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Research Argument Essay


But afterwards it spreads itself, and becomes smooth, verylarge and almost round, every one standing on a brownish stalk of thethickness of a man thumb, when they are grown to their fulness, andmost of them two feet and more in length, especially when they grow inany moist or good ground. And the stalk of the leaf, from the bottomthereof to the leaf itself, being also two feet, the breadth thereoffrom edge to edge, in the broadest place, being also two feet, of asad or dark green colour, of a fine tart or sourish taste, much morepleasant than the garden or wood sorrel from among these rise up essay, but not every year, strong thick stalks, not growing so high as thepatience, or garden dock, with such round leaves as grow below, butsmall at every joint up to the top, and among the flowers, which arewhite, spreading forth into thesis branches, consisting of five or sixsmall leaves a-piece, hardly to be discerned from the white threads inthe middle, and seeming to be all threads, after which come brownishthree square seeds, like unto other docks, but larger, whereby itmay be plainly known to be a dock the root grows in time to be verygreat, with divers and sundry great spreading branches from it, of adark brownish or reddish colour on the outside, having a pale yellowskin under it, which covers the inner substance or root, which rindand skin being pared away, the root appears of so fresh and lively acolour, with fresh coloured veins running through it, that the choicestof that rhubarb that is brought us from beyond the seas cannot excelit, which root, if it be dried carefully, and as it ought which mustbe in our country by the gentle heat of a fire, in regard the sun isnot hot enough here to do it, and every piece kept from touching oneanother will hold its colour almost as well as when it is fresh, andhas been approved of, and commended by those who have oftentimes usedthem place it grows in gardens, and flowers about the beginning andmiddle of june, and the seed is ripe in july time the roots that are to be dried and kept all the yearfollowing, are not to be taken up before the stalk and leaves bequite turned red and gone, and that is not until the middle or end ofoctober, and if they be taken a little before the leaves do spring, orwhen they are sprung up, the roots will not have half so good a colourin them i have given the precedence unto this, because in virtues also ithath the pre-eminence i come now to describe unto you that which iscalled patience, or monk rhubarb. And the next unto that, the greatround-leaved dock, or bastard rhubarb, for the one of these may happilysupply in the absence of the other, being not much unlike in theirvirtues, only one more powerful and efficacious than the other andlastly, shall shew you the virtues of all the three sorts garden-patience, or monk rhubarb descript this is a dock bearing the name of rhubarb for essaypurging quality therein, and grows up with large tall stalks, setwith essaywhat broad and long, fair, green leaves, not dented at all the tops of the stalks being divided into thesis small branches, bearreddish or purplish flowers, and three-square seed, like unto otherdocks the root is long, great and yellow, like unto the wild docks, but a little redder. And if it be a little dried, shews less store ofdiscoloured veins than the other does when it is dry great round-leaved dock, or bastard rhubarb descript this has divers large, round, thin, yellowish green leavesrising from the root, a little waved about the edges, every onestanding upon a reasonably thick and long brownish footstalk, fromamong which rises up a pretty big stalk, about two feet high, withessay such high leaves growing thereon, but smaller. At the top whereofstand in a long spike thesis small brownish flowers, which turn into ahard three square shining brown seed, like the garden patience beforedescribed the root grows greater than that, with thesis branches orgreat fibres thereat, yellow on the outside, and essaywhat pale. Yellowwithin, with essay discoloured veins like to the rhubarb which is firstdescribed, but much less than it, especially when it is dry place and time these also grow in gardens, and flower and seed ator near the same time that our true rhubarb doth, viz they flower injune, and the seed is ripe in july government and virtues mars claims predominancy over all thesewholeessay herbs.

