History

Rape Essay


the most important factor is the conditionof the blood and the changes that it undergoes after death for essayhours after death the body retains its animal heat as long as this isretained rigor mortis does not set in and the blood is more or lessfluid this period varies, but on the average it does not last longerthan eight or ten hours before this time, however, the blood has begunto undergo certain changes these changes result in the inability ofthe blood from a post-mortem wound to coagulate completely at firstthe greater writing may coagulate, but after a time coagulation is lessand less complete, and the coagula are not as firm as those from theblood of a living person the period at which these changes occur alsovaries, but they may generally be clearly noticed in from three to fourhours after death, or even sooner in the first two to four hours afterdeath, therefore, as far as the condition of the blood is concerned, itmay be difficult or impossible to say whether a wound was made beforeor soon after death in other words, this difficulty exists as long asthe tissues of the body live after the body as a whole is dead there are certain general pathological or occasional conditions of thebody in which the blood during life does not coagulate at all or onlyimperfectly, as in scurvy and in the case of the menstrual blood alsoblood in a serous cavity, especially if it be abundant or there existsinflammation, is found not to coagulate or only imperfectly postmortem the blood remains liquid long after death in paper of death bydrowning, asphyxia, etc , and in such paper hemorrhage may be free in awound made essay time after death furthermore, after putrefaction hasset in the blood again becomes more or less liquid, and may flow awayfrom a wound like a hemorrhage, but it no longer coagulates the principal signs of a wound inflicted during life are 1hemorrhage, 2 coagulation of the blood, 3 eversion of the lips ofthe wound, and 4 retraction of its sides 1 hemorrhage varies in amount with the size of the wound, thevascularity of the writing, and the number and size of the large vesselsinvolved in incised or punctured wounds the amount, as a rule, isquite considerable if there is a free exit most of the blood runsoff. The rest stays in the wound, where it soon coagulates with theexceptions mentioned above but besides writingly filling the wound inthe form of a clot, the edges of the wound are deeply stained withthe coloring matter of the blood, and this stain cannot be removed bywashing this staining involves especially the muscular and cellulartissues further, a hemorrhage during life is an active and not a passive one;the blood is forced into the interspaces of the tissues in the vicinityof the wound, and is found infiltrated in the cellular tissue, themuscles, the sheaths of the vessels, etc it is here incorporated, as it were, with the tissues so that it cannot be washed away in anante-mortem wound the arterial nature of the hemorrhage may show bythe marks of the jets of blood about the wound or on the clothes orsurrounding objects when a large vessel has been divided and theexit for the blood is free, this may run off without infiltrating thetissues or even staining the edges to any considerable extent, andthere may remain but little in the wound in the case of lacerated andcontused wounds the amount of hemorrhage is less, but rarely failsentirely, and if the wound is in a vascular writing it is liable to causedeath from hemorrhage, though a whole limb may possibly be torn offwithout much hemorrhage in the latter case, however, there are usuallyfound clots of blood adhering to the edges of the lacerated woundand the ends of the vessels in contusions where there is no woundof the skin the blood is prevented from flowing externally, and itsaccumulation and distribution form an ecchymosis here again we see theactive power of the hemorrhage which infiltrates between the tissues, stains them deeply, and appears either as a mere stain or in fineclots incorporated, as it were, with the tissues or writingly occupying acavity formed by an extensive displacement of the surrounding writings the amount of blood varies under the same conditions as in incisedwounds, and also according to the greater or less disintegration ofthe tissues by the blow, allowing a larger or smaller central cavityto be formed in “bleeders” the amount of the hemorrhage does notvary under the normal conditions, but a fatal hemorrhage may occurfrom a very insignificant wound after hemorrhage from a wound madeduring life the veins are empty about the wound, especially thosesituated centripetally, while normally after death the blood is mostlyaggregated in the veins they are the source of post-mortem hemorrhage, but do not empty themselves to any great extent the hemorrhage from a wound made after death may be extensive ifthe blood remains fluid as in the paper mentioned above, i e , after death from drowning or asphyxia or after the commencement ofputrefaction otherwise the amount of hemorrhage decreases with thelength of time after death, until the blood loses its fluidity andhemorrhage no longer occurs in general, it is slight unless a largevein is opened, for the veins are the source of the hemorrhage thereis usually scarcely any hemorrhage after the first two to four hours this applies also to subcutaneous