After which follow small heads, with small short beaks pointedforth, as all other sorts of those herbs do place it grows in pasture grounds, and by the path-sides in thesisplaces, and will also be in gardens time it flowers in june, july, and august, essay earlier and essaylater. And the seed is ripe quickly after government and virtues it is a very gentle, though martial plant it is found by experience to be singularly good for wind cholic, asalso to expel the stone and gravel in the kidneys the decoctionthereof in wine, is an excellent good cure for those that have inwardwounds, hurts, or bruises, both to stay the bleeding, to dissolve andexpel the congealed blood, and to heal the writings, as also to cleanseand heal outward sores, ulcers, and fistulas. And for green wounds, thesis do only bruise the herb, and apply it to the places, and it healsthem quickly the same decoction in wine fomented to any place painedwith the gout, or to joint-aches, or pains of the sinews, gives muchease the powder or decoction of the herb taken for essay time together, is found by experience to be singularly good for ruptures and burstingsin people, either young or old duck meat this is so well known to swim on the tops of standing waters, as ponds, pools, and ditches, that it is needless further to describe it government and virtues cancer claims the herb, and the moon willbe lady of it.

Such revocation being after due research paper outline help notice and trial by thesaid board, with right of appeal to the circuit court of the county inwhich such individual resides. But no such refusal or revocation shallbe made by reason of his belonging to or practising in any writingicularschool or system of medicine 10 the examination fee is not retained if a certificate is refused, butthe applicant may again, at any time within a year after refusal, beexamined without an additional fee, and if a certificate be againrefused he may, as often as he sees fit, on payment of the fee, beexamined until he obtains a certificate 11 examinations may be wholly or writingly in writing, and shall be of anelementary and practical character, embracing the general subjects ofanatomy, physiology, chemistry, materia medica, pathology, pathologicalanatomy, surgery, and obstetrics, but sufficiently strict to test thequalifications of the candidate as a practitioner of medicine, surgery, and obstetrics the chapter does not apply to females practisingmidwifery 12 definition, exceptions - any person is regarded as practising medicinewho professes publicly to be a physician, and to prescribe for thesick, or who appends to his name “m d ” this act also applies toapothecaries and pharmacists who prescribe for the sick it does notapply to commissioned officers of the united states army and navy andmarine hospital service 13 itinerant physician or vender - any itinerant physician or itinerantvender of any drug, nostrum, ointment, or appliance of any kindintended for the treatment of disease or injury, or who shall bywriting or printing or in any other method publicly profess to cureor treat diseases, injuries, or deformities by any drug, nostrum, manipulation, or other expedient, shall before doing so pay to thesheriff of every county in which he desires to practise a special taxof $50 for each month or fraction of a month he shall so practise insuch county, and take his receipt in duplicate therefor he shallpresent said receipts to the clerk of the county court of such county, who shall file and preserve one of them in his office and indorse onthe other, “a duplicate of this receipt has been filed in my office, ”and sign the same for such a person to practise or attempt to practisein any county without having paid such tax and filed such receipt andobtained such indorsement, or to practise or attempt to practise fora longer time than that for which he has paid a tax, is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $100 to $500 any person who shalltravel from place to place and by writing, printing, or otherwisepublicly profess to cure or treat diseases, injuries, or deformitiesis deemed an itinerant physician subject to the taxes, fines, andpenalties of this section 14 penalty - to practise or attempt to practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics without complying with sec 9 is a misdemeanor punishable, for every offence, with a fine of from $50 to $500 or imprisonment ina county jail from one month to twelve months, or both to file orattempt to file as his own a diploma or certificate of another, ora false or forged affidavit of identity, or wilfully swear falselyto any question propounded to him on examination or to any affidavitrequired to be made and filed, is punishable with confinement in thepenitentiary from one to three years or imprisonment in a county jailfrom six to twelve months, and a fine of from $100 to $500 s 15 fee - to the state board of health, or its examining members, forexamination, $10 11 wisconsin prohibition - no person practising physic or surgery, or both, shall have the right to collect in any action in any court fees orcompensation for the performance of any medical or surgical service, or to testify in a professional capacity as a physician or surgeon, unless he shall have received a diploma from essay incorporated medicalsociety or college or shall be a member of the state or essay countymedical society legally organized in this state. Provided that in allcriminal actions the court may in its discretion and in the furtheranceof justice receive the testimony of any physician or surgeon withoutrequiring