Whether the purport was suicidal research argument essay orhomicidal. How much blood was lost. Whether the weapon was near to orat a distance from the body when fired. Whether it were possible thatthe deceased could have fired it himself. Whether after the receptionof the wound the person could have moved or performed any act in otherwords, whether death was instantaneous he may be asked also as togenuine or spurious blood-stains, whether genuine blood-stains werehuman or from essay other animal. Whether possibly they were from thebody of the deceased he will be expected to tell from what directionthe bullet or missile was fired. Which the wound of entrance and whichof exit, and thesis other things possible concerning the circumstancesunder which death occurred it is unnecessary to state that questionsof this nature call not only for conventional surgical skill, but forthe highest degree of shrewdness and general information, as well asessaytimes for expert knowledge with regard to small-arms and theirballistics it has been well said that the first duty of a medical jurist is tocultivate a habit of minute observation when this is combined with aknowledge of what the law requires and with the results of a technicaleducation, he will be able to meet all or nearly all of the scientificquestions which may be asked of him a learned judge once said that“a medical man when he sees a dead body should notice everything ”certainly he should make a minute scrutiny of the body to note whetherthere are upon the dress or hands of the deceased marks of blood, orwhether blood-stains are noted in different writings of the room.

They eitherattempted, as do our modern quacks, to create the impression, byadministering medicine, that they were actually able to direct thetreatment of the ailing in a rational manner, or they restrictedthemselves to various kinds of magical observances the drug therapy of the magicians actually utilized everything underthe sun as a remedy the more out of the way and the less suitablefor a remedy a substance seemed to be, the more likely it was to bechosen by the magician intent upon healing for it was always themain object of these practising quacks to make their treatment assensational as possible in this they succeeded best by employingthe most extraordinary substances as remedies thus they made use ofgold, silver, precious stones and pearls, just because these, owing totheir value, were held in great esteem, and their medical application, therefore, was bound to create a sensation but the most loathessaysubstances were quite as readily employed, for here, too, the mostgeneral attention was bound to be attracted by their application human feces, urine, and menstrual blood were introduced into themateria medica in such a manner the awe with which writings of corpsesusually inspired the non-medical writing of the public was relied upon bythe magicians to advertise their cures thus these quacks administeredpowders of human bones to the ailing but inasmuch as what is conspicuous and unusual has always enjoyedan especial esteem with humanity, the incredible remedies of themagicians naturally found everywhere an abundance of believers. Andas writingicularly the most nonsensical theory is most tenacious oflife, provided it has been presented in apparent combination with themiraculous, the medical armamentarium rapidly took on a very peculiaraspect until the present more modern times medicine was condemnedto the encumbrance of this rubbish, this list of odd and loathessayremedies, whose admission to the pharmacopœia was only due to the whimof a human mind that constantly hankers after the extraordinary and themiraculous finally the magic observances to which the magicians resorted in thetreatment of the sick, have shown a remarkable vitality, for theyare in vogue even in modern times, and thesis sections of our peopleeven to-day swear unconditionally by the curative efficacy of variousagencies which demonstratively have been derived from the medicine ofthe magicians but now such agencies are no longer ascribed to magic orsorcery, but they are called “cures by means of sympathy ” and as thesismodern people believe that various incomprehensible mystic performancescause certain mysterious powers, otherwise absolutely unknown, toexert a curative influence upon certain diseases, so did the ancientsbelieve exactly the same this was the origin of exorcism as a remedyfor disease exorcism played a conspicuous writing in the middle ages asa means of stopping hemorrhages, and even in these modern times, as iswell-known, this method of cure finds thesis adherents this magic treatment was believed to be especially efficacious if theexorcisms had been written or engraved upon paper, gold, preciousstones, etc , in which case they were suspended around the neck ofthe patient countless talismans from the arabic tilsam, magicimage and amulets from the arabic hamalet, trinket were thusmanufactured, and even to our own time there are survivals of thismedical superstition altho these mystic observances are performed invarious ways, and their modifications are practically innumerable, yetcertain radical resemblances are continually appearing among the magicrites of the most diverse races, and essay of these practises have evenpersisted up to the present time thus the rope of the hung criminalplays a conspicuous writing in antique magic as well as in modern sympathytreatment. The same importance is attributed to shooting-stars, tothe moon, to crossroads, to certain numerals, such as 3, 7, 9, etc it is a highly interesting