History

Reflection Essay Format


Accidental, suicidal, homicidal, simulated the question whether a case of strangulation is accidental, suicidal, or homicidal is very difficult to answer accidental strangulation is rare if the body has not been disturbed, there is usually no difficulty in arriving at a conclusion. But ifdisturbed a satisfactory conclusion may not be reached it is worthy of mention that the umbilical cord may be twisted aroundthe neck of a new-born infant and may have caused strangulation. Themark may give the appearance of death by violence suicidal strangulation is rare the experiments of fleischman suprasuggest that one may commit suicide by compressing his throat with hisfingers see case 48 where a ligature of any kind has been used it is important to noticethe number and position of the knots in a general way a single knoteither in front or at the back of the neck might suggest suicide. Morethan one would suggest homicide there are, however, exceptions suicide has been committed by mere pressure of a cord fixed at bothends a short distance from the ground. By twisting a rope several timesaround the neck and then tying it the coils may continue to compresseven after death. By tightening the cord with a stick or other firmsubstance. By tightening the cords or knots by means of the hands orfeet or essay portion of the lower limbs. By the use of a woollen garterpassed twice around the neck and secured in front by two simple knots, strongly tied one to another it is difficult to simulate suicide. Requires great skill andpremeditation on the writing of a murderer “the attitude of the body, the condition of the dress, the means of strangulation, the presenceof marks of violence or of blood on the person of the deceased, on hisclothes or the furniture of the room, or both, rope or ligature, arecircumstances from which, if observed at the time, important medicalinferences may be drawn ” the assassin either does too little or toomuch taylor795 cites a number of paper of simulation strangulation is generally homicidal the marks of fingers or of aligature on the neck suggest homicide this is true even if the markis slight.

A study of sodium cacodylate in the treatment ofsyphilis, reflection essay format j a m a 67. 2012 dec 30 1916 animal experiments carried out in the u s hygienic laboratory byvoegtlin and smith143 show that mon-arsone is devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action thus the “therapeutic ratio” the ratio of theminimal effective dose to the lethal dose was about 1, that is, itwas effective therapeutically only in approximately fatal doses. Thetherapeutic ratio for arsphenamine in similar conditions was 17, andthat of neoarsphenamine, 28 143 voegtlin, carl, and smith, h w. J pharmacol and exper therap 16. 449, 1921 the findings that sodium dimethylarsenate sodium cacodylate, sodiummethylarsenate, and sodium ethylarsenate are devoid of any practicaltrypanocidal action and the conclusion that sodium cacodylate isinefficient in the treatment of human syphilis does not provethat mon-arsone is without effect on the disease these findings, however, certainly demand convincing therapeutic evidence to warrantthe recommendation for the use of the drug in the treatment ofsyphilis-- writingicularly because the drug is proposed as a substitute forarsphenamine, the value of which is established when the council first took up the consideration of mon-arsone, theonly evidence for the claim that it “has a therapeutic value at leastequal to that of arsphenamine” consisted, with one exception, ofreports from those who had experimented with the drug for the harmerlaboratories company, including a report by b l wright, l a kennell, and l m hussey, 144 the latter of the harmer laboratoriescompany these reports appeared to show that the administration ofmon-arsone caused less reaction than arsphenamine, and that theimmediate effects, judged by clinical symptoms and the response to thewassermann test, appeared to be good these trials extended over tooshort a period of time to permit judgment as to the permanence of theresults a report by an independent observer seemed to indicate thatmon-arsone does not have the sterilizing action on syphilitic lesionswhich it is usually believed arsphenamine exercises 144 wright, b l. Kennell, l a , and hussey, l m. M rec 97. 