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4 threetablets of duodenin in 15 c c sodium chlorid 0 9 per cent table 5 -- summary of experimentsdogs with pancreatic fistula, weight 14 kg secretin given by mouth | |rate of secretion| | | of pancreatic | | | juice in | no of | | c c per hour |increase experi-| material fed -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- in ment | | three | three | c c | | hours | hours | | | before | after | | |feeding |feeding | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 3 |secretin slightly acid | 5 | 11 | 6 5 |secretin slightly alkaline | 24 | 30 | 6 4 |secretin passed through berkefeld| 18 | 23 | 5 1 |secretin exposed to sun for 4 hrs| 16 | 29 | 13 2 |extract of colon rabbit | 19 | 29 | 10 3 |extract of gastric mucosa | 14 | 23 | 9 3 |extract of muscle | 8 | 16 | 8 2 |mixture of gelatin, peptone and | 23 | 33 | 10 | salt | | | 1 |1 per cent peptone solution | 6 | 8 | 2 4 |0 2 per cent hydrochloric acid | 13 | 37 | 24 3 |milk and bread | 7 | 20 | 13 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- it is possible by large doses of sodium bicarbonate given shortlybefore the administration of a preparation so to depress the stomachthat it does not respond with the usual production of hydrochloricacid under these conditions the administration of secretin isuniformly negative, but the administration of hydrochloric acid on thecontrary still serves to increase the pancreatic secretion table 6 table 6 -- secretin in experimental “achylia gastrica” | | rate of secretion of pancreatic juice | | in c c per hour | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - exp | material fed |continuous secretion| secretion after no | | before feeding* | feeding | -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - | |first |second|third |first |second|third -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 1 |} {| 8 7 | 7 5 | research paper help mla 6 8 | 3 0 | 1 0 | 4 8 2 |} 150 c c secretin {| 4 5 | 6 5 | 10 0 | 6 0 | 7 5 | 7 6 3 |} {| 15 6 | 8 1 | 16 0 | 3 9 | 4 9 | 2 9 | | | | | | | 1 |} 150 c c 4% hcl {| 9 8 | 7 0 | 6 0 | 65 1 | 28 0 | 7 1 2 |} diluted to 250 c c {| 17 4 | 18 5 | 17 0 | 34 0 | 18 0 | 20 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -* five gm na hco₃ given at beginning of each first two hours commercial preparations of secretinsecretogen and elixir secretogen -- the carnrick company offerssecretogen90 for use in a large number of conditions the followingindications for the use of the preparation purport to be based onclinical tests covering a period of several years. Dyspepsia, andthe indigestions generally, fermentative disorders, gastric catarrh, flatulence, nausea. Pancreatic insufficiency, intestinal indigestion;gastric secretory deficiencies, apepsia. Constipation and hepatictorpor. Intestinal stasis. Diarrhea. Infantile diarrhea, “summercomplaint, ” marasmus, inanition and malnutrition. Gastric atony anddilatation. Cholecystitis and gallstones.

Julius l salingerrelease date. January 24, 2014 ebook #44744language. Englishcharacter set encoding. Utf-8*** start of this project gutenberg ebook superstition in medicine ***produced by eagkw, chris curnow and the online distributedproofreading team at pgdp net this file wasproduced from images generously made available by theinternet archive superstition in medicine superstition in medicine by prof dr hugo magnus authorized translation from the german, edited by dr julius l salinger late assistant professor of clinical medicine, jefferson medical college. Physician to the philadelphia general hospital, etc illustration funk & wagnalls company new york and london 1908 copyright, 1905, by funk & wagnalls company printed in the united states of america published, april, 1905prefacethe history of medicine is closely interlinked with the developmentof theology the errors of one are for the most writing reflected inthe mistakes of the other no matter how obscure and dark the originof either, whether derived from ignorance and superstition or not, the ultimate achievement alone must be taken into consideration wedo not reject chemistry because it originated in alchemy, we do notdisregard astronomy because its roots are entwined with the teachingsof astrology, and so in theology and medicine we look to the finalissue the statements set forth in this book should not be construedas reflecting the development of theology or medicine at the time, butas the belief of the people existing in these periods philosophy mayhave been pure, but if the mind of man was faulty the responsibilitymust not be laid at the door of science it is the function of thehistorian truthfully to depict the thought and spirit of the time ofwhich he writes this has been attempted in the present work it is nota criticism of a system, but a criticism of man there can be no doubtthat absurd superstitions are still existent for which the twentiethcentury will be severely criticized in time to come thus the words ofour martyred president may well be used as a motto for this book. “withmalice towards none, with charity for all ”the last chapter of this book has been added by the translator, as itseemed necessary for the full discussion of the subject julius l salinger philadelphia, pa contents page i what is medical superstition?. 