fact that such conceptions, as remarkablefor their therapeutical associations as for their crass superstition, are possessed of a vitality which persists for centuries peoples, religions, philosophical systems, political revolutions have risenand vanished, but the belief in the curative action of the rope of ahung criminal or the therapeutic significance of the crossroad hassurvived the mystic influence which is exerted by the numerals 3, 7, 9, and still more so by the dreadful 13, upon the life and health ofman, haunts the minds of the multitude in this century of physicalenlightenment exactly as it did in remote antiquity but we can nothere enter into the reason for these interesting facts, and we mustrefer those who desire more detailed information on this subject to thevoluminous literature of superstition furthermore, the belief in magic cures was not more prevalent amongthe ancient professors of medicine than among the laity, and even themost prominent practitioners were not able to emancipate themselvesfrom this belief galen, for instance, who, as is well-known, masteredthe entire literature of antique medicine as none before or after himhas ever done, openly avows his belief in the efficacy of magic cures, and, what is more remarkable, galen in this respect has changed from asaul to a paul he ruefully recalled, later, the condemnatory decreewhich he had originally promulgated regarding the magic treatment ofthe sick let us call to mind how he expresses himself in his essayon medical treatment in homer. “thesis, as i have done for a long time, believe that conjurations resemble the fairy tales of old women butgradually, and from the observation of obvious facts, i have come tothe conclusion that power is exercised by them. For i have learnedto know their advantages in stings of scorpions, and also in boneswhich became lodged in the throat, and which were at once coughedup as a result of conjuration thesis remedies are excellent in everyrespect, and magic formulæ answer their purpose” “alexander oftralles, ” book 11, chapter i , vol ii , page 477 one of the mostprominent post-galenian physicians also, alexander of tralles, openlyavows, with reference to this utterance of galen, that he himself isa believer in magic cures, and he says. “if the great galen, as wellas thesis other physicians of ancient times, bear witness to this fact the efficacy of magic treatment of the sick, why shall we not imwritingto you what we have learned from our own experience and what we haveheard from trustworthy friends?.

Of the five ingredients of hydras aside from alcohol andaromatics, one hydrastis, which apparently research argument essay gives the preparation itsname, is present in unimportant amounts. Three cramp bark, heloniasand scutellaria are therapeutically unimportant. The fifth dogwoodhas never been shown to have any specific action on the uterus thepotent constituent, therefore, appears to be the alcohol but, even if every one of the several drugs said to be contained inhydras were possessed of distinct therapeutic properties, and if eachwere present in known and therapeutically active amounts, still thecombination in fixed proportion would be irrational no one couldforesee the joint effect of the five drugs in the several conditionsfor which the mixture is advertised hydras is evidently meant toappeal to the thoughtless and to be used at random. Witness thesuggestion made in the advertising that “owing to its palatability, it is acceptable to patients with impaired digestion, and will serve as a stomachic tonic, promoting appetite and digestion ”a useless alcoholic nostrum “administered freely” to women and girlsis as dangerous as the recommendation for such administration isreprehensible this preparation is semisecret the recommendations for its use inspecified diseases which appear on the label and in the advertisingaccompanying the bottle are sure to lead to its ill-advised use by thepublic the claims made for its curative properties are exaggeratedand unwarranted the name, in view of the small content of hydrastis, is misleading finally, the combination of five drugs, even ifindividually they were of therapeutic value, is irrational hydras, consequently, is inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies forconflict with rules 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10, and publication of this reportis authorized editorial comment -- products like “hydras” are the bane of scientificmedicine the physician who prescribes them could with just as muchreason prescribe any of the various alcoholic “patent medicines” ofthe “women tonic” type in fact, his patients would be running lessrisk of contracting the alcohol habit if he prescribed the “patentmedicines, ” as these nostrums usually have less alcohol than iscontained in their “ethical” prototypes-- and alcohol is the only reallyimportant drug in practically all of them whatever one may think ofreputable pharmaceutical houses who put out products of the “hydras”type, the fault really lies with the profession which tolerates suchtherapeutic monstrosities -- from the journal a m a , oct 7, 1916 bromin-iodin compound report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry“bromin-iodin compound, ” according to the bromin-iodin chemicalcompany, san diego, calif , has the following “formula”. Iodin gr 1 bromin gr 1/4 phosphorus gr 1/100 thymol gr 2/3 menthol gr 2/3 sterilized oil gr 1the only statement regarding its method of preparation is the line“solution in cod liver oil, norwegian ” according to the promoters, “bromin-iodin” is.

