History

Purchase Dissertation


Catch ’em young! purchase dissertation. in this connection, it may be well brieflyto call to the attention of fourth-year medical students the resultsof the investigation of the council on pharmacy and chemistry ofcampho-phenique the council findings on campho-phenique liquidwere to the effect that the preparation, which was exploited under afalse “formula, ” was, essentially, a solution of camphor and phenol inliquid petrolatum, substances well known in medicine and none of whichunder its own name has been credited with possessing any superlativevirtues the council verdict on campho-phenique powder was that “forall practical purposes it is essentially a camphorated talcum powder”containing, apparently, sufficient camphor and phenol to give thetalcum powder an odor it was further brought out in the councilreport that the campho-phenique company was in effect one of thenumerous trade names adopted by one james f ballard of st louis mr ballard seems to market a number of “patent medicines, ” most of themsold direct to the public, but essay, as in the case of campho-phenique, exploited to the public via the medical profession “herbine, ” a“marvelous preparation” that “puts the liver in healthy condition”;“ballard snow liniment” that when applied to wounds performs “aperfect cure that leaves no scar”. “dr t l stephens’ chemical eyesalve” which “acts quickly in all paper” and cures “failing vision, ”are essay of the numerous “patent medicines” made and sold by ballard “collins ague remedy, ” “swaim panacea, ” “swayne panacea” and“renne pain killing oil” are four more of mr ballard products, foreach of which he has pleaded guilty in the federal courts to makingfalse and fraudulent claims knowingly and wantonly if medical colleges of the better class were turning out graduatestoday who could be caught by free samples of such nostrums ascampho-phenique, then, indeed, would the outlook for the future ofscientific medicine be a gloomy one but they are not the young manor woman who goes out today from a reputable medical college is imbuedwith the scientific spirit, has developed habits of straight thinkingand will not, we believe, be so uncritical as to accept at their facevalue claims made for nostrums of the campho-phenique type -- from thejournal a m a , feb 9, 1918 “cinchophen”.

The templesand forehead bathed with the juice of it. As also the smell of theherb helps swoonings, catalepsis, falling-sickness, provided it be notaccompanied with a fever see the flowers laureola laurel the leaves purge upward and downward. They are goodfor rheumatic people to chew in their mouths, for they draw forth muchwater laurus bay-tree the leaves are hot and dry, resist drunkenness, they gently bind and help diseases in the bladder, help the stinging ofbees and wasps, mitigate the pain of the stomach, dry and heal, openobstructions of the liver and spleen, resist the pestilence lappa minor the lesser burdock lentiscus mastich-tree both the leaves and bark of it stop fluxes being hot and dry in the second degree spitting and evacuations ofblood, and the falling out of the fundament lens palustris duckmeat. Cold and moist in the second degree, helpsinflammations, hot swellings, and the falling out of the fundament, being warmed and applied to the place lepidium piperites dittander, pepperwort, or scar-wort. A hot fierysharp herb, admirable for the gout being applied to the place. Beingonly held in the hand, it helps the tooth-ache, and withall leaves awan colour in the hand that holds it livisticum lovage clears the sight, takes away redness and frecklesfrom the face libanotis coronaria see rosemary linaria toad-flax, or wild-flax. Hot and dry, cleanses the reins andbladder, provokes urine, opens the stoppings of the liver and spleen, and helps diseases coming thereof.