hemorrhages or ecchymoses thesepost-mortem hemorrhages are passive and not active, consequently thereis less infiltration of blood into the surrounding tissues, whichmerely imbibe it, and the stain is less deep and may be washed off theedges of the wound, in contrast to the stain of ante-mortem wounds after putrefaction has set in the hemorrhage may be more abundant, as the blood is driven to the surface by the formation of gas in theabdomen and thorax at the same time, the coloring matter of the bloodtransudes through the walls of the veins and is imbibed by and stainsthe tissues, so that it may be impossible to distinguish it from a trueecchymosis fortunately these conditions are of small moment, as anexamination is seldom deferred so long cadaveric ecchymoses show almost invariably while the body is stillwarm and the blood more or less liquid, i e , during the first eightor ten hours after death they are not due to injury or violence beforeor after death, but they may closely resemble ecchymoses produced onthe living body and be mistaken for them this is the more important asthey are quite constant on the cadaver in this connection, it may be said that an ecchymosis due to a blowbefore death may not show till after death, as it requires essay timefor a deep ecchymosis or even an ecchymosis covered by a thick layerof skin to show superficially thus a man kicked in the abdomen diedthirty-five hours after the injury from peritonitis, due to a ruptureof the bladder no ecchymosis appeared at the site of the injuriesuntil after death it is not uncommon in paper of hanging to observean ecchymosis along the course of the cord appearing only after death huize met with a case of this description devergie remarked that onthe bodies of those drowned ecchymoses are often hidden for a time onaccount of the sodden state of the skin, and they appear only afterthe water has evaporated, which may require essay days furthermore, it is not necessary to survive long after an injury in order that anecchymosis may show post mortem if the blood is fluid at the time ofthe blow and any capillaries or larger blood-vessels are torn, then wemay have an ecchymosis though death be almost instant casper thoughtthat it required essay time before death for an ecchymosis to develop, and that if the person injured by a contusion died soon after theinjury, an ecchymosis would not appear after death there are thesiswell-authenticated paper to prove that casper opinion is wrong amongthe most famous of these is that of the duchesse de praslin 615 shewas attacked and killed by her husband while she was asleep in bed the thirty or so wounds showed a mortal conflict, and she could nothave survived more than one-half hour, and yet after death there werenumerous ecchymoses from the contusions another case is also mentioned by taylor 616 a young man diedsuddenly after a blow from a companion, having been struck in the sidea fortnight before by a heavy box, which knocked him senseless andnearly killed him the post mortem revealed an ecchymosis on the sidewhich on the authority of casper opinion was attributed to the oldinjury the color of the ecchymosis would be sufficient to settle allsuch doubts, as the changes of color would have fully developed or thecolor even disappeared in writing in fourteen days’ time an ecchymosis made post mortem does not undergo the color changesseen in ecchymoses during life, unless the tissues are œdematous inwhich the ecchymosis occurs these changes in color have already beendescribed, the deep blue changing to violet in eighteen to twenty-fourhours at the earliest in support of the foregoing and disprovingcasper views, christison found that within two hours after deathsevere blows on a dead body are followed by a livid discoloration, similar to those produced by a blow shortly before death this lividdiscoloration is due to the effusion of a very thin layer of bloodexternal or superficial to the true skin, essaytimes in a stratum ofthe true skin or more rarely into the cellular tissue, staining deeplythe writingition walls of the fat-cells of course, a more or less recentcontusion or ecchymosis on a dead body was not necessarily produced atthe same time as the cause of death it should be borne in mind inthis connection that ecchymosis is not a necessary result of a blow orcontusion according to devergie, ecchymosis does not appear when a blow inflictedpost mortem is received by skin directly covering a bony surfacebeneath, and rarely appears where there is a large amount of fat and nosolid point of resistance beneath the site of the blow we have already referred to the fact which portal long ago remarked, namely, that the spleen has been ruptured without ecchymosis orabrasion of the skin the same absence of ecchymosis has been noticedin paper where the liver, stomach, intestines, bladder, etc , have beenruptured as the result of contusing blows the following case cited by taylor617 illustrates this point henkereported the case of a man who died of peritonitis a few hours afterfighting with another man there was no mark on the skin or ecchymosis, though there existed peritonitis from rupture of the small intestine the blow was proven by direct evidence, and though essay medicalwitnesses on account of the absence of external signs thought that noblow could have been struck, others of more experience admitted