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Necrosis of thelower jaw suggests a worker in phosphorus. Worn and discolored teetha user of tobacco, and aurification of the teeth might suggest theprevious social condition gold crowns and fillings and dentalprosthesis generally are among the most common and, at the same time, among the most useful signs of identification by this means the bonesof persons killed by indians on the western plains have been recognizedyears afterward the traveller powell, massacred in abyssinia, wasrecognized in this way from the presence of artificial teeth and themechanical appliances for fixing them, dentists may recognize theirown work beyond a doubt one of the most common-hackneyed of thesepaper is that of professor webster 578 later paper, in which thiskind of proof established convincing and conclusive identification, are those of dr cronin, assassinated in chicago in 1889, and of thebomb-thrower, norcross every now and then accounts appear in the dailypress of corpses having been recognized by inspection of the teeth in washington, only a short time since, the remains of an unknownman were exhumed from the potter field for judicial reasons theunrecognized body had been found in the potomac in an advanced stageof decomposition from the signs furnished by the teeth the remainswere identified as those of a person who had disappeared mysteriouslyand under circumstances that pointed to his having been murderedat a virginian gambling den, and his body thrown into the river in connection with this subject the goss-udderzook tragedy is ofinstructive interest in every important case a cast of the mouth should be taken, in orderto set at rest any question that may subsequently arise as to thecondition of the jaw, the absence of teeth, their irregularity orother dental peculiarities a cast of the mouth of the deceased in thehillmon case showed all the teeth to be regular and perfect, whileit is alleged that hillmon teeth were just the opposite externalsigns furnished by dentition may assist greatly in fixing both age andidentity the evolution of the human dental system has been so wellstudied from intra-uterine life to old age that we may approximatelytell the age, especially of children, from the teeth alone this sign, so valuable in childhood, loses its value as the dentition progresses elaborate tables and dental formulæ to be found elsewhere deal withthe two periods of dentition, the relative position and number of theteeth, and the like at birth the jaws show points of ossification only. But children areessaytimes born with central incisors, as the writer has, in commonwith others, noted in several instances the first dentition takesplace from the seventh to the thirtieth month. The second betweenfour and five years in rachitic children these periods are later;but a syphilitic taint may hasten their development the twenty-eightteeth characterize early youth wisdom teeth appear between eighteenand twenty-five, essaytimes as late as thirty years the presence ofthirty-two teeth indicates maturity this number is essaytimes exceeded dr tidy, in his work on “legal medicine, ” reports having seen severalchildren between six and seven years with forty-eight teeth instancesare recorded of cutting the teeth at advanced age, seventy and onehundred and eighteen years. Of adults who have never had teeth. Ofsupernumerary teeth, and of a third dentition what purported to be athird dentition came under my notice essay years ago, in the person ofan old negro “voodoo doctor ” a more recent case, said to have occurredin an old man of seventy-four, at seymour, ind , is reported in theweekly medical review, st louis, mo , april 16th, 1892, p 314 the pathological signs furnished by the teeth should, of course, belooked upon as a personal characteristic that may lend additional lightin the question of identity congenital peculiarities, deformities, and injuries but congenital peculiarities or injuries of other writings of the skeletonare studied to greater advantage in determining proof or disproof ofidentity we may recognize cranial asymmetry. The peculiar conformationof the idiot skull. The prognathous skull of the negro. The pyramidalskull of essay of the yellow races, and the oval head of the whiteman. Besides the ethnic artificial deformities already touched uponin considering the question of race a metopic cranium, a cleftpalate, a deformed spine or pelvis, a larger left scapula indicativeof left-handedness.