Ipecacuanha, eight ounces. Capsicus, in powder, two ounces mix them ’ “this preparation came increasingly into demand with the eclectic profession, the principal use for which it was first employed as an emetic, being finally displaced by its local application in bronchial pneumonia troubles, when sprinkled on a greased cloth and applied to the chest ” “in 1898, dr finley ellingwood petitioned lloyd brothers to make for him, in plasma form, ready for application, a compound carrying the ingredients of the old ‘compound lobelia powder, ’ strengthened by the addition of melaleuca leucadendron, laurus camphora and nicotiana tabacum experiments not very encouraging in a pharmaceutical sense were made, and it was not until repeated requests had been made that a product was at last satisfactorily prepared and forwarded to dr ellingwood 1900, with no thought other than that of serving him personally in his practice this product he used and commended to his professional friends, and under his commendation it came into professional demand ”an examination of the information submitted by lloyd brothers showedlibradol to be in conflict with the principles and rules that govern inthe acceptance of articles for new and nonofficial remedies as follows:composition rule 1 -- the information which has been receivedgives little idea of the actual composition of the preparation. Forexample, the statement that libradol “carries the energies of its drugconstituents and the high antiseptic qualities of laurus camphoraand melaleuca” gives no indication as to the writing or writings of thelaurus camphora or melaleuca employed if the statement is correct, that libradol “is a homogeneous, highly medicated, and exceedinglypotent compound, ” it is essential that the several potent ingredientsbe stated clearly and not merely hinted at by their qualities otherconflicts with rule 1 might be enumerated, but the foregoing citationsstate the direct conflict. And this has not been removed, although aninquiry was sent to lloyd brothers for a statement of the amount ofeach potent ingredient in a given quantity of libradol indirect advertising rule 4 -- the recommendation for the use oflibradol in the treatment of colds, bronchitis, lumbago, sciatica andrheumatic pains, which accompanies the trade package, is prone tolead the public to depend on it in paper where definite treatment isimperative unwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 -- libradol is recommended ina great variety of conditions and is especially claimed not only torelieve pain, but to remove the cause of pain this is explained asfollows. “in the study of the physiological action of thesis drugs, itwas found that the constituent remedies in this combination exerciseda most salutary influence, not only upon the sensibility of the nervesinvolved, but upon the capillary circulation within the diseased area, the muscular structures therein included, and, subsequently, upon thecourse of the advancement of the congestive and inflammatory processes, and upon secretion, exudation, adhesion, induration, hypertrophy, suppuration and excretion ”granting, for the sake of argument, that carefully controlledexperimental clinical evidence were available to substantiate thisstatement with reference to a single case of pain, the statementwould be misleading when considered as a general explanation of thepreparation relieving pain by removing the cause of pain when takenin connection with the conditions for which it is recommended and inwhich pain is even a minor symptom still, if pain were relieved inthese paper by removing the cause, the patient would be cured of theconditions which give rise to the pain, and these include. “acutepain in the chest. Acute inflammation in the chest. Persistentlocal pain. ” this might be interpreted as including tuberculosis;pneumonia. Cancer, and appendicitis “lumbago. Sciatica. Articularrheumatism” gonorrheal infections?. name rule 8 -- the name, derived from dolar and liber, suggeststhe claimed action of the preparation the relief of pain rather thanthe drugs said to be presented by it irrational composition rule 10 -- it is quite possible that libradolwill relieve pain in certain instances and that the drug constituentspresent in libradol “regular” make this more effective than “libradolmild” which is “destitute of drug energy”. This, however, is nojustification for the use by physicians of a cataplasm containingor made from skunk cabbage, bloodroot, ipecac, melaleuca oil ofcajeput?. , lobelia, laurus comphora camphor?. , capsicum and tobacco the combination is thoroughly irrational and a reminder of a pastcentury further, the council knows of no evidence to support thefollowing claims.

The therapeutic value of organic phosphoruscompounds, j a m a , feb 13, 1915, p 573 1 in various tissues of the animal body, enzymes have been found whichhydrolyze complex organic phosphorus compounds so as to liberate thephosphorus in the form of inorganic phosphates 2 metabolism studies of the phosphorus balance with diets containinginorganic phosphorus compounds, as compared with diets containingorganically bound phosphorus, are essaywhat conflicting in theirresults the balance of evidence, however, is in favor of the view thatthere is no difference between organically combined purchase dissertation phosphorus andinorganic salts with respect to the phosphorus balance 3 experiments indicate that the organism thrives on and supplies itsphosphorus needs quite as well from inorganic phosphorus compounds asfrom organically bound phosphorus marshall concludes:“we see that the evidence is very convincing