1 ii theism in its relation to medicine and in its struggle with the physico-mechanical theory of life 7 iii religion the support of medical superstition 23 iv the influence of philosophy upon the form and origin of medical superstition 89 v the relations of natural science to medical superstition 128 vi influence exerted upon the development of superstition by medicine itself 185 vii medical superstition and insanity 191 bibliography 201illustrations page circle of petosiris 141 circle of petosiris 143 the table of democritus 145 the relation of the writings of the human body to the signs of the zodiac 159 venesection in its astronomical connection 175iwhat is medical superstition?. Faith and superstition are twin brothers altho the former leadshumanity to its sublimest ideals and the latter only presents us witha caricature of human knowledge, both are children of the same family both originate in a sense of the inadequacy of human science in regardto natural phenomena the fact that the most important processes oforganic life can not be traced to their ultimate origin, but that theirinvestigation will soon lead to a point of irresistible opposition tofurther analysis, has always called forth a feeling of impotency anddependence in the human mind this consciousness of being dependentupon factors which are entirely beyond human understanding has thusgiven rise to the metaphysical need of reflecting upon these mysteriousfactors, and bringing them within reach of human comprehension humanity, in attempting to satisfy such a metaphysical requirementfrom an ethical standpoint, created faith, which subsequently foundexpression in the various forms of religion it is not within thescope of this essay to consider how far divine revelations havebeen vouchsafed on this subject superstition undoubtedly enteredthe scene when, simultaneously with these, endeavors were made toconsider and to explain physical processes from the standpoint ofsuch metaphysical requirements it is true that this did not, atfirst, lead to a marked contrast between faith and superstition;for a period existed in which faith and superstition i e , themetaphysical consideration of ethical values and the metaphysicalconsideration of the entire phenomena of life were not only equivalent, but even merged into one conception this occurred in an age in whichmankind considered all terrestrial processes, whether they were ofa psychical or of a material nature, as immediately caused by thesteady interference of supernatural powers a period during which thedeity was held responsible for all terrestrial phenomena duringthis period faith became superstition, and superstition, faith aseparation did not take place until essay especially enlightened mindsbegan to evolve the idea that it would be more reasonable to explainnatural phenomena temporal becoming, being, and passing away bynatural rather than by supernatural causes the reaction againstthis better interpretation, the tenacious adherence to the originalassociation of terrestrial manifestations with metaphysical factors, created the superstition of the natural sciences the birth ofsuperstition in the greek world must be placed about the seventhcentury, b c , the period during which thales of miletus came forwardwith his endeavor to explain natural processes in a natural manner this attempt of the milesian is the initiation of a rational scientificconception of natural manifestations, and the ancient theisticconsideration of nature became superstition only in opposition tosuch a view it follows, then, that what holds good with regard tothe interpretation of natural manifestations in general holds good inmedicine especially here, also, superstition came into question onlywhen, besides the original theistic conception of the functions of thebody and besides the metaphysical treatment of the sick, a valuationof the normal as well as of the morbid phenomena of the human organismcame into vogue which took into account terrestrial causes not untilthis stage was reached did theism and theurgy lose their title andbecome superstition. Until then they could claim fullest acceptance inmedicine as thoroughly logical consequences of the prevailing theoryof life this took place, so far as greek medicine was concerned, at about the end of the sixth century, b c the corpus hippocraticumalready shows us greek medicine as being purified from all theisticsophistications and only reckoning with natural causes when thisseparation must have taken place for pre-greek, indian, assyrian, andegyptian culture can not be at present determined with certainty forthe egyptian and babylonico-assyrian manuscripts, so far known, showan intimate admixture of true observation of nature with theisticspeculations i e , a treatment of medicine which, altho it tookaccount of physico-natural manifestations, was still deeply tincturedwith superstition according to what we have stated, medical superstition might be definedas follows. “belief that the normal as well as the pathologicalmanifestations of organic life may be explained and eventuallytreated, without consideration of their physical nature, by means ofsupernatural agencies ”medical superstition varies according to the kind and the origin ofthese supernatural causes, and therefore appears in the greatestvariety of forms if these causes were looked for in celestial