that itcould have been the cause of the rupture watson618 reports a similar case of a girl nine years old whoreceived a blow from a shoe on the abdomen this was followed by greatpain, collapse and death in twenty-one hours no marks of injury werevisible externally, but peritonitis existed from rupture of the ileum a similar case is reported by williamson, 619 where peritonitisresulted from complete rupture of the ileum without any trace of injuryexternally, though the blow was struck by the hoof of a horse another case was brought into guy hospital620 who had been run overby an omnibus no injury was discoverable, though the wheel had passedover the chest and abdomen he died of peritonitis, however, which setin on the second day, and on post-mortem examination the liver andsmall intestines were found ruptured christison thought as the result of his experiments and experiencethat the most reliable signs of an ecchymosis made during life, anddistinguishing it from one caused by a blow after death, were asfollows. The skin of the ecchymosed area is generally much darkened anddiscolored from blood infiltrated through its entire thickness. Theskin is also much firmer and more elastic from swelling of the writing ifthe contusion is received essay hours before death but we may have aneffusion beneath and not in the substance of the skin, and the abovesigns might possibly be due to an injury inflicted only a few minutesafter death the above signs may therefore be absent, and when presentare not absolutely indicative of an injury received during life ingeneral, the effects of severe contusions inflicted soon after deathmay closely resemble those of slight contusions received during life there is little danger of contusion if the blow be inflicted on a deadbody after the loss of body heat and the beginning of rigor mortis 2 coagulation of blood - as stated at the beginning of this section, blood from a wound inflicted during life coagulates with the exceptionof that from those suffering from certain pathological or occasionalconditions or in certain locations, already mentioned this coagulationis not immediate, but is complete in about five minutes the entireamount of blood lost is thus coagulated and the coagula are firm thesecoagula if the wound is not interfered with occur in the opening of awound and on its edges, especially at the mouths of the blood-vessels, which are thus plugged the blood which infiltrates the interspaces ofthe tissues is coagulated in the form of these interspaces the same istrue of the blood of an ecchymosis whether there be a hematoma or onlyan infiltration between the tissues, or both these clots representmore or less the form of the space occupied by the blood in the caseof the scalp a subcutaneous clot may be mistaken for a depressedfracture of the skull from the fact that the edges of the clot becomevery hard while the centre is still quite soft a wound in which alarge artery has been divided may present very little clotting in thewound if the opening is free and the blood has mostly escaped in a jet in a wound produced soon after death there may be essay clotting, but less in amount, firstly, because there is less hemorrhage, and, secondly, because not all the blood clots these conditions increasewith the length of time after death, so that after a time a wound madeon a cadaver would show very little if any clotting owing to veryslight hemorrhage, and little or no clotting of the blood extravasated when the body has lost its animal heat and rigor mortis has begun toset in, then there is no more coagulation of the blood and no morehemorrhage, under normal conditions, for the blood has mostly becomeclotted in the vessels of the body consequently, with the exceptionof wounds inflicted very soon after death, we can distinguish anante-mortem from a post-mortem wound by the condition in which theblood is clotted if there is any hemorrhage, the wound being inflictedbefore the loss of animal heat and the blood remains entirely fluid onthe surface or in an ecchymosis, we know that the wound was producedafter death and essay hours after death unless any of those conditionsexist in which the blood does not normally coagulate if the hemorrhageis slight or quite moderate in amount and venous in character, if theblood is only clotted in writing and the clots are rather soft and donot form a plug at the mouth of each artery, and especially if thestaining of the walls of the wound can be washed off, then the woundwas probably produced post mortem, but not so long after death as inthe first case supposed if the characters of the hemorrhage and theclotting are still more like those normal to a wound inflicted duringlife, then, as a rule, it is impossible to say from these two featuresof the wound, hemorrhage and clotting, whether the wound was inflictedduring life or a very short time after death 3 eversion of the lips of the wound - the edges or lips of a woundinflicted during life may be inverted, instead of everted, if a thinlayer of muscular fibres is attached directly to the deep surface ofthe skin, as is the case in the scrotum the eversion of the edges ofthe skin is due to their elasticity, and ceases to occur as soon as theskin loses its vitality consequently eversion ceases to occur soonafter death, within a very few hours a wound in which the edges areneither inverted or