607 april 10 1920 after examining the available evidence, the council advised the harmerlaboratories company that the claim that mon-arsone has a therapeuticvalue equal to arsphenamine appeared unwarranted. That, in the opinionof the council, mon-arsone should not be used except under conditionsthat justify the experimental trial of an unproved drug, and should notbe used in a routine way until the permanence of its effects has beenestablished. And consequently any advertising propaganda for the drugby the harmer laboratories company was to be deprecated in its reply the harmer laboratories company admitted that itsadvertising claim, that mon-arsone was at least equal to arsphenaminetherapeutically, had been based on reports on fifty paper and onadditional reports that were beginning to come in at that time the harmer laboratories company submitted a list of hospitals andphysicians using mon-arsone a letter of inquiry sent by the council tothose who, according to the names in the list supplied by the harmerlaboratories company, had used mon-arsone, brought seven replies the clinical evidence contained in these replies was to the effect thatmon-arsone had been used in the various types of syphilis and thatthere was a certain beneficial effect, both clinically and as shown bythe wassermann reaction in certain instances the wassermann reactionchanged from a four plus to a negative reaction the reports showedthat the efficiency of mon-arsone as compared with that of arsphenaminepreparations has not been adequately studied one physician who hasused mon-arsone extensively reports that in thesis of the paper treatedthere seemed to be nearly as good results from the use of mon-arsone asis frequently obtained in the use of arsphenamine he reports, however, that it was necessary in eleven out of one hundred paper to change frommon-arsone to neoarsphenamine in view of the fact that there is definite lack of evidence to showthat mon-arsone is the equal of arsphenamine therapeutically, andbecause of the reports that in essay paper it is inferior, mon-arsoneshould not be used in the treatment of syphilis generally until itstherapeutic status has been more rigidly investigated and conclusiveevidence of its superiority to arsphenamine preparations obtained the council voted not to admit mon-arsone to new and nonofficialremedies and reaffirmed its conclusion that the claim that mon-arsonehas a therapeutic value equal to that of arsphenamine is premature andunwarranted. That mon-arsone should not be used except under conditionsthat justify the experimental trial of an unproved drug. And that theadvertising propaganda for the drug by the harmer laboratories companyis to be deprecated * * * * *when the preceding report was sent to the harmer laboratories company, the firm submitted a reply in which it was stated:1 that in certain instances patients improved under mon-arsone who, previously, had not improved under arsphenamine, and that this shouldbe taken to offset the report of the one hundred paper in which the useof mon-arsone had to be abandoned in 11 per cent of the paper 2 that the harmer laboratories company has abandoned the claim thatmon-arsone is therapeutically equal to arsphenamine and that it nowfurnishes the drug to such men as care to use it simply on the basis ofits special and useful characteristics the council heartily endorses the recent warning against the useof untried medicaments which was issued by the u s public healthservice 145145 j a m a june 12, 1920, p 1654 since the council report was prepared a report on the effects ofmon-arsone on experimental syphilis has been published by nichols, 146from the division of laboratories, army medical school, which concludes:1 disodium-ethylarsinate, or mon-arsone, tested on rabbits infectedwith syphilis shows no spirocheticidal power the tissues are fatallypoisoned as soon as or before the spirochetes are affected “2 for its practical use in syphilis there is no such germicidal basisas exists in case of the arsphenamine group ”-- from the journala m a , june 18, 1921 146 nichols, h j.

