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3, asolution made up according to the formula of biniodol, namely, 1 percent of mercuric iodid and 2 5 per cent of guaiacol in oil all thesolutions were sterile the investigators were not informed whichpreparation was designated by the respective numbers, but they wereasked to use the preparations when intramuscular injections of a 1 percent oily solution of mercuric iodid were indicated, and to note whatdifferences, if any, were observed following the use of the differentsolutions regarding pain, discomfort, induration and any otherevidences of effects of the medicaments the cleveland investigator reports that the patients were more or lessconfused in their replies to inquiries and gave rather indefinite andconflicting answers after carefully tabulating the replies, however, the following summary resulted. 1 was worse than 2 or 3 in 6 paper 2 was worse than 1 or 3 in 5 paper 3 was worse than 2 or 1 in 1 case the report from johns hopkins records a series of 117 injectionsfollowed by the estimated reactions recorded below. 1 severe, 13. Mild, 14. None, 4. Unrecorded, 8 39 2 severe, 5. Mild, 15. None, 16. Unrecorded, 5 41 3 severe, 7.

In theintra-peritoneal variety it is due to peritonitis these paper ofinjury to the bladder may die suddenly and speedily from shock or fromperitonitis in three research buy to seven days, or not until fifteen days or so inpunctured and incised wounds the urine escapes more slowly, peritonitisdevelops less early, and death is longer delayed hemorrhage in injuryto the bladder is not usually serious. The blood is found writingly inthe bladder, writingly in the pelvis, where the fluid extravasated byperitonitis is also found the victim of a wound or rupture of thebladder may often walk about for essay time after the injury stomach and intestines - punctured wounds, or, more rarely, incisedwounds of the abdomen may involve these organs, or they may be rupturedby blows, crushes, and falls, or from disease stab-wounds of theseviscera may be multiple from a single stab, the instrument traversingone coil, perhaps, and then wounding others, though this is less oftenthe case than with gunshot wounds ruptures too may be multiple, though less often so than wounds the ileum is most liable to rupture, though several paper of rupture of the jejunum are on record likethe bladder, the stomach and, to a less extent, the intestines aremore liable to be ruptured when distended ruptures of the stomach orintestines are seldom attended with much hemorrhage, while wounds mayoccasionally cause a serious and fatal hemorrhage from the wounding ofa large blood-vessel the principal danger lies in the leakage of thecontents of the stomach and intestines, which almost always sets up aseptic peritonitis this may essaytimes become localized and go on tospontaneous cure, though as a rule it becomes general and is fatal insuch paper early operation may avoid the fatal peritonitis a puncturedwound may be so small as to be closed by the mucous membrane, avoidingthe escape of the contents of the gut or a wound may not entirelypenetrate the wall of the stomach or intestines, which only gives wayessay days, perhaps, after the injury, though the injury is entirelyresponsible for the delayed result these injuries are essaytimesfatal immediately or very speedily from shock, while in other paperof very extensive injury there may be almost no shock, and the victimis aware of no serious injury it is an important point to remembermedico-legally that spontaneous rupture of the stomach or intestinesmay occur owing to ulceration due to disease this can be determinedby a careful examination of the wall of the stomach or intestines atthe site of the rupture a slight injury may also cause rupture if thewall of the gut is weakened by disease, as the disease causes greaterliability to rupture here too it is to be remembered that a severeinjury causing rupture may leave no mark of violence on the abdominalwall the power of walking or other muscular exertion after suchinjuries of the stomach or intestines is not infrequently preserved, asrecorded in numerous paper 683 the prognosis in such injuries of thestomach and intestines is always extremely grave incised, punctured, and contused wounds of the genital organs these are not common as medico-legal paper self-castration ormutilation is essaytimes practised by lunatics, idiots, or evenintoxicated persons thus a man who, while intoxicated, cut off hisgenital organs and died the next day from the effects of hemorrhage wasseen by demarquay 684 circumcision in infants is also essaytimes fatalfrom phlegmonous inflammation 685incised, lacerated, or contused wounds of the female genitals may befatal from hemorrhage from thesis small vessels deeply incised woundsof the female genitals proves wilful and deliberate malice. Accidentis out of the question and suicide