regions, medical superstition became vested with the religious garb, and itssource was in the religious cult. But if the belief prevailed thatgod shared the domination of the world with other mysterious elements, such as were embodied in different forms in accordance with the variousphilosophical systems, medical superstition bore a philosophical andmystical stamp whose origin is revealed in the history of philosophy but if certain mysterious powers hidden in the womb of nature or activeabove the earth were considered to influence human life, medicalsuperstition assumed a physical character however, it frequentlyfollowed that the above three factors acted simultaneously or invarying combinations, or certain other elements which were inherentin human nature cooperated for this reason it is essaytimes not quiteeasy to decide as to the source from which this or that form ofmedical superstition principally derived its persistent currency but, nevertheless, it is our intention to divide our subject in accordancewith the sources from which the several forms of medical superstitionspring, as it is absolutely impossible to obtain a satisfactory viewof the extensive material without first attempting a systematicarrangement of the data at hand but before attempting to inquire why the purest and most valuablefountains of all human knowledge religion, philosophy, and naturalscience have at the same time become sources of medical superstition, it will be advisable to explain the character which medical science hadassumed under the exclusive domination of theism, and how conditionsshaped themselves when physico-mechanical philosophy appeared and beganto do battle with the theistic conception of life these conditionsplayed such a special writing in the development of medico-physicalsuperstition that it becomes necessary first to examine their power andtendency before attempting to contemplate medical superstition proper ii theism in its relation to medicine and in its struggle with the physico-mechanical theory of lifeas we explained in chapter i , the development of all peoples haspassed through a period during which medico-physical knowledge foundexpression exclusively in the teachings of religion by theism wemean the system which endeavors to explain natural phenomena bysupernatural causes however, this view of nature, with its tingeof religion, did not as yet show any trace of superstition it wasrather the only justifiable conception of nature and thoroughly inkeeping with the power of comprehension of man, until it began todawn upon the mind that natural phenomena might be due to naturalcauses this was the period of which we stated, in the beginning ofthis investigation, that faith became superstition and superstitionbecame faith it was during this time that the powers above were heldaccountable for all bodily ailments of mankind it was their task mostcarefully to observe the functional processes of the human body inall its phases, and to protect their undisturbed continuance but asthe inhabitants of heaven, like the inhabitants of the earth, weresubject to whims, it happened very often, unfortunately, that theyattended to their task of protecting the undisturbed development ofthe vegetative as well as the animal functions of the body in a veryunsatisfactory manner, essaytimes, in fact, even purposely neglectingit thus disturbances occurred in the regular course of organic life, and this brought diseases into the world if, therefore, the gods weredirectly responsible for the appearance of disease, it was palpablytheir duty to effect its elimination thus it came about that pathologyand therapy were exclusively attended to by the gods but in what lightthey regarded these medical duties of theirs, and how they performedthem, were matters subject to very varying considerations, as expoundedby the different religions of antiquity the babylonian considered thegreat god marduk the expeller of all maladies, whereas urugal, namtor, and nergal were recognized gods of pestilence similar ideas prevailed among the egyptians the cat-headed goddessbubastis was believed to deal out to mothers the blessings offertility ibis showed an especial interest in those human beings whowere troubled with disturbances of digestion, and this interest foundbenevolent expression in the invention of the clyster with the greeks also the gods rendered services to diseased humanity thus apollo invented the art of healing, and if his time permitted heoccasionally lent a hand when difficulties beset the entrance into thisworld of a young mortal but, as a rule, it was the duty of aphroditeto attend to such paper, just as, in fact, she was responsible foreverything that referred to love, no matter whether it was a questionof the esthetic or the pathological writing of that passion athene wasthe specialist in ophthalmology, and it seems that she did not farebadly with this occupation a temple was dedicated to her by lycurgus, whom, as it appears, she healed of a sympathetic affection of theeyes. And, besides, she won by her ophthalmological activity variousornamental epithets, such, for instance, as ὀφθαλμίτις, etc it was quite natural, in view of the exclusively theistic conceptionwhich in those times preoccupied the human mind, that the priests werethe sole possessors of physico-medical knowledge.