of the view that theanimal organism can synthesize its complex organic phosphorusconstituents from inorganic phosphates, and that organic phosphorus isof no more value as a food than inorganic ”in view of this report, the council deemed it advisable to take up theconsideration of certain glycerophosphate preparations on the market as the therapeutic claims are all similar, it is not necessary to quotethem extensively tonols schering glycerophosphatestonols schering and glatz, new york comprise iron, lime, lithium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, quinin, sodium and strychnin “tonols”or glycerophosphates. Also duotonol tablets, said to contain equalwritings of calcium and sodium glycerophosphates. Triotonol tablets, each said to contain “sodium tonol 2-1/2 grains, lime-tonol 2-1/2grains, strychnine-tonol 1/60 grain”. Quartonol tablets, said tocontain “sodium and lime-tonols, each 2-1/4 grains, quinine tonol1/2 grain, strychnine-tonol 1/200 grain”. Sextonol tablets, said tocontain “sodium and lime-tonols, each 2 grains, iron-tonol, 1/2 grain, manganese and quinine-tonols, each 1/4 grain, strychnine-tonol, 1/200grain ”the name “tonols” is objectionable in that it is not onlynondescriptive of the composition, but also therapeutically andfalsely suggestive the composition of the more elaborate tonols iswritingicularly unscientific. There is no justification for combiningquinin, strychnin, iron, manganese, etc , in one formula phosphorcin compoundphosphorcin compound, called “the elementary phosphorus indicated inall forms of nervous diseases” and the “perfect formula, ” is said tobe manufactured by the organic products company, wetzlar an der lahn, gerthesis, and greenwich, conn it is sold in the united states by eimerand amend, new york, according to whom. “each two fluidrachms contain. “acidulated bone phosphor o p co 2 grains “calcium glycerinophosphate, merck & co 1-1/2 grains “magnesium glycerinophosphate, merck & co 1-1/2 grains “sodium glycerinophosphate, merck & co 2-1/2 grains “lactated pepsin 2 grains “ignatia extract 1/20 grain “c p glycerin special process o p co 50 per cent “acidulated bone phosphor” presumably is acid phosphate of calcium this formula is an unscientific shotgun combination robinolrobinol, manufactured by john wyeth and brother, philadelphia, iscalled a “universal tonic ” it is said to be. “a preparation of the glycerophosphates of lithium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, quinine, with 1-16 gr strychnine glycerophosphate in each fluidounce ”this is a semisecret preparation, since the quantities of most of theingredients are not given and the vehicle is not named this complexcombination, too, is unwarranted phosphoglycerate of lime chapoteautthis is said to be prepared by the laboratories de pharmacologiegénérale, dr ph chapelle, paris and new york it is sold in thiscountry by e fougera and co , inc , new york it is offered in severalforms, especially in that of wine, which is called the “medicinal wineand tonic par excellence ” the alcohol is no doubt the constituentto which this preparation is indebted for such popularity as it hasattained, for it is much more freely advertised than the syrup, capsules or granulated form the usual claims are made with regard tothe efficacy of calcium glycerophosphate “during convalescence, inpaper of enfeebled vitality, and nervous affections associated with anexcessive elimination of phosphates ” elixir glycerophosphates, nux vomica and damianathis is manufactured by sharp and dohme, baltimore the manufacturers’statement of composition is. “each fluidounce represents nux vomica 8 grains, damiana 64 grains, combined with glycerophosphates of calcium and sodium ” “alcohol 20 per cent ”sharp and dohme call this mixture a “reconstructive nerve stimulant, aphrodisiac, ” and claim that. “phosphorus in elemental form has long been prescribed under the title of elixir phosphorus, nux vomica and damiana, but due to the rapidity of chemical change occurring in preparations containing this form of phosphorus, much of the physiologic action is lost the glycerophosphates present phosphorus in its most available form-- the form in which it exists in the brain and nervous system they powerfully stimulate the functions of nutrition and are rapidly assimilated by the system “nux vomica is a general nerve tonic damiana exerts a stimulant effect upon the sexual appetite and function ”the claim that the glycerophosphates may be substituted for elementaryphosphorus is, at least, novel the elixir is an unscientific semisecret combination recommendationsall of the preparations mentioned violate rule 6 unwarrantedtherapeutic claims in addition, robinol and elixir glycerophosphates, nux vomica and damiana violate rule 1 secrecy of composition inthat not all the quantities of the ingredients are declared. Tonols, phosphorcin compound and robinol violate rule 8 objectionable names it is recommended that the council endorse marshall findings98 anddeclare that tonols schering and glatz, phosphorcin compound eimerand amend, robinol john wyeth and brother, phosphoglycerate oflime chapoteaut e fougera and co , and elixir glycerophosphates, nux vomica and damiana sharp and dohme are ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 30, 1916 hydras report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryhydras, sold by john wyeth and brother, philadelphia, is one of thethesis proprietary, so-called “uterine tonics ” it is said to contain“cramp bark, helonias root, hydrastis, scutellaria, dogwood andaromatics, ” but as the amounts of the several ingredients are