It cleanses the womb, expels the after-birth, and doth a woman all the good she can desire ofan herb and if any grumble because they cannot get the herb in winter, tell them, if they please, they may make a syrup of it in summer;it is chiefly used for the disease of the mother, whether it be thestrangling or rising of the mother, or hardness, or inflammation ofthe same, applied outwardly thereunto or a decoction of the flowersin wine, with a little nutmeg or mace put therein, and drank often ina day, is an approved remedy to bring down women courses speedily, and helps to expel the dead birth and after-birth for a woman to sitover the hot fumes of the decoction of the herb made in water or wine, is effectual for the same. And in essay paper to apply the boiled herbwarm to the privy writings the decoction thereof made with essay sugar, orhoney put thereto, is used by thesis with good success to help the coughand stuffing of the chest, by colds, as also to cleanse the reins andbladder, and helps to expel the stone in them the powder of the herbtaken in wine, with essay oxymel, purges both choler and phlegm, andis available for those that are short winded, and are troubled withmelancholy and heaviness, or sadness of spirits it is very effectualfor all pains in the head coming of a cold cause, the herb beingbruised and applied to the crown of the head. As also for the vertigo, that is a running or swimming in the head the decoction thereof drankwarm, and the herb bruised with a few corns of bay salt, and applied tothe wrists before the coming of the ague fits, doth take them away thedistilled water takes away freckles, and other spots and deformitiesin the face the herb bruised and heated on a tile, with essay wine tomoisten it, or fried with a little wine and oil in a frying-pan, andapplied warm outwardly to the places, helps the wind and cholic in thelower writing of the belly it is an especial remedy against opium takentoo liberally fennel every garden affords this so plentifully, that it needs no description government and virtues one good old fashion is not yet left off, viz to boil fennel with fish. For it consumes that phlegmatichumour, which fish most plentifully afford and annoy the body with, though few that use it know wherefore they do it. I suppose the reasonof its benefit this way is because it is an herb of mercury, and undervirgo, and therefore bears antipathy to pisces fennel is good to breakwind, to provoke urine, and ease the pains of the stone, and helps tobreak it the leaves or seed, boiled in barley water and drank are goodfor nurses, to increase their milk, and make it more wholeessay for thechild the leaves, or rather the seeds, boiled in water, stays thehiccough, and takes away the loathings which oftentimes happen to thestomachs of sick and feverish persons and allays the heat thereof theseed boiled in wine and drank, is good for those that are bitten withserpents, or have eaten poisonous herbs, or mushrooms the seed andthe roots much more, help to open obstructions of the liver, spleen, and gall, and thereby help the painful and windy swellings of thespleen, and the yellow jaundice. As also the gout and cramps the seedis of good use in medicines to help shortness of breath and wheezingby stopping of the lungs it helps also to bring down the courses, and to cleanse the writings after delivery the roots are of most use inphysic drinks, and broth that are taken to cleanse the blood, to openobstructions of the liver, to provoke urine, and amend the ill colourin the face after sickness, and to cause a good habit through thebody both leaves, seeds, and roots thereof are much used in drink orbroth, to make people more lean that are too fat the distilled waterof the whole herb, or the condensate juice dissolved, but especiallythe natural juice, that in essay counties issues out hereof of its ownaccord, dropped into the eyes, cleanses them from mists and films thathinder the sight the sweet fennel is much weaker in physical usesthan the common fennel the wild fennel is stronger and hotter thanthe tame, and therefore most powerful against the stone, but not soeffectual to encrease milk, because of its dryness sow-fennel, or hog-fennel besides the common name in english, hog fennel, and the latin namepeucidanum, is called hoar-strange, and hoar-strong, sulphur-wort, andbrimstone-wort descript the common sow-fennel has divers branched stalks of thickand essaywhat long leaves, three for the most writing joined together at aplace, among which arises a crested straight stalk, less than fennel, with essay joints thereon, and leaves growing thereat, and towards thetops essay branches issuing from thence. Likewise on the tops of thestalks and branches stand divers tufts of yellow flowers, whereaftergrows essaywhat flat, thin, and yellowish seed, bigger than fennel seed the roots grow great and deep, with thesis other writings and fibres aboutthem of a strong scent like hot brimstone, and yield forth a yellowishmilk, or clammy juice, almost like a gum place it grows plentifully in the salt low marshes near fevershamin kent time it flowers plentifully in july and august government and virtues this is also an herb of mercury the juiceof sow-fennel saith dioscorides, and galen, used with vinegar androse water, or the juice with a little euphorbium put to the nose, helps those that are troubled with the lethargy, frenzy, giddiness ofthe head, the falling sickness, long and inveterate head-aches, thepalsy, sciatica, and the cramp, and generally all the diseases of thesinews, used with oil and vinegar the juice dissolved in wine, or putinto an egg, is good for a cough, or shortness of breath, and for thosethat are troubled with wind in the body it purges the belly gently, expels the hardness of the spleen, gives ease to women that have soretravail in child-birth, and eases the pains of the reins and bladder, and also the womb a little of the juice dissolved in wine, and droppedinto the ears, eases much of the pains in them, and put into a hollowtooth, eases the pain thereof the root is less effectual to all theaforesaid disorders. Yet the powder of the root cleanses foul ulcers, being put into them, and takes out splinters of broken bones, or otherthings in the flesh, and heals them up perfectly. As also, dries up oldand inveterate running sores, and is of admirable virtue in all greenwounds fig-wort, or throat-wort descript common great fig-wort sends divers great, strong, hard, square brown stalks, three or four feet high, whereon grow large, hard, and dark green leaves, two at a joint, harder and larger than nettleleaves, but not stinking. At the tops of the stalks stand thesis purpleflowers set in husks, which are essaytimes gaping and open, essaywhatlike those of water betony.

