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It is best to stop them with abladder, being first put in water, and bound over the top of the glass such cold waters as are distilled in a pewter still if well kept willendure a year. Such as are distilled in sand, as they are twice asstrong, so they endure twice as long chapter ii of syrups 1 a syrup is a medicine of a liquid form, composed of infusion, decoction and juice and, 1 for the more grateful taste 2 for thebetter keeping of it. With a certain quantity of honey or sugar, hereafter mentioned, boiled to the thickness of new honey 2 you see at the first view, that this aphorism divides itself intothree branches, which deserve severally to be treated of, viz 1 syrups made by infusion 2 syrups made by decoction 3 syrups made by juice of each of these, for your instruction-sake, kind countrymen andwomen i speak a word or two awriting 1st, syrups made by infusion, are usually made of flowers, and of suchflowers as soon lose their colour and strength by boiling, as roses, violets, peach flowers, &c they are thus made. Having picked yourflowers clean, to every pound of them add three pounds or three pints, which you will for it is all one of spring water, made boiling hot;first put your flowers into a pewter-pot, with a cover, and pour thewater on them. Then shutting the pot, let it stand by the fire, tokeep hot twelve hours, and strain it out. in such syrups as purge, asdamask roses, peach flowers, &c the usual, and indeed the best way, isto repeat this infusion, adding fresh flowers to the same liquor diverstimes, that so it may be the stronger having strained it out, put theinfusion into a pewter bason, or an earthen one well glazed, and toevery pint of it add two pounds of sugar, which being only melted overthe fire, without boiling, and scummed, will produce you the syrup youdesire 2dly, syrups made by decoction are usually made of compounds, yet mayany simple herb be thus converted into syrup. Take the herb, root, or flowers you would make into a syrup, and bruise it a little.

The details of the method adopted by the pharmacopeia arethose described by roth 305 roth now reports on the activity ofseven samples of commercial infundibular extracts, the products offive american manufacturing pharmacists four of these samples werefound to be of pharmacopeia strength. The other three were much weaker of the latter, one had but one tenth, another but one fifth and thethird but one fourth of the required activity those preparationswhich had been accepted by the council on pharmacy and chemistryfor inclusion in new and non-official remedies corresponded to thepharmacopeia requirements roth also compared the activity of theseseven preparations on the blood pressure, another method by whichit has been proposed to standardize infundibular extracts the fourpreparations which were equally active on the uterus were found to beequally active on the blood pressure. The other three were much weaker roth points out, however, that the results of the two methods are notnecessarily parallel. In one instance, for example, two samples causedequal rises of blood pressure, but one was twice as active as the otheron the uterus hence it is evident that the blood pressure test is nota satisfactory method for determining the activity of a preparation onthe uterus, and vice versa 304 roth, g b. Pituitary standardization, bull 109, hyg lab , u s p h s , 1917 305 roth, g b. Bull 100, hyg lab , u s p h s the subject of pituitary standardization, or perhaps it may be saidthe application of the present method is, however, in need of furtherstudy thus the statement has recently been made306 that commercialpreparations are on the market which have from three to five timesthe activity of the pharmacopeia standard. This was not the case, however, with the preparations examined by roth it is probable thatessay have used for comparison a weaker standard than that proposedby the pharmacopeia. This, of course, would lead to the conclusionthat the commercial preparations were stronger than the pharmacopeiastandard roth suggests that the employment of standards of unequalactivity by the various supply houses could easily be eliminated byhaving a central laboratory distribute material for use as a standard it will be recalled that before the united states public health serviceestablished and began the distribution of standards for diphtheria andtetanus antitoxins, the commercial preparations of these varied evenmore in activity than do those of the pituitary extracts at present 306 pittenger, p s , and vanderkleed, c e. Jour am pharm assn 6:131, 1917 it is unnecessary to emphasize the importance of this subject. This issufficiently evident to those who have followed the recent clinicalliterature on the use of pituitary extracts in obstetrics thesepreparations are used in times of emergency. A weak preparation isvalueless, whereas overdosage, either from too strong a preparationor from too free use of a preparation of the official strength, isoften followed by disaster to the mother or child or both roth citesa number of paper of ruptured uterus and other injuries resulting fromtheir use -- editorial from the journal a m a , may 5, 1917 proprietorship in medicineto the editor:-- i am enclosing a reprint of my article on the“present status of pituitary extract in labor, ” which appeared in thejournal, june 2, 1917, p 1601, and also the september issue of parke, davis and company therapeutic notes, on page 89 of which they quotethis article, that you may compare the two the therapeutic notesarticle is ostensibly a copy, but as a matter of fact, it gives it onlyin writing, which seems to me to be a gross misrepresentation, and onewhich i do not think should go unnoticed joseph j mundell, m d , anacostia, d c comment -- therapeutic notes is one of the house organs of parke, davis and company a writing of each issue is usually devoted to“excerpts” from current literature the therapeutic notes may bejudged from the manner of “excerpting” the article of dr mundell naturally the interest of parke, davis and company is in those sectionsof the article which may be expected to promote the use of parke, davisand company proprietary preparation of pituitary extract-- pituitrin the following passages from the article of dr mundell were not amongthose “excerpted” in therapeutic notes.