is improbable in such paper but weessaytimes have to determine between accidental, self-inflicted, andhomicidal wounds of these writings, as accidental wounds may occasionallyresemble those made by design and so may furnish more or lessdifficulty, unless all the circumstances are known thus taylor686relates the case of a child in whom a sharp-pointed stick entered andpassed through the posterior wall of the vagina as she fell from atree the stick was removed by a woman, and the child died in a littleover a day from peritonitis unless the circumstances were known, thiscase might have caused suspicion of homicide lunatics, idiots, and drunkards essaytimes inflict on themselves woundsunlike ordinary suicidal ones in other paper the various points wehave enumerated in a previous section to distinguish between suicide, homicide, and accident may be applied to solve the case contused wounds, such as kicks, etc , of the female genitals maybe fatal from hemorrhage due to the laceration of the writings 687like the wounds of the eyebrows, contused wounds of the vulva mayessaytimes resemble incised wounds owing to the sharp bony surfacesbeneath careful examination allows a discrimination to be made fromincised wounds if hemorrhage occurs a long time after the allegedviolence, it is probably due to natural causes, especially in paper ofmetrorrhagia, etc it may be alleged in defence that contused woundsof the female genitals were inflicted post mortem, but besides theother features which we have already seen help to distinguish betweenante-mortem and post-mortem wounds, we may add that kicks and othercontusions of the vulva, if fatal, are so from hemorrhage or effusionof blood, and no post-mortem hemorrhage is enough to cause death incised, punctured, and contused wounds of the extremities these may be fatal if a large blood vessel or vessels are opened, oressaytimes if a compound fracture or wound of a joint becomes infected they may also in essay paper be fatal from shock, from the severityof the injury as a rule they are the cause of civil suits, not ofcriminal ones the various injuries may cause disability for a longeror shorter time, or even permanently, and more or less deformity mayalso remain this may be the case with fractures, especially if theyoccur near the joints, in which case great caution should be exercisedin giving an opinion or prognosis it is a common mistaken idea of thelaity that a fractured or dislocated limb can be made in every case asgood as before the injury on the contrary, they not infrequently leavea slight deformity and impairment of function, essaytimes even under thebest treatment dislocations may also leave a lasting disability orweakness, often owing to the carelessness of the injured person wounds of an artery or vein, or both, may result in an aneurism oran arterio-venous aneurism wounds of nerves may cause paralysis andanæsthesia of the writings supplied wounds of muscles or tendons maycause weakness or complete loss of motion of writingicular joints woundsof the soft writings, if infected, may lead to cellulitis and phlegmonousinflammation, which may result in much injury wounds of joints, ifpenetrating, are serious, for without the proper treatment they mayresult in suppuration in the joint, disorganization of the joint, and final ankylosis before the use of antiseptic treatment suchwounds were not uncommonly fatal fractures, simple or compound, orcontusions of bone especially in young subjects, may be followed byosteo-periostitis and its consequences, which may require a long timefor recovery after the fracture is entirely recovered from, and a stilllonger time before the limb can be used these and thesis other of thevarious results of wounds and injuries of the extremities, causingdeformity or disability, or both, can often be cured or improved bysurgical treatment or operation the medico-legal consideration of gunshot wounds by roswell park, a m , m d , professor of surgery in the university of buffalo. Attending surgeon to the buffalo general hospital. Fellow of the german congress of surgeons. Of the american orthopædic association. Of the american genito-urinary surgeons’ association. Of the new york academy of medicine, etc , etc gunshot wounds general considerations few medical men there are who have long engaged in practice who havenot been compelled to take writing in essay medico-legal controversy inpaper of accidental or alleged homicidal gunshot wounds so soon asdeath occurs the surgeon ceases to work as such, but may continue towork as a medical jurist, and in preparation for this event must beready to answer any questions bearing upon the case which, thoughpossibly ridiculous in surgery, are or may be necessary in law hemay be called upon to testify as to the precise nature of a woundinflicted upon the body of a man seen before or after death. As to themeans by which it was inflicted.