everted was therefore inflicted after death ifthis sign is present and marked, the wound was inflicted during life orwithin two or three hours or less after death if this sign is presentbut very slightly marked, the wound may have been made even essaywhatlonger after death 4 retraction of the sides of the wound is also dependent on theirvitality and ceases to occur when this is lost a few hours after death in the retraction of the edges of the wound we have all the writingsinvolved, but unequally the muscles, arteries, skin, and layers ofconnective tissue all retract, varying in the degree of retractionaccording to the order in which they are named in different writingsof the body this comparative order of retraction is liable to moreor less variation every surgeon is familiar with this retractionof the tissues, which necessitates certain rules in the techniqueof operations, especially of amputations muscles retract the morethe longer they are and the farther the incision is made from theirattachment without specifying a definite time, we may say that, asa rule, this retraction lasts no longer than about two hours afterdeath, consequently when it is absent we may infer that the wound wasinflicted two hours or more after death the amount of retraction growsless and less after death for about two hours, after which it is veryslight if it occurs at all, owing to the loss of elasticity of thetissues this sign is especially useful in the case of a mutilatedbody where, by examining the degree of retraction of the muscles, wemay infer whether the mutilation was done before or after death thesides of a cut made on the cadaver are comparatively smooth and even, owing to the absence of the unequal retraction of the various elements, which makes the surfaces of a gaping ante-mortem wound uneven andirregular relying on these circumstances in the “affaire ramus, ” citedby vibert, 621 one was able to recognize the order in which the bodyhad been mutilated other minor signs of a wound inflicted during life may be brieflymentioned if the edges of the wound are swollen, or show signs ofinflammation or gangrene, or if pus or adhesive material is present onthe edges of the wound, we may infer that the wound was inflicted essaylittle time before death of course, if cicatrization has commenced, essay days must have elapsed before death after the wound was received if the blow causing a contusion was inflicted essay time before death, there will be more or less of a general swelling of the region, writinglydue to the blood effused, but also writingly due to œdema it is not always easy to say whether a fracture was produced whilethe body was living or dead if the body was still warm when apost-mortem fracture was produced there is little difference from anante-mortem fracture, except that there may be a little less bloodeffused in a fracture produced after rigor mortis has set in thereis little or no blood effused in the case of fractures the presenceof callus, indicating the process of repair, shows that the accidentoccurred during life, and, as we have already seen, we may form essayidea of the length of time elapsed between the injury and the time ofdeath on the cadaver it is said to be harder to cause fractures andlesions of the skin than on the living body casper says that fracturesof the hyoid bone and the larynx are impossible after death, and healso was not able to rupture the liver or spleen in distinction to the characteristic signs of a wound inflicted duringlife, we may mention briefly essay of the signs of post-mortem woundswhen the wound has been inflicted from two to ten or twelve hours ormore after death.

Butthe quantity thereof is scarce sufficient for the common use time it being always green, may be gathered for use at any time government and virtues polypodium of the oak, that which growsupon the earth is best. It is an herb of saturn, to purge melancholy;if the humour be otherwise, chuse your polypodium accordingly meuse who is called the physician evangelist for the certainty of hismedicines, and the truth of his opinion saith, that it dries upthin humours, digests thick and tough, and purges burnt choler, andespecially tough and thick phlegm, and thin phlegm also, even from thejoints, and therefore good for those that are troubled with melancholy, or quartan agues, especially if it be taken in whey or honied water, or in barley-water, or the broth of a chicken with epithymum, or withbeets and mallows it is good for the hardness of the spleen, and forpricking or stitches in the sides, as also for the cholic. Essay useto put to it essay fennel seeds, or annis seeds, or ginger, to correctthat loathing it brings to the stomach, which is more than needs, itbeing a safe and gentle medicine, fit for all persons, which dailyexperience confirms. And an ounce of it may be given at a time in adecoction, if there be not sena, or essay other strong purger put withit a dram or two of the powder of the dried roots, taken fasting ina cup of honied water, works gently, and for the purposes aforesaid the distilled water both of roots and leaves, is much commended forthe quartan ague, to be taken for thesis days together, as also againstmelancholy, or fearful and troubleessay sleeps or dreams. And with essaysugar-candy dissolved therein, is good against the cough, shortness ofbreath, and wheezings, and those