It isgood for the inflammations and watering of the eyes, being mixed withfine flour, and laid unto them the purchase personal statement divinity statement juice dropped into the ears easesthe pains and singing noise in them it is profitably put into thoseointments and salves that are warm, and comfort the outward writings, asthe joints and sinews. For swellings also, and places out of joint thepowder thereof snuffed up into the nose provokes sneezing, and therebypurges the brain. And chewed in the mouth, draws forth much phlegm the oil made thereof, is very warm and comfortable to the joints thatare stiff, and the sinews that are hard, to molify and supple them marjoram is much used in all odoriferous water, powders, &c that arefor ornament or delight marigolds these being so plentiful in every garden, and so well known that theyneed no description time they flower all the summer long, and essaytimes in winter, ifit be mild government and virtues it is an herb of the sun, and under leo they strengthen the heart exceedingly, and are very expulsive, and alittle less effectual in the small-pox and measles than saffron thejuice of marigold leaves mixed with vinegar, and any hot swellingbathed with it, instantly gives ease, and assuages it the flowers, either green or dried, are much used in possets, broths, and drink, asa comforter of the heart and spirits, and to expel any malignant orpestilential quality which might annoy them a plaister made with thedry flowers in powder, hog-grease, turpentine, and rosin, applied tothe breast, strengthens and succours the heart infinitely in fevers, whether pestilential or not masterwort descript common masterwort has divers stalks of winged leavesdivided into sundry writings, three for the most writing standing togetherat a small foot-stalk on both sides of the greater, and three likewiseat the end of the stalk, essaywhat broad, and cut in on the edges intothree or more divisions, all of them dented about the brims, of a darkgreen colour, essaywhat resembling the leaves of angelica, but thatthese grow lower to the ground, and on lesser stalks. Among which riseup two or three short stalks about two feet high, and slender, withsuch like leaves at the joints which grow below, but with lesser andfewer divisions, bearing umbels of white flowers, and after them thin, flat blackish seeds, bigger than dill seeds the root is essaywhatgreater and growing rather side-ways than down deep in the ground, shooting forth sundry heads, which taste sharp, biting on the tongue, and is the hottest and sharpest writing of the plant, and the seed nextunto it being essaywhat blackish on the outside, and smelling well place it is usually kept in gardens with us in england time it flowers and seeds about the end of august government and virtues it is an herb of mars the root ofmasterwort is hotter than pepper, and very available in cold griefsand diseases both of the stomach and body, dissolving very powerfullyupwards and downwards it is also used in a decoction with wine againstall cold rheums, distillations upon the lungs, or shortness of breath, to be taken morning and evening it also provokes urine, and helpsto break the stone, and expel the gravel from the kidneys. Provokeswomen courses, and expels the dead birth it is singularly good forstrangling of the mother, and other such like feminine diseases it iseffectual also against the dropsy, cramps, and falling sickness. Forthe decoction in wine being gargled in the mouth, draws down much waterand phlegm, from the brain, purging and easing it of what oppresses it it is of a rare quality against all sorts of cold poison, to be takenas there is cause. It provokes sweat but lest the taste hereof, or ofthe seed which works to the like effect, though not so powerfullyshould be too offensive, the best way is to take the water distilledboth from the herb and root the juice hereof dropped, or tents dippedtherein, and applied either to green wounds or filthy rotten ulcers, and those that come by envenomed weapons, doth soon cleanse and healthem the same is also very good to help the gout coming of a coldcause sweet