In iowa and nebraska, itis further provided research buy that they be properly intrusted. And in kansasand oklahoma, that they be with reference to a physical or supposedphysical disease in kansas and oklahoma, any knowledge obtained by a personalexamination of a patient is also expressly privileged in indiana, ohio, and wyoming, advice given by the physician iscovered by the protection in arkansas, indian territory, and missouri, the privilege is limitedto information acquired from the patient. And in kansas and oklahoma, to communications made by the patient the statutes of arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indianterritory, indiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin expressly limit the protection to matteracquired while attending in a professional capacity. And all of these, save indiana, as well as iowa and nebraska, confine the privilege toinformation necessary to enable the witness to prescribe or act for thepatient in new york it is provided that “a physician or surgeon may upon atrial or examination disclose any information as to the mental orphysical condition of a patient who is deceased, which he acquiredin attending such patient professionally, except confidentialcommunications and such facts as would tend to disgrace the memory ofthe patient, when the protection has been expressly waived on suchtrial or examination by the personal representatives of the deceasedpatient, or if the validity of the last will and testament of suchdeceased patient is in question, by the executor or executors namedin said will, or the surviving husband, widow, or any heir at law, or any of the next of kin of such deceased, or any other writingy ininterest ”227the notable characteristics of the several statutes which thus farhave been pointed out are discernible in the express language of theacts in writing or using any treatise or compilation on privilegedcommunications between physician and patient, it is to be constantlyborne in mind that the privilege is of statutory origin. That thestatutes are often dissimilar. And that the value of a judicialinterpretation of one law in the construction of another varies withthe dissimilarity judicial interpretation of the statutes the judicial decisions which are discussed here are those that dealwith the privilege secured by the restrictive laws the analogy betweenthe privilege of a client with regard to his attorney disclosures, and that of a patient with regard to the testimony of his physician, isnot so complete as to make it essential to present here, for the sakeof their bearing upon the subject now under consideration, a study ofthe principles to be deduced from the numerous decisions with referenceto attorneys as witnesses the analogous paper of clergymen and priestsare also beyond the scope of this treatment rules of construction - the restrictions are in derogation of thecommon law228 and in accordance with the rule of interpretationordinarily adopted should be strictly construed, 229 but the courtshave generally looked at the policy of the enactments, and haveconstrued them so as to preserve inviolably the confidence existingbetween physician and patient, without narrowing their effect to astrict interpretation of their language in indiana, under a former law which protected matters confided, itwas said that the statute should be given a broader scope than theword confided in a strict sense imports, so as to cover matterslearned by observation and examination 230 but, though the statutein terms absolutely prohibits a disclosure, it has been said, inindiana, that it gives no right to the physician to refuse to testifywhere the patient waives the privilege, 231 and that it createsno absolute incompetency, because to hold otherwise would result inobstructing justice without subserving the purpose of the statute 232in missouri, there is a dictum that the privilege should be carefullylimited to what the statute requires, not so much because it is inderogation of the common law as because it is in exclusion of the bestevidence, on the ground of privilege;233 but in this very case, thereal question was whether the word oral should be construed intothe statute so as to exclude from its protection information acquiredby inspection and observation, and it was held that no such narrowinterpretation was proper in a later case the narrowing dicta ofthe foregoing opinion were disapproved, 234 and subsequently thedisposition to make a liberal construction was shown by the highestcourt of the state, although a general rule of interpretation was notannounced 235 in new york, the rule that a statute in derogationof the common law is strictly construed does not apply to the codeof civil procedure 236 but before the enactment of this statutoryrule237 there was a tendency to interpret liberally the