The peritoneum showed a congestion and a fibrinous exudation, amount of liquid increased, essay writing of which was probably chlorlyptus unabsorbed spleen about normal, liver congested, kidney about normal, suprarenal research paper help mla glands about normal, lungs normal, pleural cavity obtained no exudation, heart soft, flabby and congested experiment 15 -- toxic and irritant action of chlorlyptus when injected into the pleural cavity -- six normal guinea-pigs used for the experiment chlorlyptus was injected in the pleural cavity as follows. Guinea-pig 1, 0 5 c c. Guinea-pig 2, 1 c c. Guinea-pig 3, 2 c c. Guinea-pig 4, 3 c c , and guinea-pig 5, 4 c c guinea-pig 6 was used as a control result. Guinea-pigs 1 and 2 recovered about four hours after injection guinea-pig 3 died three days after and guinea-pigs 4 and 5 four and two hours after, respectively conclusions. Guinea-pigs weighing on the average of 400 gm may be injected peritoneally with one or two c c or intrapleurally with 0 5 to 1 c c of chlorlyptus without having fatal results from the injection experiment 16 -- toxic and irritant action of eucalyptus oil -- three normal guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 1 c c of oil of eucalyptus in the peritoneum, and guinea-pig 2 with 0 5 c c in the pleural cavity guinea-pig 3 was used as a control result. Guinea-pig 1 died about three hours after injection, and guinea-pig 2 about two hours after the injection autopsy. Both guinea-pigs showed marked congestion and a moderate degree of exudate in the peritoneum experiment 17 -- toxic and virulent action of eucalyptus -- three normal guinea-pigs were selected for the experiment, as in experiment 16 the injection was made in the pleural cavity guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of eucalyptus oil result. Guinea-pig 1 died the following day, and guinea-pig 2 one hour after the injection experiment 18 -- toxic and irritant action of dichloramin-t, 0 5 per cent in chlorcozane -- one guinea-pig was used for each experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of dichloramin-t peritoneally result. Both animals became restless immediately after the injection, and died twelve hours after of acute hemorrhagic peritonitis experiment 19 -- effect of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus suspended in salt solution and one of that solution injected into the peritoneum of the guinea-pig -- three guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c of staphylococcus suspension as control guinea-pig 2 was given the same, and immediately after received 1 c c of chlorlyptus guinea-pig 3 was injected with the same amount, and chlorlyptus was injected twenty-four hours after injection results. Guinea-pig 1 was sick and weak with loss of appetite for essay days, but gradually recovered guinea-pig 2 died over night autopsy. There was a large amount of exudate in the peritoneal cavity, irritation of the intestine, and other signs of acute inflammation a moderate degree of congestion. Spleen not enlarged. Liver showed cloudy swelling and fibrinous exudate. Lungs and heart about normal except for a moderate degree of congestion but no exudate guinea-pig 3 was sick for essay days, but recovered gradually one week after experiment 20 -- effect of chlorlyptus in vivo on staphylococcus -- the experiment was conducted in the same way as in experiment 17, but 2 c c were used instead of 1 c c result.

“by effects research paper help mla. Only a few patients complain of an unpleasant sharp taste, burning of the tongue seifert, sklarek among the general symptoms observed are urticaria-like exanthems glaser, roters, which are accompanied by nausea, vomiting, headache, insomnia and vertigo, burning and irritability especially in the larynx meissner. Phenomena of poisoning geissler. Gastric disturbances engelmann. Renal irritation steinhard. Unsuited for diabetics voit ”26 seifert, otto. Die nebenwirkungen der modernen arzneimittel, 1915 the contention that formamint, when mixed directly with mediumsand left in contact with bacteria, will kill the organisms wascorroborated thus the statements and pictures in the booklet, “thegospel of prevention, ” which is enclosed with each bottle of formamint, showing the inhibition of growth of air bacteria on plates containingformamint are no doubt true and authentic finally, the claim that formamint is an almost perfect throatdisinfectant was by no means confirmed, as a glance at the tables willshow one hour after it is taken, even when a tablet was used eachhalf hour for twelve hours, the number of bacteria in the throat waspractically the same as when formamint was not used even ten minutesafter taking a tablet the number of bacteria in the throat was nevergreatly reduced, as is maintained by the