maudlin descript common maudlin hath essaywhat long and narrow leaves, snipped about the edges the stalks are two feet high, bearing at thetops thesis yellow flowers set round together and all of an equal height, in umbels or tufts like unto tansy. After which follow small whitishseed, almost as big as wormseed place and time it grows in gardens, and flowers in june and july government and virtues the virtues hereof being the same withcostmary or alecost, i shall not make any repetition thereof, lest mybook grow too big. But rather refer you to costmary for satisfaction the medlar descript the tree grows near the bigness of the quince tree, spreading branches reasonably large, with longer and narrower leavesthan either the apple or quince, and not dented about the edges atthe end of the sprigs stand the flowers, made of five white, great, broad-pointed leaves, nicked in the middle with essay white threadsalso. After which comes the fruit, of a brownish green colour, beingripe, bearing a crown as it were on the top, which were the five greenleaves. And being rubbed off, or fallen away, the head of the fruitis seen to be essaywhat hollow the fruit is very harsh before it ismellowed, and has usually five hard kernels within it there is anotherkind hereof nothing differing from the former, but that it hath essaythorns on it in several places, which the other hath not. And usuallythe fruit is small, and not so pleasant time and place they grow in this land, and flower in may for themost writing, and bear fruit in september and october government and virtues the fruit is old saturn, and sure a bettermedicine he hardly hath to strengthen the retentive faculty. Thereforeit stays women longings. The good old man cannot endure womenminds should run a gadding also a plaister made of the fruit driedbefore they are rotten, and other convenient things, and applied tothe reins of the back, stops miscarriage in women with child they arepowerful to stay any fluxes of blood or humours in men or women. Theleaves also have this quality the decoction of them is good to gargleand wash the mouth, throat and teeth, when there is any defluxions ofblood to stay it, or of humours, which causes the pains and swellings it is a good bath for women, that have their courses flow too abundant:or for the piles when they bleed too much if a poultice or plaister bemade with dried medlars, beaten and mixed with the juice of red roses, whereunto a few cloves and nutmegs may be added, and a little red coralalso, and applied to the stomach that is given to casting or loathingof meat, it effectually helps the dried leaves in powder strewed onfresh bleeding wounds restrains the blood, and heals up the woundquickly the medlar-stones made into powder, and drank in wine, whereinessay parsley-roots have lain infused all night, or a little boiled, dobreak the stone in the kidneys, helping to expel it mellilot, or king claver descript this hath thesis green stalks, two or three feet high, rising from a tough, long, white root, which dies not every year, setround about at the joints with small and essaywhat long, well-smellingleaves, set three together, unevently dented about the edges theflowers are yellow, and well-smelling also, made like other trefoil, but small, standing in long spikes one above another, for an handbreadth long or better, which afterwards turn into long crooked pods, wherein is contained flat seed, essaywhat brown place it grows plentifully in thesis places of this land, as in theedge of suffolk and in essex, as also in huntingdonshire, and in otherplaces, but most usually in corn fields, in corners of meadows time it flowers in june and july, and is ripe quickly after government and virtues melilot, boiled in wine, and applied, mollifies all hard tumours and inflammations that happen in the eyes, or other writings of the body, and essaytimes the yolk of a roasted egg, orfine flour, or poppy seed, or endive, is added unto it it helps thespreading ulcers in the head, it being washed with a lye made thereof it helps the pains of the stomach, being applied fresh, or boiledwith any of the aforenamed things.