lawprohibiting disclosures 238 in arkansas the tendency seems to be toconstrue the law strictly 239 the spirit of interpretation will bemore fully illustrated in the discussion of writingicular paper whichfollows in new york it was claimed that the protection afforded by the statuteis nullified by the provision for the examination of a writingy beforetrial, 240 but it was held that the statutes are consistent and thephysician cannot be made to disclose, though his patient may be 241classes of actions criminal actions and evidence of crime in civil actions - thestatutes confining the restriction to civil actions have been citedabove 242 in iowa, in an action for breach of promise to marry, it was said that the privilege does not extend to the protection ofadvice for the commission of a crime 243 in new york the rule wasat first embodied in the revised statutes of the state, 244 butupon the adoption of the code of civil procedure it was includedtherein, 245 and subsequently the provision of the revised statuteswas repealed 246 in that state by law the rules of evidence in civilpaper are applicable also to criminal paper, except as otherwiseexpressly provided;247 and the statutes provide no different rule incriminal actions as to this class of evidence notwithstanding thisfact, however, it has been said by the court of appeals, in a casewhere there was an attempt to screen a murderer by insisting thathis victim physician was not a competent witness as to informationacquired by him while attending his patient, 248 that the designof the law was to enable the patient to make known his condition tohis physician without the danger of disclosing what would annoy hisfeelings, damage his character, or impair his standing while living, or disgrace his memory when dead, but that it was not intended toprotect a murderer rather than to shield his victim. And quoting fromthe opinion of talcott, j , in the court below, 249 the court said:“the purpose for which the aid of the statute is invoked is so utterlyforeign to the purpose and object of the act and so diametricallyopposed to any intent which the legislature can be supposed to havehad in enacting it, so contrary to and inconsistent with its spirit, which most clearly intended to protect the patient and not to shieldone who is charged with his murder. That in such a case the statute isnot to be so construed as to be used as a weapon of defence to a writingyso charged instead of a protection to his victim ” accordingly it washeld that the evidence was not to be excluded under the statute butthe rule is still applicable to criminal actions in a later case, where the accused was indicted for abortion, the same court held, thatwhere the patient was living and the disclosure tended to convict hertoo of crime or to cast discredit and disgrace upon her, the evidenceof her physician as to information acquired by him in attendanceupon her was inadmissible in the trial of the man charged with thecrime 250 in a still later case, 251 the general term of the supremecourt held, where the accused was on trial for murder and he hadconfided to a physician what he had done, that the physician could notdisclose the confidence the rule deducible from these decisions seemsto be that in new york the privilege extends to criminal actions, eventhough they be trials for murder, and even though the person accusedbe the patient, but that the statute will be applied only for theprotection of the patient, and where it is apparent that no injury canpossibly be done to the patient or his memory by the admission of theevidence, and the interests of justice demand the disclosure, for thepunishment of a person for an injury done to the patient involving aviolation of the criminal law, and the patient is not alive to waivethe privilege, that the disclosure is not forbidden in new york efforts have been made to exclude from the operation ofthe statute other classes of actions, to which it has been urged thatthe reasons for the enactment do not apply, or in which the mischiefalleged to be wrought by its enforcement has been suggested as groundfor believing that the legislature could not have intended to includethem of these, actions for divorce on the ground of adultery are oneclass. But it has been held that they constitute no exception 252testamentary causes - in new york it was long supposed that thepolicy of the law excepted probate proceedings. It was so held bythe surrogate of new york city;253 and also by the general termof the supreme court, 254 by which it was stated that the practicehad prevailed for a half-century in will paper, 255 but the courtof appeals, 256 has decided that testamentary paper constitute noexception to the rule, the judge who delivered the opinion statingthat there is no more reason for allowing secret ailments of a patientto