proof of the incorporation of the medical society or collegefrom which he graduated r s , 1878, s 1, 436, as amended c 131, 1887 no person practising physic or surgery, or both, prohibited by theabove section from testifying in a professional capacity as a physicianor surgeon, shall assume the title of doctor, physician, or surgeon bymeans of any abbreviation or by the use of any other word or words, letters of the alphabet of the english or any other language, or anydevice of whatsoever kind, printed, written, or painted, or exhibitedin any advertisement, circular, handbill, letter, or other instrument, nor on any card, sign, door, or place whatsoever penalty, exceptions - a violation of this act is a misdemeanorpunishable with a fine of from $25 to $100, or imprisonment in a countyjail from ten days to sixty days for each offence s 1, c 256, 1881, as amended c 40, 1882 on complaint in writing under oath before any magistrate or justice ofthe peace charging the commission of an offence against the provisionsof this act in his county, it is the duty of the district attorney toprosecute the offender, and in all such prosecutions the burden ofproof shall be upon the defendant to establish his right to use suchtitle under the provisions of this act 2 any person prohibited by sec 1 from assuming the title of doctor, physician, or surgeon who shall practise or pretend to practisephysic or surgery, or both, is not exempted from any, but is liableto all, of the legal penalties and liabilities of malpractice, andignorance shall be no excuse for a failure to perform or for neglector unskilfully performing or attempting to perform any of the dutiesrequired by law of practising physicians or surgeons the act does notprevent students from practising under the direction of a qualifiedpreceptor, nor women from practising midwifery, nor veterinarians frompractising in their special dewritingment 3 wyoming qualification - no person can lawfully practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics who has not received a medical education and diploma fromessay regularly chartered medical school having a bona fide existencewhen the diploma was granted r s , 1887, s 1, 925 every physician, surgeon, or obstetrician must file for record withthe register of deeds of the county in which he is about to practiseor where he practises, a copy of his diploma, exhibiting the original, or a certificate from the dean of the medical school of which he is agraduate certifying to his graduation 1, 926 when filing a copy of his diploma or certificate of graduation, he mustbe identified as the person named in the paper about to be filed by theaffidavit of two citizens of the county, or his affidavit taken beforea notary public or commissioner of deeds for the state, which affidavitmust be filed in the office of the register of deeds 1, 927 penalty - to practise without complying with this chapter is amisdemeanor punishable with a fine of from $50 to $500 or imprisonmentin a county jail from thirty days to six months, or both, for eachoffence to file or attempt to file as his own a diploma or certificateof another, or a forged affidavit of identification, is a felonysubject to a fine and imprisonment in the penitentiary s 1, 928 it is the duty of the police, sheriff, or constable to arrest allpersons practising medicine, surgery, or obstetrics without complyingwith these provisions 1, 929 exceptions - this chapter does not apply to persons in emergencyprescribing or giving advice in medicine, surgery, or obstetrics ina section of country where no physician, surgeon, or obstetricianresides, or where no physician, surgeon, or obstetrician resideswithin a convenient distance, nor to persons prescribing in their ownfamilies, nor to persons claiming to practise medicine, surgery, orobstetrics in any section of the state where no physician or surgeonhaving a diploma or a certificate resides 1, 930 evidence - on the trial of persons charged with the violation ofthis chapter it shall be sufficient for the prosecution to show thatdefendant has practised medicine, surgery, or obstetrics within thecounty where the indictment is found at any time since the passage ofthe act 1876, and the defendant shall not after proof be entitled toacquittal until he shows by the testimony of essay competent witnessupon oath that the defendant has received a medical education, and agenuine diploma from essay regularly chartered medical school. Providedthat the defendant may show such facts by depositions taken in the samemanner as depositions in civil paper 1, 931 the united kingdom of great britain and ireland medical acts - the act 21 and 22 victoria, c 90, and the amendmentsthereof and additions thereto, are generally spoken of as the medicalacts medical councils - there is a general council of medical education andregistration of the united kingdom, with branch councils for england, scotland, and ireland 21 and 22 vict , 1858, c 90, s 3, 6 members of the general council are chosen as provided in 49 and 50vict , c 48, s 7. Those representing the medical corporations must bequalified to register under this act 21 and 22 vict , c 90, s 7 the general council appoints a registrar for england, and the branchcouncils for scotland and ireland appoint respectively a registrar forscotland and ireland 10, 11 registrar - it is the duty of the registrars to keep their registerscorrect, and to erase the names of all registered persons who shallhave died, and from time to time to make the necessary alterations inthe addresses or qualifications of persons registered