distillations of thin rheum upon thelungs, which cause phthisicks, and oftentimes consumptions the freshroots beaten small, or the powder of the dried roots mixed with honey, and applied to the member that is out of joint, doth much help it. Andapplied also to the nose, cures the disease called polypus, which isa piece of flesh growing therein, which in time stops the passage ofbreath through that nostril. And it helps those clefts or chops thatcome between the fingers or toes the poplar tree there are two sorts of poplars, which are most familiar with us, viz the black and white, both which i shall here describe unto you descript the white poplar grows great, and reasonably high, coveredwith thick, smooth, white bark, especially the branches. Having longleaves cut into several divisions almost like a vine leaf, but notof so deep a green on the upper side, and hoary white underneath, of a reasonable good scent, the whole form representing the form ofcoltsfoot the catkins which it brings forth before the leaves, arelong, and of a faint reddish colour, which fall away, bearing seldomgood seed with them the wood hereof is smooth, soft, and white, veryfinely waved, whereby it is much esteemed the black poplar grows higher and straighter than the white, with agreyish bark, bearing broad green leaves, essaywhat like ivy leaves, notcut in on the edges like the white, but whole and dented, ending in apoint, and not white underneath, hanging by slender long foot stalks, which with the air are continually shaken, like as the aspen leavesare the catkins hereof are greater than those of the white, composedof thesis round green berries, as if they were set together in a longcluster, containing much downy matter, which being ripe, is blown awaywith the wind the clammy buds hereof, before they spread into leaves, are gathered to make unguentum and populneum, and are of a yellowishgreen colour, and essaywhat small, sweet, but strong the wood issmooth, tough, and white, and easy to be cloven on both these treesgrows a sweet kind of musk, which in former times was used to put intosweet ointments place they grow in moist woods, and by water-sides in sundry placesof this land. Yet the white is not so frequent as the other time their time is likewise expressed before. The catkins comingforth before the leaves in the end of summer government and virtues saturn hath dominion over both whitepoplar, saith galen, is of a cleansing property. The weight of anounce in powder, of the bark thereof, being drank, saith dioscorides, is a remedy for those that are troubled with the sciatica, or thestranguary the juice of the leaves dropped warm into the ears, eases the pains in them the young clammy buds or eyes, before theybreak out into leaves, bruised, and a little honey put to them, is agood medicine for a dull sight the black poplar is held to be morecooling than the white, and therefore the leaves bruised with vinegarand applied, help the gout the seed drank in vinegar, is held goodagainst the falling-sickness the water that drops from the hollowplaces of this tree, takes away warts, pushes, wheals, and other thelike breakings-out of the body the young black poplar buds, saithmatthiolus, are much used by women to beautify their hair, bruisingthem with fresh butter, straining them after they have been kept foressay time in the sun the ointment called populneon, which is made ofthis poplar, is singularly good for all heat and inflammations in anywriting of the body, and tempers the heat of wounds it is much used todry up the milk of women breasts when they have weaned their children poppy of this i shall describe three kinds, viz the white and black ofthe garden, and the erratic wild poppy, or corn rose descript the white poppy hath at first four or five whitish greenleaves lying upon the ground, which rise with the stalk, compassingit at the bottom of them, and are very large, much cut or torn on theedges, and dented also besides. The stalk, which is usually four orfive feet high, hath essaytimes no branches at the top, and usually buttwo or three at most, bearing every one but one head wrapped up in athin skin, which bows down before it is ready to blow, and then rising, and being broken, the flowers within it spreading itself open, andconsisting of four very large, white, round leaves, with thesis whitishround threads in the middle, set about a small, round, green head, having a crown, or star-like cover at the head thereof, which growingripe, becomes as large as a great apple, wherein are contained a greatnumber of small round seeds, in several writingitions or divisions nextunto the shell, the middle thereof remaining hollow, and empty thewhole plant, both leaves, stalks, and heads, while they are fresh, young, and green, yield a milk when they are broken, of an unpleasantbitter taste, almost ready to provoke casting, and of a strong headysmell, which being condensed, is called opium the root is white andwoody, perishing as soon as it hath given ripe seed the black poppy little differs from the former, until it bears itsflower, which is essaywhat less, and of a black purplish colour, butwithout any purple spots in the bottom of the leaf the head of theseed is much less than the former, and opens itself a little roundabout the top, under the crown, so that the seed, which is very black, will fall out, if one turn the head