notgiven the statement regarding its composition is valueless the labeldeclares the presence of 24 per cent alcohol the name “hydras, ” taken in connection with the statement ofcomposition, would suggest that hydrastis golden-seal is an importantconstituent the report of the chemical laboratory of the americanmedical association, however, indicates that hydrastis is present inunimportant amounts:“the hydrastin content of hydras was determined by extraction withimmiscible solvents pharm review, may, 1908, p 132 twenty-fivec c was found to yield an alkaloid residue of 0 0160 gm thepreparation contains, therefore, not more than 0 064 gm ‘hydrastin’per 100 c c inasmuch as hydrastis is required to contain about 2 5per cent ‘hydrastin, ’ hydras contains an equivalent of not more than2 56 gm hydrastis golden seal in 100 c c and the stated dose ofhydras-- one dessertspoonful 8 c c -- represents not more than 0 2 gm or 1/10 of the u s p average dose of hydrastis ”the label of a recently purchased bottle of hydras bears the followingrecommendations for its use. “indicated in treatment of dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia anti-abortive, with anodyne and tonic properties ” “for dysmenorrhea, suppressed menses, etc , a dessertspoonful three times daily, before or after meals ” “to relieve pain due to uterine disorders, a dessertspoonful every three hours, or increased to a tablespoonful, at the discretion of the attending physician ”a circular wrapped around the bottle declares that hydras is. “a valuable preparation to the physician in the treatment of dysmenorrhea, colic, cramps, spasm, palpitation incident to pregnancy, and the various pains resulting from diseases of the female sexual organs ”it is further claimed that. “in the dysmenorrhea of young girls due to essay mechanical difficulty, as anteflexion or of a congestive character, of suppressed menses from exposure to cold and other causes of a similar character, hydras will prove efficient and can be administered freely without danger ”the value of hydrastis in the treatment of the diseases and conditionsmentioned is problematical at best, and the small amount present inhydras is wholly useless as for the other constituents, cramp bark viburnum opulus, helonias false unicorn-- chamælirium luteumor helonias dioica and scutellaria skullcap-- scutellarialateriflora are drugs which are practically ignored by most writerson materia medica and therapeutics 99 dogwood cornus florida isa mildly astringent aromatic bitter for the use of which there is noscientific evidence 10099 see reports of the council, j a m a , jan 9, 1915, p 165;jan 23, 1915, p 359.

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“no object of greater importance has ever been presented for your helpful consideration thousands are dying whom you can help save ”according to the purchase dissertation “news item” that accompanies this letter the“cosmopolitan cancer research society” has been founded for the purposeof “investigating and developing methods” by which cancer “may besuccessfully combated and eventually eradicated ” it states furtherthat the “society” will “disseminate information concerning symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and methods of prevention” of cancer furthermore, the membership of the society “includes physicians, scientists andchemists of prominence, laymen of means, and the sympatheticallyinclined from all walks of life ” nor is this all!. “doctor frederick klein the eminent authority on urinology and the chemistry of cancer, has evolved a new colorimetric test which is a most wonderful and valuable discovery in the diagnosis of cancer and various other diseases this test will be writingicularly valuable in all life extension work because it determines, even in children the possibility of predisposition toward any writingicular disease, whether tuberculosis, cancer, diabetes or any of the diseases which in later life may become fatal it determines also the vitality of the subject enabling the physician to accurately determine the condition of any of the vital organs ”we learn in closing that memberships in the “society” are “graduatedfrom $1 00 upwards according to the ability and disposition of thosewho may be interested ”located at 77 seventh avenue, from which the press agent material ofthe “medical news bureau” is sent, is the “basic chemical corporationof america ” according to such information as we have been able toget, the president of this concern is f w humphreys, the “student ofchemistry and science who has devoted years to the study of the causeof cancer and the discovery of methods of relief ” we are informed thatmr humphreys was for a while in the employ of a “chemical company” ofphiladelphia, and has been in the photographic line down in virginiaand later was connected with a real estate concern in brooklyn anotherofficer of the basic chemical corporation is said to have been in thegrocery line in a small village in missouri, selling out and latercoming to brooklyn and entering the insurance business still anotherofficer, it seems, was in the fish business in addition to these threeofficers, there are two directors, one of whom is in the fancy groceryline, and the other is a local practicing physician whose name we findin the propaganda dewritingment testimonial file under sanmetto andarsenauro the dr frederick klein, who is described as the “eminent authority onurinology and the chemistry of cancer, ” is not a physician but claimsa ph d from munich, bavaria klein claims to have developed certainurinary tests one of these, according to him, “indicates