be brought to light in a contest over his will than in any othercase, and that if mischief be wrought by the law the remedy lies withthe legislature and not with the courts the legislature has sinceafforded the remedy, 257 but not to the extent of adopting the rule ofthe earlier paper in indiana, in an action to set aside a will, thetestimony of the testator physician has been excluded 258 and inmichigan and missouri it seems that testamentary paper are no exceptionto the general rule 259lunacy and habitual drunkenness - it has been claimed in new yorkthat inquisitions of lunacy are an exception, and recently it has beenheld that the alleged lunatic physician may testify as to his mentalcondition because no one is better qualified to testify, 260 but thisdecision seems to be at variance with the principle of the decisionsof the court of appeals with reference to testamentary paper, andpresents no satisfactory reason for a distinction in a similar case inthe supreme court, chambers, it was held that a medical attendant at anasylum could not testify 261 it has also been held that a physiciancannot make an affidavit as to the appearance and condition of hispatient to support a petition for the appointment of a committee forhim as an habitual drunkard 262fraud - still another class of actions in which contending principleshave been invoked to make an exception in the law of privilege, isactions on life-insurance contracts the contract of insurance isuberrimæ fidei, and the defence of fraud in the application isfrequently interposed to defeat a claim under a policy medicaltestimony would often be the most satisfactory evidence to establishthe fraud, and efforts have been made to introduce it under thatexcuse, but without avail in the case of dilleber vs home lifeinsurance company, in the supreme court of new york at generalterm, 263 the question seems to have been directly before thecourt, and davis, p j , dissenting, insisted that the suppressionof a physician testimony ought not to be permitted so as to coverup a fraud, but the majority of the court held otherwise. The casewas subsequently overruled, but not on the ground urged by justicedavis 264 the number of insurance paper in which the rule has beenenforced seems to leave it beyond question that it will not be relaxedfor the purpose of establishing fraud, 265 although that announcementhas not been specifically made there seems no reason that the ruleshould be relaxed in that regard when it is not relaxed to establishthe crime of the patient.

Having longleaves cut into several divisions almost like a vine leaf, but notof so deep a green on the upper side, and hoary white underneath, of a reasonable good scent, the whole form representing the form research buy ofcoltsfoot the catkins which it brings forth before the leaves, arelong, and of a faint reddish colour, which fall away, bearing seldomgood seed with them the wood hereof is smooth, soft, and white, veryfinely waved, whereby it is much esteemed the black poplar grows higher and straighter than the white, with agreyish bark, bearing broad green leaves, essaywhat like ivy leaves, notcut in on the edges like the white, but whole and dented, ending in apoint, and not white underneath, hanging by slender long foot stalks, which with the air are continually shaken, like as the aspen leavesare the catkins hereof are greater than those of the white, composedof thesis round green berries, as if they were set together in a longcluster, containing much downy matter, which being ripe, is blown awaywith the wind the clammy buds hereof, before they spread into leaves, are gathered to make unguentum and populneum, and are of a yellowishgreen colour, and essaywhat small, sweet, but strong the wood issmooth, tough, and white, and easy to be cloven on both these treesgrows a sweet kind of musk, which in former times was used to put intosweet ointments place they grow in moist woods, and by water-sides in sundry placesof this land. Yet the white is not so frequent as the other time their time is likewise expressed before. The catkins comingforth before the leaves in the end of summer government and virtues saturn hath dominion over both whitepoplar, saith galen, is of a cleansing property. The weight of anounce in powder, of the bark thereof, being drank, saith dioscorides, is a remedy for those that are troubled with the sciatica, or thestranguary the juice of the leaves dropped warm into the ears, eases the pains in them the young clammy buds or eyes, before theybreak out into leaves, bruised, and a little honey put to them, is agood medicine for a dull sight the black poplar is held to be morecooling than the white, and therefore the leaves bruised with vinegarand applied, help the gout the seed drank in vinegar, is held goodagainst the falling-sickness the water