With semicircular blackish marks on them, usuallyeither blueish or whitish, with such like seed following the root islong, with thesis strings thereat, perishing reflection essay format yearly. This has no sharptaste as another sort has, which is quick and biting but rather sourlike sorrel, or else a little drying, or without taste place it grows in watery places, ditches, and the like, which forthe most writing are dry in summer time it flowers in june, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues as the virtue of both these is various, sois also their government. For that which is hot and biting, is underthe dominion of mars, but saturn, challenges the other, as appears bythat leaden coloured spot he hath placed upon the leaf it is of a cooling and drying quality, and very effectual for putrifiedulcers in man or beast, to kill worms, and cleanse the putrifiedplaces the juice thereof dropped in, or otherwise applied, consumesall colds, swellings, and dissolveth the congealed blood of bruises bystrokes, falls, &c a piece of the root, or essay of the seeds bruised, and held to an aching tooth, takes away the pain the leaves bruisedand laid to the joint that has a felon thereon, takes it away thejuice destroys worms in the ears, being dropped into them. If the hotarssmart be strewed in a chamber, it will soon kill all the fleas;and the herb or juice of the cold arssmart, put to a horse or othercattle sores, will drive away the fly in the hottest time of summer;a good handful of the hot biting arssmart put under a horse saddle, will make him travel the better, although he were half tired before the mild arssmart is good against all imposthumes and inflammations atthe beginning, and to heal green wounds all authors chop the virtues of both sorts of arssmart together, as menchop herbs for the pot, when both of them are of contrary qualities the hot arssmart grows not so high or tall as the mild doth, buthas thesis leaves of the colour of peach leaves, very seldom or neverspotted. In other writingiculars it is like the former, but may easily beknown from it, if you will but be pleased to break a leaf of it crossyour tongue, for the hot will make your tongue to smart, but the coldwill not if you see them both together, you may easily distinguishthem, because the mild hath far broader leaves asarabacca descript asarabacca appears like an evergreen, keeping its leavesall the winter, but putting forth new ones in the time of spring ithas thesis heads rising from the roots, from whence come thesis smoothleaves, every one upon his foot stalks, which are rounder and biggerthan violet leaves, thicker also, and of a dark green shining colouron the upper side, and of a pale yellow green underneath, little ornothing dented about the edges, from among which rise small, round, hollow, brown green husks, upon short stalks, about an inch long, divided at the brims into five divisions, very like the cups or headsof the henbane seed, but that they are smaller. And these be all theflower it carries, which are essaywhat sweet, being smelled to, andwherein, when they are ripe, is contained small cornered rough seeds, very like the kernels or stones of grapes or raisins the roots aresmall and whitish, spreading divers ways in the ground, increasing intodivers heads. But not running or creeping under the ground, as essayother creeping herbs do they are essaywhat sweet in smell, resemblingnardus, but more when they are dry than green. And of a sharp and notunpleasant taste place it grows frequently in gardens time they keep their leaves green all winter. But shoot forth newin the spring, and with them come forth those heads or flowers whichgive ripe seed about midsummer, or essaywhat after government and virtues it is a plant under the dominion of mars, and therefore inimical to nature this herb being drank, not onlyprovokes vomiting, but purges downwards, and by urine also, purgesboth choler and phlegm. If you add to it essay spikenard, with thewhey of goat milk, or honeyed water, it is made more strong, butit purges phlegm more