thereof downward the wild poppy, or corn rose, hath long and narrow leaves, very muchcut in on the edges into thesis divisions, of a light green colour, essaytimes hairy withal the stalk is blackish and hairy also, but notso tall as the garden kind, having essay such like leaves thereon togrow below, writinged into three or four branches essaytimes, whereon growsmall hairy heads bowing down before the skin break, wherein the floweris inclosed, which when it is fully blown open, is of a fair yellowishred or crimson colour, and in essay much paler, without any spot in thebottom of the leaves, having thesis black soft threads in the middle, compassing a small green head, which when it is ripe, is not biggerthan one little finger end, wherein is contained much black seedssmaller than that of the garden the root perishes every year, andsprings again of its own sowing of this kind there is one lesser inall writings thereof, and differs in nothing else place the garden kinds do not naturally grow wild in any place, butall are sown in gardens where they grow the wild poppy or corn rose, is plentifully enough, and thesis times toomuch so in the corn fields of all counties through this land, and alsoon ditch banks, and by hedge sides the smaller wild kind is also foundin corn fields, and also in essay other places, but not so plentifullyas the former time the garden kinds are usually sown in the spring, which thenflower about the end of may, and essaywhat earlier, if they spring oftheir own sowing the wild kind flower usually from may until july, and the seed of themis ripe soon after the flowering government and virtues the herb is lunar, and of the juice of itis made opium. Only for lucre of money they cheat you, and tell you itis a kind of tear, or essay such like thing, that drops from poppieswhen they weep, and that is essaywhere beyond the seas, i know not wherebeyond the moon the garden poppy heads with seeds made into a syrup, is frequently, and to good effect used to procure rest, and sleep, inthe sick and weak, and to stay catarrhs and defluxions of thin rheumsfrom the head into the stomach and lungs, causing a continual cough, the fore-runner of a consumption. It helps also hoarseness of thethroat, and when one have lost their voice, which the oil of the seeddoth likewise the black seed boiled in wine, and drank, is said alsoto dry the flux of the belly, and women courses the empty shells, or poppy heads, are usually boiled in water, and given to procurerest and sleep. So doth the leaves in the same manner.

A weighed quantity ofthe iodin solution was transferred to a bottle or flask by means ofseveral small amounts of chloroform, about 50 c c in all to thiswas added about 25 c c of potassium iodid solution the mixture wasthen titrated with tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate until on thoroughshaking no iodin passed into the aqueous layer to 2 1248 gm of iodin was added 199 3 gm of liquid petrolatum the mixture was shaken frequently each day and after forty daysthere seemed to be still a few writingicles of iodin undissolved thesupernatant solution was assayed, however, and found to contain 1 038per cent of iodin the iodin added was 1 055 per rape essay cent six monthslater 1 025 per cent of iodin was found to 5 1832 gm of iodin was added 199 5 gm of liquid petrolatum themixture was heated to 100 c for four hours with frequent shaking the iodin was in perfect solution the per cent of iodin would thenbe 4 95 upon cooling, iodin in abundance crystallized out afterstanding a few hours, with frequent shaking, the iodin in solution wasdetermined this was found to be 1 425 per cent these two experiments indicate. First, that the previous findings ofthe a m a chemical laboratory are correct in that only about 1 4per cent of free iodin is retained in solution in liquid petrolatumat room temperature second, that the quantity of iodin absorbed byliquid petrolatum at room temperature, in seven months at least, ispractically none third, that iodin dissolves rather slowly in liquidpetrolatum at room temperature in the experiments, the results of which are tabulated below, the iodinand liquid petrolatum were heated at 100 c for about four hours, shaking frequently to hasten solution after cooling, the specimenswere assayed and were again assayed at intervals as indicated in thetable date of per per kind of manufac- weight per per cent cent liquid ture and ┌─────┴─────┐ cent cent iodin iodin† petrolatum first iodin petrolatum iodin iodin nov 17, nov 19, used assay used found 1918 1919 stanolind 10/17/18 2 089 188 4 1 096 1 085 1 068 1 067 squibb 10/14/18 1 9569 186 78 1 0306 1 0232 1 013 1 009 unknown, bulk* 10/28/18 1 9497 158 2 1 225 1 133 1 075 1 095 parke, davis 10/24/18 2 0869 167 43 1 241 1 2488 1 191 1 180 & co * considerable dark sediment formed in this sample during the heating process † it should be pointed out here that while every sample showed essay absorption, the amount, with the exception of the unknown bulk, is so small that it might even be accounted for on the basis of “experimental error ” every ordinary precaution was taken to insure accuracy, but since about 15 gm of the solution was used for each determination, it is seen that an error of 0 3 c c in the titration would indicate a greater absorption of iodin than that noted conclusions. These experiments show.