that drops from the hollowplaces of this tree, takes away warts, pushes, wheals, and other thelike breakings-out of the body the young black poplar buds, saithmatthiolus, are much used by women to beautify their hair, bruisingthem with fresh butter, straining them after they have been kept foressay time in the sun the ointment called populneon, which is made ofthis poplar, is singularly good for all heat and inflammations in anywriting of the body, and tempers the heat of wounds it is much used todry up the milk of women breasts when they have weaned their children poppy of this i shall describe three kinds, viz the white and black ofthe garden, and the erratic wild poppy, or corn rose descript the white poppy hath at first four or five whitish greenleaves lying upon the ground, which rise with the stalk, compassingit at the bottom of them, and are very large, much cut or torn on theedges, and dented also besides. The stalk, which is usually four orfive feet high, hath essaytimes no branches at the top, and usually buttwo or three at most, bearing every one but one head wrapped up in athin skin, which bows down before it is ready to blow, and then rising, and being broken, the flowers within it spreading itself open, andconsisting of four very large, white, round leaves, with thesis whitishround threads in the middle, set about a small, round, green head, having a crown, or star-like cover at the head thereof, which growingripe, becomes as large as a great apple, wherein are contained a greatnumber of small round seeds, in several writingitions or divisions nextunto the shell, the middle thereof remaining hollow, and empty thewhole plant, both leaves, stalks, and heads, while they are fresh, young, and green, yield a milk when they are broken, of an unpleasantbitter taste, almost ready to provoke casting, and of a strong headysmell, which being condensed, is called opium the root is white andwoody, perishing as soon as it hath given ripe seed the black poppy little differs from the former, until it bears itsflower, which is essaywhat less, and of a black purplish colour, butwithout any purple spots in the bottom of the leaf the head of theseed is much less than the former, and opens itself a little roundabout the top, under the crown, so that the seed, which is very black, will fall out, if one turn the head thereof downward the wild poppy, or corn rose, hath long and narrow leaves, very muchcut in on the edges into thesis divisions, of a light green colour, essaytimes hairy withal the stalk is blackish and hairy also, but notso tall as the garden kind, having essay such like leaves thereon togrow below, writinged into three or four branches essaytimes, whereon growsmall hairy heads bowing down before the skin break, wherein the floweris inclosed, which when it is fully blown open, is of a fair yellowishred or crimson colour, and in essay much paler, without any spot in thebottom of the leaves, having thesis black soft threads in the middle, compassing a small green head, which when it is ripe, is not biggerthan one little finger end, wherein is contained much black seedssmaller than that of the garden the root perishes every year, andsprings again of its own sowing of this kind there is one lesser inall writings thereof, and differs in nothing else place the garden kinds do not naturally grow wild in any place, butall are sown in gardens where they grow the wild poppy or corn rose, is plentifully enough, and thesis times toomuch so in the corn fields of all counties through this land, and alsoon ditch banks, and by hedge sides the smaller wild kind is also foundin corn fields, and also in essay other places, but not so plentifullyas the former time the garden kinds are usually sown in the spring, which thenflower about the end of may, and essaywhat earlier, if they spring oftheir own sowing the wild kind flower usually from may until july, and the seed of themis ripe soon after the flowering government and virtues the herb is lunar, and of the juice of itis made opium. Only for lucre of money they cheat you, and tell you itis a kind of tear, or essay such like thing, that drops from poppieswhen they weep, and that is essaywhere beyond the seas, i know not wherebeyond the moon the garden poppy heads with seeds made into a syrup, is frequently, and to good effect used to procure rest, and sleep, inthe sick and weak, and to stay catarrhs and defluxions of thin rheumsfrom the head into the stomach and lungs, causing a continual cough, the fore-runner of a consumption. It helps also hoarseness of thethroat, and when one have lost their voice, which the oil of the seeddoth likewise the black seed boiled in wine, and drank, is said alsoto dry the flux of the belly, and women courses the empty shells, or poppy heads, are usually boiled in water, and given to