it is lawful forthe registrar to write a letter to any registered person, addressed tohim according to his address on the register, to inquire whether he hasceased to practise or has changed his residence, and if no answer bereturned within six months from the time of sending the letter, it islawful to erase the name of such person from the register, but it maybe restored by direction of the general council 14 qualification - persons possessed of one or more of the qualificationsdescribed in schedule a, on the payment of a fee not exceeding £5, areentitled to register on the production to the registrar of the branchcouncil for england, scotland, or ireland the document conferringor evidencing the qualification in respect whereof he seeks to beregistered, or upon transmitting by post to such registrar informationof his name and address, and evidence of his qualifications and of thetime or times at which they were obtained the several colleges andbodies mentioned in schedule a may transmit from time to time to theregistrar, under their respective seals, lists of the persons who bygrant of such colleges and bodies respectively, are for the time beingentitled to register, stating the qualifications and residences of suchpersons, and it shall be lawful for the registrar on the payment of thesaid fee to enter in the register the persons mentioned in such listswith their qualifications and places of residences as therein statedwithout other application 15 the general council is required to make orders for regulating theregisters from time to time 16 persons actually practising medicine in england before august 1st, 1815, were entitled to register under the act 17 any two or more of the colleges and bodies in the united kingdommentioned in schedule a may, with the sanction and under the directionof the general council, unite or co-operate in conducting theexaminations required for qualifications to be registered s 19, 37 and 38 vict , c 34 the privy council may suspend the right of registration in respect ofqualifications granted by any college or body 21 after such revocation, no person shall be entitled to register inrespect to any qualification granted by such college before revocation22 the privy council may issue an injunction directing any body entitledto grant qualifications to desist from imposing upon any candidatefor examination an obligation to adopt or refrain from adoptingthe practice of any writingicular theory of medicine or surgery as atest or condition of admitting him to examination or granting hima certificate. And in the event of their not complying, may orderthat such body cease to have the power of conferring a right to beregistered so long as they shall continue such practice 23 where any person entitled to be registered applies to the registrarof any branch council for that purpose, such registrar is requiredforthwith to enter in a local register the name and place of residence, and the qualifications in respect of which the person is so entitledand the date of registration. And in case of the branch council forscotland or ireland, to send to the registrar of the general council acopy of the entry, and the registrar of the general council is requiredto cause the same to be entered in the general register. And suchregistrar is required to cause all entries made in the local registerfor england to be entered in the general register 25 no qualification is entered on the register, on the first registrationor by way of addition to a regular name, unless the registrar besatisfied by proper evidence that the person claiming it is entitled toit any appeal from the decision of the registrar may be decided by thegeneral council or by the council for england, scotland, or ireland, asthe case may be any entry proved to the satisfaction of such generalcouncil or branch council to have been fraudulently or incorrectly mademay be erased from the register by an order in writing of such generalcouncil or branch council 26 medical register - the registrar of the general council is requiredto cause to be printed, published, and sold under the direction ofsuch council, every year, a correct register of the names with therespective residences and medical titles, diplomas, and qualificationsconferred by any corporation or university or by a doctorate of thearchbishop of canterbury, with the dates thereof, of all personsappearing on the general register as existing on january 1st in everyyear such register is called the medical register, and a copy ofthe medical register for the time being is evidence that the personstherein specified are registered according to the act, and the absenceof the name of any person from such copy is evidence, until thecontrary be made to appear, that such person is not so registered;provided, that in the case of any person whose name does not appearin such copy, a certified copy under the hand of the registrar of thegeneral council or a branch council of the entry of the name of suchperson on the general or local register shall be evidence that suchperson is so registered 27 if any college or body exercise any power it possess of striking offfrom its list the name of any one of its members, it shall signifyhis name to the general council and the said council may, if they seefit, direct the registrar to erase from the register the qualificationderived from such college or body in respect of which such member wasregistered, and the registrar shall note the same therein, but the nameof no person shall be erased from the register on the ground of hishaving adopted any theory of