manufacturers has no selective actionformamint exerts no selective action in killing off the very delicateorganisms which are more apt to be pathogenic when the comparativecounts were made on blood agar which would favor the growth of thedelicate parasitic organisms, no reduction whatever was shown by theuse of formamint the number of streptococci was found to be the same, within limits ofexperimental error, ten minutes after taking a tablet as it was beforethe tablet was taken therefore it seems that formamint fails, as any such germicide wouldbe expected to fail, to kill bacteria in the crypts and recesses ofthe throat, for when dissolved in the mouth it cannot reach and remainin contact with the organisms long enough to kill them before it isswallowed summarysummed up, the investigation shows:1 that the claims made for formamint are extravagant and misleading 2 that the recommendations for the use of these tablets may be, inessay paper, fraught with danger and are a menace, not only to thehealth of the individual, but also to the safety of the community 3 that the claim that formamint is a definite chemical compound isfalse 4 that the use of formamint may produce marked irritation of theintestinal tract 5 that formamint is not a throat disinfectant, as the manufacturersmaintain, but its action on the bacteria of the throat is an almostnegligible one and dependence on formamint for the prevention ofinfection and for curing disease is not only unwise but dangerous 6 that formamint conflicts with the rules of the council falsestatements are made with regard to its composition rule 1. Grosslyunwarranted claims are made for its therapeutic properties rule 6, and therefore its exploitation to the public rules 3 and 4 is apublic danger it is recommended that this report be published, to call attention notonly to the falsity of the claims made for, and the danger in the useof, formamint, but also to emphasize the utter inefficiency of all suchmethods of “disinfecting” the throat -- from the journal a m a , aug 28, 1915 hydragogin report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhydragogin c bischoff & co , new york, selling agents is advertisedas “a most powerful diuretic and cardiac tonic ” the composition givenis. “fifteen writings of the remedy contain 0 5 writings oxysaponin, 1 5 writings tincture of digitalis, 2 5 writings tincture of strophanthus, scillipicrin and scillitoxin, the active principles of scilla maritima, and alcohol ”it is not clear from this statement whether 15 writings of hydragogincontain 2 5 writings of tincture of strophanthus, plus unspecifiedamounts of scillipicrin and scillitoxin, or 2 5 writings of a mixture, in unspecified proportions, of tincture of strophanthus, scillipicrinand scillitoxin the activity of strophanthus, after it enters theblood stream, is about fifty times that of digitalis. Hence, if theformer proportion is the true one, in giving an amount of hydragoginwhich ensures the full therapeutic effect of the digitalis, one wouldadminister an almost certainly fatal amount of strophanthus whateverthe proportion of strophanthus may be, however, the administrationof a mixture of digitalis and strophanthus in fixed proportions isindefensible at times it is advisable to follow one of these drugswith the other in the treatment of cardiac disease the simultaneousadministration of the two continuously in fixed proportions, however, is injudicious, because of the great difference between their rates ofabsorption and in their activity after they enter the blood stream theaction of digitalis, moreover, persists much longer than does that ofstrophanthus an advertising circular contains the following claim. “the well-known diuretic properties of digitalis, strophanthus and squills are greatly enhanced by the addition of the oxysaponin ”this is not true saponins are not synergistic with digitalistherapeutically. On the contrary, they exert a purely deleteriousaction on the heart when they enter the circulation the symptoms of cardiac disease are often difficult to distinguishfrom the toxic actions of the digitalis bodies since these bodiesmust often be given to the point of beginning toxic action in orderto induce the full therapeutic effects, it is obvious that theadministration of a mixture of digitalis, strophanthus, saponin andactive principles of squill is especially liable to induce serioustoxic effects which cannot be distinguished from the symptoms of thedisease hydragogin is a shotgun mixture of semisecret composition. It ismarketed under a therapeutically suggestive name, and advertised bymeans of unwarranted therapeutic claims it is therefore in conflictwith rules 1, 6, 8 and 10 the council held hydragogin ineligible fornew and nonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 