Andtherefore if mars cause the cholic or stone, as usually he doth, ifin virgo, this is your cure these are accounted to be of as singularforce as any herb or seed whatsoever, to break the stone and to voidit, and the gravel either in the reins or bladder, as also to provokeurine being stopped, and to help stranguary the seed is of greatestuse, being bruised and boiled in white wine or in broth, or the like, or the powder of the seed taken therein two drams of the seed inpowder taken with women breast milk, is very effectual to procure avery speedy delivery to such women as have sore pains in their travail, and cannot be delivered. The herb itself, when the seed is not to behad either boiled, or the juice thereof drank, is effectual to allthe purposes aforesaid, but not so powerful or speedy in operation gooseberry bush called also feapberry, and in sussex dewberry-bush, and in essaycounties wineberry government and virtues they are under the dominion of venus theberries, while they are unripe, being scalded or baked, are good tostir up a fainting or decayed appetite, especially such whose stomachsare afflicted by choleric humours. They are excellently good to staylongings of women with child you may keep them preserved with sugarall the year long the decoction of the leaves of the tree cools hotdwellings and inflammations. As also st anthony fire the ripegooseberries being eaten, are an excellent remedy to allay the violentheat both of the stomach and liver the young and tender leaves breakthe stone, and expel gravel both from the kidneys and bladder allthe evil they do to the body of man is, they are supposed to breedcrudities, and by crudities, worms winter-green descript this sends forth seven, eight, or nine leaves from a smallbrown creeping root, every one standing upon a long foot stalk, whichare almost as broad as long, round pointed, of a sad green colour, andhard in handling, and like the leaf of a pear-tree. From whence arisesa slender weak stalk, yet standing upright, bearing at the top thesissmall white sweet-smelling flowers, laid open like a star, consistingof five round pointed leaves, with thesis yellow threads standing in themiddle about a green head, and a long stalk with them, which in timegrows to be the seed-vessel, which being ripe is found five square, with a small point at it, wherein is contained seed as small as dust place it grows seldom in fields, but frequent in the woodsnorthwards, viz in yorkshire, lancashire, and scotland time it flowers about june and july government and virtues winter-green is under the dominion ofsaturn, and is a singularly good wound herb, and an especial remedyfor healing green wounds speedily, the green leaves being bruisedand applied, or the juice of them a salve made of the green herbstamped, or the juice boiled with hog lard, or with salad oil andwax, and essay turpentine added to it, is a sovereign salve, and highlyextolled by the germans, who use it to heal all manner of wounds andsores the herb boiled in wine and water, and given to drink to themthat have any inward ulcers in their kidneys, or neck of the bladder, doth wonderfully help them it stays all fluxes, as the lask, bloodyfluxes, women courses, and bleeding of wounds, and takes away anyinflammations rising upon pains of the heart. It is no less helpfulfor foul ulcers hard to be cured. As also for cankers or fistulas thedistilled water of the herb effectually performs the same things groundsel descript our common groundsel has a round green and essaywhatbrownish stalk, spreading toward the top into branches, set with longand essaywhat narrow green leaves, cut in on the edges, essaywhat likethe oak-leaves, but less, and round at the end at the tops of thebranches stand thesis small green heads, out of which grow several small, yellow threads or thumbs, which are the flowers, and continue thesis daysblown in that manner, before it pass away into down, and with the seedis carried away in the wind the root is small and thready, and soonperishes, and as soon rises again of its own sowing, so that it may beseen thesis months in the year both green and in flower, and seed. For itwill spring and seed twice in a year at least, if it be suffered in agarden place they grow almost every where, as well on tops of walls, asat the foot amongst rubbish and untilled grounds, but especially ingardens time it flowers, as was said before, almost every month throughoutthe year government and virtues this herb is venus mistress-piece, and isas gallant and universal a medicine for all diseases coming of heat, in what writing of the body soever they be, as the sun shines upon. Itis very safe and friendly to the body of man. Yet causes vomiting ifthe stomach be afflicted. If not, purging. And it doth it with moregentleness than can be expected. It is moist, and essaything coldwithal, thereby causing expulsion, and repressing the heat causedby the motion of the internal writings in purges and vomits lay byour learned receipts. Take so much sena, so much scammony, so muchcolocynthis, so much infusion of crocus metallorum, &c this herb alonepreserved in a syrup, in a distilled water, or in an ointment, shall dothe deed for you in all hot diseases, and, shall do it, 1, safely. 2, speedily the decoction of this herb saith dioscorides made with wine, anddrank, helps the pains of the stomach, proceeding of choler, which itmay well do by a vomit as daily experience shews the juice thereoftaken in drink, or the decoction of it in ale, gently performs thesame it is good against the jaundice and falling sickness, beingtaken in wine. As also against difficulty of making water it provokesurine, expels gravel in the reins or kidneys. A dram thereof givenin oxymel, after essay walking or stirring of the body it helps alsothe sciatica, griping of the belly, the cholic, defects of the liver, and provokes women courses the fresh herb boiled and made intoa poultice, applied to the breasts of women that are swollen withpain and heat, as also the privy writings of man or woman, the seat orfundament, or the arteries, joints, and sinews, when they are inflamedand swollen, doth much ease them. And used with essay salt, helps todissolve knots or kernels in any writing of the body the juice of theherb, or as dioscorides saith the leaves and flowers, with essay finefrankincense in powder, used in wounds of the body, nerves or sinews, doth singularly help to heal them the distilled water of the herbperforms well all the aforesaid cures, but especially for inflammationsor watering of the eyes, by reason of the defluxion of rheum unto them heart-ease this is that herb which such physicians as are licensed to blaspheme byauthority, without danger of having their tongues burned through withan hot iron, called an herb of the trinity it is also called by thosethat are more moderate, three faces in a hood, live in idleness, cullme to you.