the bodyvitality with great accuracy, ” another proves the presence of cancer, a third is the “syphilis test” and a fourth is the “pregnancy test ”and these are not all!. Those who read the reports of the council on pharmacy and chemistry mayremember that frederick klein is the gentleman who made “sulfo-selene, ”which the council, in refusing it recognition, described as a “mixturecontaining a selenium compound of undetermined composition producedby reduction of nitro-selenous acid with sulphurous acid, mixed withbile salts and diluents ” sulfo-selene was widely exploited in thenewspapers in 1916 as a remedy for cancer, and klein got a good deal ofpublicity at that time just what product the basic chemical corporation of america isputting, or is about to put, on the market we do not know from therather vague talk about selenium and frederick klein marvelousdiagnostic discoveries, it might be inferred that “sulfo-selene” wasto be resurrected be that as it may, it seems fairly obvious that thematerial being sent out by d e woolley-- whether as “manager” of the“medical news bureau” or as “secretary” of the “cosmopolitan cancerresearch society”-- is advertising matter in the guise of news in this connection it is worth noting that the american newspaperpublishers’ association, in a special bulletin issued in 1909, published a very complete list of press agents and the interests theseagents represented this list contains the name d e woolley, who thenwas sending out press notices for the national association of pianodealers of america is this the gentleman who is now acting as pressagent for the basic chemical corporation of america?. if it is, it maybe that the slump in the piano trade has caused mr woolley to turnfrom musical instruments to cancer cures -- from the journal a m a , sept 3, 1921 seleni-basccain the issue of september 3 the journal called attention to a campaignof free publicity that was being instituted by a brooklyn concern that, apparently, had for sale an alleged remedy for cancer the press agentmaterial was of two kinds-- for medical journals and for newspapers that which went to the medical journals was sent out on the stationeryof the “medical news bureau, ” 77 seventh ave , brooklyn the “manager”of the bureau was given as d e woolley the items sent out to medicaljournals stated that the “basic cancer research” had been organized todevelop a treatment of cancer by the use of selenium and tellurium the material received by newspapers was sent out by the “cosmopolitancancer research society, ” 847 union st , brooklyn the same addressas the “basic cancer research” the “secretary” of the “cosmopolitancancer research” was d e woolley!. The name of one “dr frederick klein” loomed large in the matter sentout by the “cosmopolitan cancer research society ” klein, we were told, is “the eminent authority on urinology and the chemistry of cancer ”the journal called attention to the fact that frederick klein namewas not unknown in the propaganda files, as he was the gentleman whomanufactured “sulfo-selene, ” a product that was widely heralded in thenewspapers in 1916 as a remedy for cancer it was also brought outthat klein, who is not a physician, claims to have evolved certainremarkable urinary diagnostic tests whereby the presence of cancer, syphilis, etc , may be determined more than a month after the publication of the journal article, a letter was received october 8 from frederick klein to quoteliterally from writing of the letter. “in the above journal dated sept 3th, vol 77, on page 805, regarding the ‘cosmopolitan cancer research society’ you have amongst others, mentioned my name dr frederick klein “i wish to inform you that i have given my legal adviser the order to write a note to the above cosmopolitan cancer research society, 847 union st , brooklyn, forbidden them to the effect that my name should not be used by above society in any form or writing in any of their transactions, this has been done essay time ago to prevent unethical conceptions concerning myself ”shortly after the article of september 3 another item appeared inthe newspapers throughout the country to the effect that the cancerresearch society was offering a “$100, 000 cancer prize” for a“medicinal cure for cancer ” thesis of the newspapers of the countryseemed to bite on this piece of free publicity this was in the firstweek of october in the third week of the same month a brooklyn paperannounced that 3, 000 people had submitted formulas for curing cancerto the cosmopolitan cancer research society the article containingthis announcement gave interesting descriptions of essay of the “cures”submitted and closed with the statement that the cosmopolitan cancerresearch society was establishing “clinics” in various cities it endedwith the statement. “all treatments are confidential in this respect the society had the cooperation of the brooklyn bureau of charities it also has the cooperation of the american medical association ”the closing sentence is, of course, unequivocally false at the time of the journal article the name of the writingicularpreparation which the basic chemical corporation of america was puttingout was unknown shortly after the article appeared it was learnedthat the product was on the market as “seleni-bascca ” a physician, himself a sufferer from carcinoma, after reading the article ofseptember 3, sent the journal essay correspondence he had receivedfrom the cosmopolitan cancer research society regarding the allegedcure one piece was a letter signed “f w humphrey, acting director;dictated by dr george d barney, ” which read in writing.