4, 1915 filudine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryfiludine is said to be prepared by j l chatelain, paris, and issold in this country by geo j wallau, inc , new york it is offeredas a remedy for “biliary insufficiency, ” “hepatic insufficiency, ”“intestinal dyspepsia, ” “all affections of the liver diabetes, cirrhosis, cancer, etc , ” “malaria, ” “obesity” and “tuberculosis ”no quantitative information is furnished as to the composition of thepreparation and there are noteworthy discrepancies in the variousstatements regarding the ingredients in one number of “treatment, ”a self-styled “review” of medical literature actually devoted toadvertising the preparations sold by wallau, we are told that “this product filudine is a more concentrated and potent extract of the liver, with which is combined an extract of the spleen the liver and the spleen are so intimately interdependent, that the addition of a splenary extract to the liver extract is a signal improvement from which a synergistic action results thiarféine is also added, as it helps essaywhat to combat the anaemia from which all diabetics suffer more or less ”thiarféine is said to be “thiomethylarsinate of caffein, a new salt discovered by m chatelain ”another circular, which gives an imposing formula for “thiarféine” or“thiomethylarsinate of caffein, ” states that “sulphurated methylarsinate is an arsenical preparation devoid of all toxicity on account of the intimate joining of its composing writings ”and that “filudine can never be contraindicated ”a statement of composition in a later number of “treatment, ” however, says that biliary extracts are components, in addition to the liver andspleen extracts moreover, thiarféine, the “new salt discovered by m chatelain, ” is no longer “thiomethylarsinate, ” but “thiocinnamate ofcaffein”. And a new formula is furnished for it we are told that “methyl-arsinate cannot be used in paper where fever is present ” “m chatelain at first studied the action of thiomethylarsinate. Clinical and physiological experimentation led him, however, to adopt thiocinnamate of caffein, of greater activity and with no contraindications ”nevertheless the same absence of contraindications was urged infavor of filudine when it was said to contain the now discardedthiomethylarsinate of caffein the following are essay of the unwarranted and even absurd claims. “filudine restores the liver functions it is to the liver what digitalis is to the heart. It overcomes the insufficiency and stimulates the debilitated organ ” in malaria “it is the only true specific when associated with quinine ” “filudine is the ideal medication for tuberculosis, conforming as it does with the most recent researches in the therapeusis of this affection ” “we will not go as far as to say that opotherapy completely restores unhealthy livers, for although the lesions of the hepatic parenchyma may be obliterated by regeneration, the lesions of the connective tissues are permanent, and may be observed at the postmortem examination the new cells, however, do not present the same unhealthy conditions as those of the former diseased gland which they have replaced, and the liver can therefore function normally, so that the patient lives on. And he is satisfied with that ” “therefore, while regenerating the liver with filudine, we cleanse it and combat its congested state with urodonal we cause it to produce urea from the excess of uric acid which it contains ” “by the judicious and harmonious combination of the beneficial effects of filudine and urodonal, physicians not only possess the means of treating by rational methods cirrhosis of the liver in its various forms which is one of the most terrible diseases which can afflict anyone but what is still better, they can cure it ” “the liver of a person suffering from obesity being incapable of fulfilling its functions in regard to the fatty tissues, the rational and up-to-date method of treatment is therefore to restore to the system, in the form of filudine, the liver extracts which are lacking ”filudine is a mixture of semisecret composition the therapeuticclaims are manifestly unwarranted the name is not indicative of thecomposition, whatever that may be, and no rational excuse is offeredfor the combination of liver and spleen extracts with or without bileextracts with “thiomethylarsinate” or “thiocinnamate” of caffein the council therefore held filudine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 18, 1915 lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrymixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therapeutically irrational;the two substances are not indicated in the same conditions, nor canthey act together under physiologic conditions, such mixtures arechemically impossible.