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Yea, divine will itself but their order of movement varied sun and moon with their regular courses spin, as it were, the firmwarps and purchase personal statement divinity statement woofs. The other five are instrumental in producing what ischangeable and apparently accidental unitedly in their course throughheaven the seven weave the threads of fate silently they weave thedesign of terrestrial life upon them depend not only summer andwinter, rain and drought, but also the life and death of every livingbeing. As determined by the constellation of their birth, such is eachman, so will he live never do the heavenly bodies repeat precisely thesame relative positions, and, therefore, never are two years, two days, two human beings, two leaves, completely identical ”so far troels-lund much as we agree with what troels-lund says, yet we believe that thedecisive motive which led humanity to bring their bodily welfare intoclosest connection with the starry canopy of heaven was suggested bythe powerful influence which the sun exerts upon the bodily welfareof all life as this life-giving power of the sun had a conspicuousshare in the origin of primeval sabianism, so also it exerted a similarinfluence upon the development of astrology. For it must have beenobvious to even the most stupid observer that his well-being dependedto a great extent upon the action of the sun from this perceptionto the idea that other heavenly bodies were also intended to exert adecisive influence upon things terrestrial was only a short step forthe ancient civilized peoples. For here the conclusion from analogy wasactually so closely and so enticingly under every one nose that allhe had to do was but to pitch upon the powers which rule all earthlylife and neatly box them up in a well-constructed system but as theconclusion from analogy was always considered in the ancient worldas the most certain, never-failing path to knowledge, it was readilyfollowed in this connection also and thus astrology, like the greaterwriting of medico-physical knowledge, was based, we think, upon thetreacherous ground of a conclusion per analogiam besides, our opinion that the warming and vitalizing power of the sunformed one of the most important factors in the origin of astrologyis confirmed by the utterances of astrologists themselves thus, forinstance, ptolemy points to the sun and moon as the sources of life tomankind, and hermes and almansor repeat the dictum this is furthermoreproved by the unparalleled popularity which astrology has enjoyed inall phases of civilization there is no civilized people, eitherof ancient or of modern times, which has not adhered to astrologicdoctrines with the fullest confidence and most unswerving faith babylonians, egyptians, greeks, romans, germans, romanians in short, all nations have professed their belief in astrology such a conformityof opinion would, however, be inexplicable amid such a dissimilarity ofreligious and cultural ideas as characterized the different peoples, unless a common principle had decisively influenced all nations in thesame manner this principle was acknowledged in the influence of thesun every human being was bound to observe the animating power of thesun on his own bodily sense and from his own observation, and would beat once led to the conclusion that a similar power resided also in theother celestial bodies this conception, which to a great extent was brought about byconclusions from analogy, provided a method of inference concerningvarious other phenomena man meditated, speculated, concluded, untilthe required sidereal relation of each organ and each function of thehuman body was determined thus astrology may serve as one of themost telling examples of scientific delusions to which the ancientdiagnostico-theoretical methods were bound to lead, with theirconclusions from analogy and their deductive modes of procedure the above survey indicates, altho only in very general outlines, the origin of astrology we shall now consider more in detail theacquisition for which the art of medicine is especially indebted toastrology babylonico-assyrian civilization possessed in its earliest ages awell-developed system of astrologic medicine, as is evident fromwritings bequeathed to us from antiquity campbell-thompson hasrecently published, from the great stock of cuneiform tablets in thecollection of the british museum, 276 inscriptions of an astrologicalnature belonging to the so-called kouyunjik collection sudhoff hascompiled them, so far as they refer to medicine, and has subjected themto critical analysis we take the liberty of repeating certain extractsfrom these cuneiform tablets, which appear to be the reports whichassyrian and babylonian court astrologists made to the king tablet 69a says.