medicine or surgery 28 if any registered medical practitioner shall be convicted in england orireland of any felony or misdemeanor, or in scotland of any crime oroffence, or shall be after due inquiry judged by the general council tohave been guilty of infamous conduct in any professional respect, thegeneral council may, if they see fit, direct the registrar to erase thename of such medical practitioner from the register 29 every person registered who may have obtained any higher degree orother qualification is entitled to have it inserted in the registerin substitution for or in addition to his qualification previouslyregistered, on the payment of such fee as the council may appoint30 compensation - no person is entitled to receive for any medical orsurgical advice, or attendance, or for the performance of any operationor for any medicine which he shall have both prescribed and supplied, unless he prove upon the trial that he is registered under this act32, as amended 23 and 24 vict , c 7, s 3 definition - the words “legally qualified medical practitioner” or“duly qualified medical practitioner, ” or any words implying a personrecognized by law as a medical practitioner or member of the medicalprofession in any act of parliament, mean a person registered underthis act 34, as amended 23 and 24 vict , c 7, s 3 exemptions - if they so desire, registered persons are exempt fromserving on juries, and in all corporation, parish, ward, hundred, andtown offices, and in the militia 35 disqualifications - no unregistered person is permitted to hold anyappointment as a physician, surgeon, or other medical officer in themilitary or naval service, or in emigrant or other vessels, or in anyhospital, infirmary, dispensary, or lying-in hospital, not supportedwholly by voluntary contributions, or in any lunatic asylum, jail, penitentiary, house of correction or of industry, parochial or unionworkhouse or poor-house, parish union, or other public establishedbody or institution, or to any friendly or other society for affordingmutual relief in sickness, infirmity, or old age, or as a medicalofficer of health 36, as amended 23 and 24 vict , c 7, s 3 no certificate required by any act from any physician or surgeonlicentiate in medicine and surgery, or other medical practitioner, isvalid unless the signer be registered under this act 37, asamended 23 and 24 vict , c 7, s 3 penalty - wilfully procuring or attempting to procure one self to beregistered by making or producing or causing to be made or producedany false or fraudulent representation or declaration, or aiding orabetting therein, is a misdemeanor in england and ireland, and inscotland a crime or offence, punishable by fine or imprisonment theimprisonment cannot exceed twelve months 39 wilfully and falsely pretending to be or taking or using the nameor title of physician, doctor of medicine, licentiate in medicineand surgery, bachelor of medicine, surgeon, general practitioner, orapothecary, or any name, title, addition, or description implyingregistration under this act, or recognition by law as a physician orsurgeon or licentiate in medicine and surgery, or practitioner inmedicine, or apothecary, is punishable on summary conviction by apenalty not exceeding £20 40, 41 deceased physicians - every registrar of deaths in the united kingdom, on receiving notice of the death of any medical practitioner, isrequired to transmit to the registrar of the general council and theregistrar of the branch council a certificate of such death with thetime and place, and on the receipt of such certificate the medicalregistrar is required to erase the name of the deceased from theregister 45 exceptions - the general council was by the act empowered by specialorder to dispense with such provisions of this act or such writing of anyregulations made by its authority as to them should seem fit, in favorof persons at the time of its passage practising medicine or surgeryin any writing of her majesty dominions other than great britain andireland by virtue of any of the qualifications in schedule a, and infavor of persons practising medicine or surgery within the unitedkingdom on foreign or colonial diplomas or degrees before the passageof this act, and in favor of any persons who had held appointments assurgeons or assistant surgeons in the army, navy, or militia, or in theservice of the east india company, or who were acting as surgeons inthe public service, or in the service of any charitable institution, and in favor of medical students who commenced their professionalstudies before its passage 46 the qualifications specified in schedule a are as follows:1 fellow, member inserted 22 vict , c 21, s 4, licentiate, orextra licentiate of the royal college of physicians of london this isdeclared by 23 and 24 vict , c 66, s 1, to denote the corporation of“the president and college or commonalty of the faculty of physics inlondon” the act makes provision for a new charter with change ofname to “the royal college of physicians of england, ” or retention ofold name. S 47, as amended 23 and 24 vict , c 66, s 2 2 fellow, member inserted 22 vict , c 21, s 4, or licentiate ofthe royal college of physicians of edinburgh the act makes provisionfor the granting of a new charter to the royal college of physicians ofedinburgh, whereby its name is to be changed to “the royal college ofphysicians of scotland, ” or its old name may be retained. S 49, as amended 23 and 24 vict , c 66, s 2 3 fellow or licentiate of the king and queen college of physiciansof ireland the act makes provision for the granting of a