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It cleanses the womb, expels the after-birth, and doth a woman all the good she can desire ofan herb and if any grumble because they cannot get the herb in winter, tell them, if they please, they may make a syrup of it in summer;it is chiefly used for the disease of the mother, whether it be thestrangling or rising of the mother, or hardness, or inflammation ofthe same, applied outwardly thereunto or a decoction of the flowersin wine, with a little nutmeg or mace put therein, and drank often ina day, is an approved remedy to bring down women courses speedily, and helps to expel the dead birth and after-birth for a woman to sitover the hot fumes of the decoction of the herb made in water or wine, is effectual for the same. And in essay paper to apply the boiled herbwarm to the privy writings the decoction thereof made with essay sugar, orhoney put thereto, is used by thesis with good success to help the coughand stuffing of the chest, by colds, as also to cleanse the reins andbladder, and helps to expel the stone in them the powder of the herbtaken in wine, with essay oxymel, purges both choler and phlegm, andis available for those that are short winded, and are troubled withmelancholy and heaviness, or sadness of spirits it is very effectualfor all pains in the head coming of a cold cause, the herb beingbruised and applied to the crown of the head. As also for the vertigo, that is a running or swimming in the head the decoction thereof drankwarm, and the herb bruised with a few corns of bay salt, and applied tothe wrists before the coming of the ague fits, doth take them away thedistilled water takes away freckles, and other spots and deformitiesin the face the herb bruised and heated on a tile, with essay wine tomoisten it, or fried with a little wine and oil in a frying-pan, andapplied warm outwardly to the places, helps the wind and cholic in thelower writing of the belly it is an especial remedy against opium takentoo liberally fennel every garden affords this so plentifully, that it needs no description government and virtues one good old fashion is not yet left off, viz to boil fennel with fish. For it consumes that phlegmatichumour, which fish most plentifully afford and annoy the body with, though few that use it know wherefore they do it. I suppose the reasonof its benefit this way is because it is an herb of mercury, and undervirgo, and therefore bears antipathy to pisces fennel is good to breakwind, to provoke urine, and ease the pains of the stone, and helps tobreak it the leaves or seed, boiled in barley water and drank are goodfor nurses, to increase their milk, and make it more wholeessay for thechild the leaves, or rather the seeds, boiled in water, stays thehiccough, and takes away the loathings which oftentimes happen to thestomachs of sick and feverish persons and allays the heat thereof theseed boiled in wine and drank, is good for those that are bitten withserpents, or have eaten poisonous herbs, or mushrooms the seed andthe roots much more, help to open obstructions of the liver, spleen, and gall, and thereby help the painful and windy swellings of thespleen, and the yellow jaundice. As also the gout and cramps the seedis of good use in medicines to help shortness of breath and wheezingby stopping of the lungs it helps also to bring down the courses, and to cleanse the writings after delivery the roots are of most use inphysic drinks, and broth that are taken to cleanse the blood, to openobstructions of the liver, to provoke urine, and amend the ill colourin the face after sickness, and to cause a good habit through thebody both leaves, seeds, and roots thereof are much used in drink orbroth, to make people more lean that are too fat the distilled waterof the whole herb, or the condensate juice dissolved, but especiallythe natural juice, that in essay counties issues out hereof of its ownaccord, dropped into the eyes, cleanses them from mists and films thathinder the sight the sweet fennel is much weaker in physical usesthan the common fennel the wild fennel is stronger and hotter thanthe tame, and therefore most powerful against the stone, but not soeffectual to encrease milk, because of its dryness sow-fennel, or hog-fennel besides the common name in english, hog fennel, and the latin namepeucidanum, is called hoar-strange, and hoar-strong, sulphur-wort, andbrimstone-wort descript the common sow-fennel has divers branched stalks of thickand essaywhat long leaves, three for the most writing joined together at aplace, among which arises a crested straight stalk, less than fennel, with essay joints thereon, and leaves growing thereat, and towards thetops essay branches issuing from thence. Likewise on the tops of thestalks and branches stand divers tufts of yellow flowers, whereaftergrows essaywhat flat, thin, and yellowish seed, bigger than fennel seed the roots grow great and deep, with thesis other writings and fibres aboutthem of a strong scent like hot brimstone, and yield forth a yellowishmilk, or clammy juice, almost like a gum place it grows plentifully in the salt low marshes near fevershamin kent time it flowers plentifully in july and august government and virtues this is also an herb of mercury the juiceof sow-fennel saith dioscorides, and galen, used with vinegar androse water, or the juice with a little euphorbium put to the nose, helps those that are troubled with the lethargy, frenzy, giddiness ofthe head, the falling sickness, long and inveterate head-aches, thepalsy, sciatica, and the cramp, and generally all the diseases of thesinews, used with oil and vinegar the juice dissolved in wine, or putinto an egg, is good for a cough, or shortness of breath, and for thosethat are troubled with wind in the body it purges the belly gently, expels the hardness of the spleen, gives ease to women that have soretravail in child-birth, and eases the pains of the reins and bladder, and also the womb a little of the juice dissolved in wine, and droppedinto the ears, eases much of the pains in them, and put into a hollowtooth, eases the pain thereof the root is less effectual to all theaforesaid disorders. Yet the powder of the root cleanses foul ulcers, being put into them, and takes out splinters of broken bones, or otherthings in the flesh, and heals them up perfectly. As also, dries up oldand inveterate running sores, and is of admirable virtue in all greenwounds fig-wort, or throat-wort descript common great fig-wort sends divers great, strong, hard, square brown stalks, three or four feet high, whereon grow large, hard, and dark green leaves, two at a joint, harder and larger than nettleleaves, but not stinking.