manifestly than choler, and therefore doesmuch help pains in the hips, and other writings. Being boiled in whey, it wonderfully helps the obstructions of the liver and spleen, andtherefore profitable for the dropsy and jaundice. Being steeped inwine and drank, it helps those continual agues that come by the plentyof stubborn humours. An oil made thereof by setting in the sun, withessay laudanum added to it, provokes sweating the ridge of the backbeing anointed therewith, and thereby drives away the shaking fits ofthe ague it will not abide any long boiling, for it loseth its chiefstrength thereby. Nor much beating, for the finer powder provokesvomits and urine, and the coarser purgeth downwards the common use hereof is, to take the juice of five or seven leaves ina little drink to cause vomiting. The roots have also the same virtue, though they do not operate so forcibly.

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In helping the gout, piles, andwomen diseases, colours the hair black, helps the inflammationsof the eyes, and pains in the ears, the biting of serpents, or maddogs, burnings and scaldings, the wind cholic, cholic, and stone, thedifficulty of urine, the cure of old sores and fistulous ulcers eitherleaves or bark of elder, stripped upwards as you gather it, causesvomiting also, dr butler, in a manuscript of his, commends dwarfelder to the sky of dropsies, viz to drink it, being boiled in whitewine. To drink the decoction i mean, not the elder the elm tree this tree is so well known, growing generally in all counties of thisland, that it is needless to describe it government and virtues it is a cold and saturnine plant the leavesthereof bruised and applied, heal green wounds, being bound thereonwith its own bark the leaves or the bark used with vinegar, curesscurf and leprosy very effectually. The decoction of the leaves, bark, or root, being bathed, heals broken bones the water that is foundin the bladders on the leaves, while it is fresh, is very effectualto cleanse the skin, and make it fair. And if cloaths be often wettherein, and applied to the ruptures of children, it heals them, ifthey be well bound up with a truss the said water put into a glass, and set into the ground, or else in dung for twenty-five days, themouth thereof being close stopped, and the bottom set upon a layer ofordinary salt, that the fœces may settle and water become clear, isa singular and sovereign balm for green wounds, being used with softtents. The decoction of the bark of the root, fomented, mollifies hardtumours, and the shrinking of the sinews the roots of the elm, boiledfor a long time in water, and the fat arising on the top thereof, beingclean skimmed off, and the place anointed therewith that is grownbald, and the hair fallen away, will quickly restore them again thesaid bark ground with brine or pickle, until it come to the form of apoultice, and laid on the place pained with the gout, gives great ease the decoction of the bark in water, is excellent to bathe such placesas have been burnt with fire endive descript common garden endive bears a longer and larger leaf thansuccory, and abides but one year, quickly running up to a stalk andseed, and then perishes. It has blue flowers, and the seed of theordinary endive is so like succory seed, that it is hard to distinguishthem government and virtues it is a fine cooling, cleansing, jovialplant the decoction of the leaves, or the juice, or the distilledwater of endive, serve well to cool the excessive heat of the liverand stomach, and in the hot fits of agues, and all other inflammationsin any writing of the body. It cools the heat and sharpness of theurine, and excoriation in the urinary writings the seeds are of thesame property, or rather more powerful, and besides are available forfainting, swoonings, and passions of the heart outwardly applied, theyserve to temper the sharp humours of fretting ulcers, hot tumours, swellings, and pestilential sores. And wonderfully help not only theredness and inflammations of the eyes, but the dimness of the sightalso.