new charterto this college, whereby its name is to be changed to “the royalcollege of physicians of ireland, ” or its old name may be retained. S 51, as amended 23 and 24 vict , c 66, s 2 4 fellow or member or licentiate in midwifery of the royal college ofsurgeons of england 5 fellow or licentiate of the royal college of surgeons of edinburgh see 6, below 6 fellow or licentiate of the faculty of physicians and surgeons ofglasgow the act makes provision for the possible amalgamation of theroyal college of surgeons of edinburgh with the faculty of physiciansand surgeons of glasgow, in which case the united corporation is to benamed “the royal college of surgeons of scotland:” s 50 7 fellow or licentiate of the royal college of surgeons in ireland 8 licentiate of the society of apothecaries, london 9 licentiate of the apothecaries’ hall, dublin 10 doctor or bachelor or licentiate of medicine, or master in surgeryof any university of the united kingdom. Or doctor of medicine, bydoctorate granted prior to the passage of the act by the archbishop ofcanterbury 11 doctor of medicine of any foreign or colonial university orcollege, practising as a physician in the united kingdom before october1st, 1858, who shall produce certificates to the satisfaction of thecouncil, of his having taken his degree of doctor of medicine after aregular examination, or who shall satisfy the council under sec 46 amended 22 vict , c 21, s 5 of this act, that there is sufficientreason for admitting him to be registered nothing in the above act shall prevent any person, not a britishsubject, who shall have obtained from any foreign university a degreeor diploma of doctor in medicine, and who shall have passed the regularexaminations entitling him to practise medicine in his own country, from being and acting as the resident physician or medical officer ofany hospital established exclusively for the relief of foreigners insickness. Provided always such person is engaged in no medical practiceexcept as such resident physician or medical officer 22 vict , c 21, s 6 the following qualification was added by 23 and 24 vict , c 7, s 1:a diploma or license in surgery granted by any university in irelandlegally authorized to grant the same the act 39 and 40 vict , c 40, in sec 3, provides that all personswho have obtained from any university of the united kingdom legallyauthorized to confer the same, the degree of bachelor in surgery, shallbe permitted to register the same as a qualification under 21 and 22vict , c 90 the diploma of a member of the king and queen college of physiciansin ireland, and the degree of master in obstetrics of any university inthe united kingdom are added to the qualifications in schedule a of themedical act of 1858 49 and 50 vict , c 48, s 20 the change of name of any of the corporations named in 21 and 22 vict , c 90, is not to alter or affect the qualifications constituted by theact 23 and 24 vict , c 66, s 3 revocation of license - the society of apothecaries may strikeoff from the list of licentiates of said society the name of anyperson who shall be convicted in england or ireland of any felony ormisdemeanor, or in scotland of any crime or offence, or who shall, after due inquiry, be judged by the general council to have beenguilty of infamous conduct in any professional respect, and the saidsociety shall forthwith signify to the general council the name of thelicentiate so stricken off 37 and 38 vict , c 34, s 4 women - the society of apothecaries is not relieved from any existingobligation, nor deprived of any right, to admit women to theexaminations required for certificates to practise as apothecaries, orto enter the lists of licentiates of said society, any women who shallhave satisfactorily passed such examinations, and fulfilled the othergeneral conditions imposed upon persons seeking to obtain from the saidsociety a qualification to be registered under 21 and 22 vict , c 905 the act 39 and 40 vict , c 41, extends the powers of every bodyentitled under 21 and 22 vict , c 90, to grant qualifications forregistration so that it may grant any qualification for registrationgranted by such body without distinction of sex but nothing in thisact is compulsory the medical act of 1886 49 and 50 vict , c 48 modified the foregoingacts as follows:examination - a person cannot lawfully be registered under the medicalacts in respect of any qualification referred to in any of those actsunless he has passed such qualifying examination in medicine, surgery, and midwifery as is in this act mentioned 49 and 50 vict , c 48, s 2 a qualifying examination shall be an examination in medicine, surgery, and midwifery held for the purpose of granting a diploma or diplomasconferring the right of registration under the medical acts, by any ofthe following bodies. A any university in the united kingdom, or any medical corporationlegally qualified at the time of the passage of this act to grant suchdiploma or diplomas in respect of medicine or surgery. Or b any combination of two or more medical corporations in the samewriting of the united kingdom, who may agree to hold a joint examinationin medicine, surgery, and midwifery, and of whom one at least iscapable of granting such diploma as aforesaid in respect of medicine, and one at least is capable of granting such diploma in respect ofsurgery. Or c any combination of any such university as aforesaid with anyother such university or universities, or of any such university oruniversities with a medical corporation or corporations.

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