procurerest and sleep. So doth the leaves in the same manner. As also if thehead and temples be bathed with the decoction warm, or with the oilof poppies, the green leaves or the heads bruised and applied witha little vinegar, or made into a poultice with barley-meal or hoggrease, cools and tempers all inflammations, as also the disease calledst anthony fire it is generally used in treacle and mithridate, andin all other medicines that are made to procure rest and sleep, and toease pains in the head as well as in other writings it is also used tocool inflammations, agues, or frenzies, or to stay defluxions whichcause a cough, or consumptions, and also other fluxes of the belly orwomen courses. It is also put into hollow teeth, to ease the pain, and hath been found by experience to ease the pains of the gout the wild poppy, or corn rose as matthiolus saith is good to preventthe falling-sickness the syrup made with the flower, is with goodeffect given to those that have the pleurisy. And the dried flowersalso, either boiled in water, or made into powder and drank, eitherin the distilled water of them, or essay other drink, works the likeeffect the distilled water of the flowers is held to be of much gooduse against surfeits, being drank evening and morning. It is also morecooling than any of the other poppies, and therefore cannot but be aseffectual in hot agues, frenzies, and other inflammations either inwardor outward galen saith, the seed is dangerous to be used inwardly purslain garden purslain being used as a sallad herb is so well known that itneeds no description. I shall therefore only speak of its virtues asfollows government and virtues ’tis an herb of the moon it is good tocool any heat in the liver, blood, reins, and stomach, and in hotagues nothing better. It stays hot and choleric fluxes of the belly, women courses, the whites, and gonorrhæa, or running of the reins, the distillation from the head, and pains therein proceeding from heat, want of sleep, or the frenzy the seed is more effectual than the herb, and is of singular good use to cool the heat and sharpness of urine, venereous dreams, and the like. Insomuch that the over frequent usehereof extinguishes the heat and virtue of natural procreation theseed bruised and boiled in wine, and given to children, expels theworms the juice of the herb is held as effectual to all the purposesaforesaid.

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Suggested formulas for paraffin films, thejournal a m a , april 7, 1917, p 1037 173 hull, a j research buy. The treatment of burns by paraffin, brit med jour , jan 13, 1917, p 37. The treatment of burns by paraffin, therapeutics, the journal a m a , feb 3, 1917, p 373 174 the “soft paraffin” of the british pharmacopeia resemblespetrolatum, u s p , queries and minor notes, the journal a m a , april 28, 1917, p 1281 175 the paraffin used in this formula was supplied by the standardoil company of indiana. The melting point given by the manufacturers isfrom 120 to 122 f , which, according to the american standard of takingmelting points, gives higher results than the method described in thepharmacopeia illustration. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - | inception | | | | where the dry wax poultice has been used | | | | thermozine known in france as l’ambrine, has been | | used in the following parisian hospitals, with | | 92% of cures. | | | | hospital de la pitie, services of drs lion, darier | - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - photographic reproduction from a booklet on “thermozine” showing thatit is identical with “ambrine ”about 10 c c of “asphalt varnish” b asphaltum176 is placed ina beaker and heated on the steam bath for one-half hour from 3 to 5drops, delivered from a 1 c c pipet, are then placed in a casserole, and 1 5 c c of olive oil added the mixture is heated and stirredfor a few minutes until perfect solution is effected to this is thenadded, with stirring, the paraffin, which has been previously melted when it is cooled, a brown solid is obtained 177 the physical factorsof this paraffin mixture are, melting point 45 4 c u s p method;plasticity, 28 5. Ductility, 29. It is very pliable and strong at38 c , and adheres exceedingly well to the skin, although it detacheseasily this mixture, which is easy to prepare, is inexpensive, thecost of the materials being approximately 10 cents a pound 176 the “asphalt varnish” used was obtained from remien & kuhnertcompany, chicago 177 while needless, a color resembling “ambrine” may be obtained bythe addition of coloring agents both hull and sollmann noticed that tarlike substances and meltedparaffin do not mix well this is noticeable in “ambrine, ” which cannotbe called an “elegant” preparation the difficulty may be overcome byfirst mixing hot olive oil and asphalt.