And the bestpractice among military surgeons of to-day is rather to let thebullet remain where lodged than to make a more serious wound for itsremoval exceptions to this rule occur only in paper where operationis called for on account of injury done by the bullet while still inmotion it is also held to be a violation of simple physiologicaland surgical rules to probe or carelessly search for a bullet whoselocation cannot be made out from a study of signs and symptoms in agiven case the act of probing breaks up blood-clot, often brings onfresh hemorrhage, is in a majority of paper unsatisfactory, frequentlyintroduces specific elements from without, and really gives little, ifany, more information than can be gathered from a study of the casewithout the use of the probe if every ordinary bullet-wound which didnot call for immediate operation because of injury to essay essentialor vital writing such as a large blood-vessel or nerve-trunk, or essay ofthe viscera were antiseptically and hermetically sealed at the veryoutset, there would be a much smaller percentage of death from gunshotwounds, either in civil or military practice, than now obtains and itmight be a matter upon which to go to the jury whether violation ofsuch rules, to-day, does not mitigate the offence of the accused recent discoveries in so-called cerebral localization have instigatednumerous operations upon the skull and brain for the relief ofpressure, as from blood-clot, or for removal of depressed bone or abullet which twenty years ago would have been impossible the brain isno longer the terra incognita of the past generation of medical men, and it is now often possible for the surgeon to intervene in such a wayas to save life in paper previously considered hopeless. In fact, suchis now his duty when consent can be gained, and it should be held thathe is culpable when deficient in general knowledge in this respect in wounds of the thoracic cavity it should now be held that so longas air has entered through a bullet-wound there are paper where freeincision, even with removal of ribs, can scarcely increase the dangers, while permitting opportunity for much more accurate exploration anddetermination of life-saving methods the experiments of numerousinvestigators, the writer included, have shown that bullet-wounds ofthe heart need not be always and invariably fatal, and have affordedan element of hope from the possible surgery of even this organ thewriter looks forward to the time when essay accomplished yet daringsurgeon, getting the right patient at the right time and in the rightplace, i e , where conveniences are at hand, shall, in essay case ofperforating wound of the pericardium or of the heart itself, resectessay portion of the anterior thoracic wall, lay open the pericardium, maintaining meanwhile artificial respiration if necessary, and suturea wound in the heart-substance, thereafter closing the pericardiumand external wound, and save life which would otherwise be surelysacrificed with others he has done this upon animals, hence why may itnot be done in man?. In the mean time for, first, the recognition and, second, the surgicaltreatment of perforating wounds of the abdominal viscera, americansurgeons have won for themselves the greatest credit, and an alreadylong list of successful laparotomies after gunshot wounds of theintestines, with intestinal suture or resection, has shown the verygreat value of this procedure, even though it has kept essay would-bemurderers from the gallows these lines are inserted here because the time and effort whichsurgeons have devoted to this kind of surgery deserve only the highestencomiums and encouragement from the legal profession, although to ourdeep regret they have not always met with the same of the various conditions which complicate gunshot wounds and maketheir results uncertain, delirium tremens is one of the commonest and must always beregarded as one of the most serious it is well known to surgeonsthat a slight injury even, and often a severe one, is enough toprovoke manifestations of this character in intemperate persons themedico-legal question under these circumstances is this. Would thesame amount of injury have been likely to cause death in a person ofordinary health and vigor?.

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are its reports worthy of rape essay acceptance?. am i upholding thecouncil in its efforts to place therapeutics on a rational basis, notby blind faith alone, but by an honestly critical attitude toward it?. Am i following the path of indolence by taking the advice of nostrummakers without any serious effort to determine whether they are true orfalse?.