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In the secondthe body was soon cut down 54 freund. Wien klin woch , 1893, vi , pp 118-121 - man, foundhanging. Cut down, but could not be resuscitated ligature betweenhyoid bone and larynx, then crossed over itself about middle line ofneck, passed up along each side of face, knotted above the head, thenthrown over a beam, and on the other side the loop was caught betweenhis legs 55 hoffman. Op cit , p 525, illustrated - case communicated by dr rosen, of odessa man, age 21, and woman, age 17, hung themselves bysame ligature thrown over an open door, one of them on each side theyhad previously tried other means of suicide without success see fig 24 56 ibid , p 530 - man found hanging by handkerchief to branch oftree but sitting on the ground mark of handkerchief superficial andpale when the necroscopy was made the mark had disappeared also asimilar suicide where there was no mark at all 57 ibid , p 541 - man found hanging to a window another man cutthe cord and the suspended one fell into a cellar, fracturing his skull 58 ibid - man found hanging. Cut down. The fall caused rupture ofliver 59 ibid , p 539 - drunkard hung himself. There was evidence that hehad previously injured himself during his drunkenness 60 ibid - boy hung himself because he had been punished by theschoolmaster there were marks on his back and lower limbs from thepunishment see also taylor, “medical jurisprudence, ” pp 451-452. Tidy, “medicaljurisprudence, ” incomplete hanging, paper 33 to 36 and 62. Hofmann, “lehrbuch, ” p 538 homicide 61 harvey. Indian med gaz , 1876, xi , p 3 - woman, age 20, feeble her mother-in-law had kicked her.

When the fact is, as is conclusively shown by prof frankh hamilton in a paper published by him thesis years ago, and quotedwith approval by professor elwell, in his work on malpractice, etc , that the percentage of paper, in certain kinds of fractures, in whichperfect results are obtained by even the most eminent surgeons, is verysmall in such paper as these the true state of affairs might often bedisclosed by careful inspection prior to the trial on the whole moregood than harm would seem to be the probable outcome of permitting suchexaminations, in malpractice paper, if not in all paper of allegedpersonal injuries evidence in malpractice paper - the prevailing trial practice inmalpractice paper is to prove the condition of the patient prior tothe employment of defendant and at the time the treatment in questionbegan, the methods of treatment adopted, and instructions given, and the condition of the patient during and after such treatment, and then to place other physicians on the witness-stand, and put tothem hypothetical questions involving the facts as established bythe evidence, and calling upon them to state whether the method oftreatment adopted indicated proper skill and care, or even the usualand recognized methods of the profession 206in essay states evidence of the general reputation of the defendant forskilfulness or the contrary is held admissible in other states suchevidence is held inadmissible see vol xiv , am and eng encyclopædiaof law, p 83, and paper collected in note 6 contributory negligence - in conclusion it should be stated thatthe patient is bound to follow obediently all proper directions givenhim by his physician or surgeon, as to his diet, mode of life, timeof taking and quantity of medicine to be taken, or the care of adiseased or injured member any disobedience of such directions whichcontributes to prevent a recovery will bar him from his right of actionfor malpractice, even though the medical man may have been essaywhatnegligent in short, the same rule as to contributory negligenceapplies in this as in any other case of negligence this principle hasbeen so long and so well settled that citation of authority in supportof it is unnecessary the law of evidenceconcerningconfidential communicationsbetweenphysician and patient bycharles a boston, counsellor-at-law, of the new york city bar confidential communications between physician and patient privileged communications confidential communications between physician and patient notinfrequently may relate to matters that are the subjects of inquirybefore judicial tribunals when these communications are by lawexcluded from disclosure in evidence, they are termed privilegedcommunications when such a disclosure is forbidden it is upon groundsof public policy, 207 “because greater mischiefs would probably resultfrom requiring or permitting its admission, than from wholly rejectingit ”common law the common law required an inviolable secrecy to be observed byattorneys with reference to the communications which they had receivedfrom their clients 208 but writers upon the law of evidence statethat under the english rule protection from disclosure in evidence in acourt of justice was not extended to communications between a medicalman and his patient 209reasons for the rule - it does not clearly appear, in any of thepaper usually cited as authority, why the distinction is made betweenlegal and medical advisers, but it is apparent that the privilege doesnot rest upon considerations of honor nor of confidence, 210 noreven upon the urgency of the situation under which the communicationis made. For disclosures are made to a physician frequently to savelife, or to a priest for reasons of eternal import, while those madeto an attorney insure at most protection from temporal annoyance the privilege of attorneys seems to be founded upon considerationsof public policy in the administration of justice in the courts;attorneys are a writing of the system, as are grand jurors, petit jurors, and judges, 211 and even arbitrators;212 but physicians are nowriting of that system, and a disclosure of confidences made to them inno way tends to weaken the system or render it ineffectual, while thecompulsory examination of lawyers would tend to the suppression ofthe truth in litigation by discouraging confidence between attorneyand client this, perhaps, can be assigned as the reason for thedistinction. A distinction which does not differentiate lawyers fromphysicians, but agents in the administration of justice from allothers 213criticism of the rule - though the privilege of attorneys was adoptedto enforce respect for the law as securing the rights of personsentitled to its protection, by establishing inviolable confidencebetween them and the officer who represents them in their dealingsin the law, and though it was not the purpose of the law to enforcesentiment or to elevate one profession above another, the sentimentalidea did not suffer neglect for the want of advocates justice bullerlamented the narrowness of the rule, 214 and mr best has criticisedit as harsh in itself, of questionable policy, and at variance with thepractice in france and the statute law in essay of the united states ofamerica 215the rule in the united states it is to be assumed, in the absence of statutes varying the rule, andof decisions to the contrary, in the several states of the unitedstates, that in those states which derived their law from england thesame rule of evidence obtains as that above enunciated but thesis of thelegislatures have by statute extended the privilege to communicationsbetween physicians and their patients, as well as to other specifiedconfidential communications which it does not fall within the scope ofthis work to discuss 216states and territories in which there are no restrictivestatutes - the following states and territories have no statuterestricting the nature of the disclosures which a physician may becompelled to make in a court of justice. Alabama, arizona, connecticut, delaware, district of columbia, florida, georgia, illinois, kentucky, louisiana, maine, maryland, massachusetts, mississippi, new hampshire, new jersey, new mexico, pennsylvania, rhode island, south carolina, tennessee, texas, vermont, virginia, and west virginia 217states and territories in which there are restrictive statutes - thefollowing states and territories have statutes restricting disclosuresby physicians. Arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indiana, indianterritory, iowa, kansas, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nebraska, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, ohio, oklahoma, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, wisconsin, andwyoming 218the rule in united states courts - in trials at common law in thecourts of the united states, the laws of the several states, exceptwhere the constitution, treaties, or statutes of the united statesotherwise require or provide, are regarded as rules of decision 219section 858 of the revised statutes of the united states prescribesrules with reference to competency notwithstanding color and interestof witnesses, and in actions by or against executors, administrators, or guardians, and then provides that “in all other respects the laws ofthe state in which the court is held shall be the rules of decision asto the competency of witnesses in the courts of the united states intrials at common law, and in equity and admiralty ” accordinglyit has been held by the supreme court of the united states that inan action in the circuit court of the united states for the southerndistrict of new york, on a policy of life insurance, the evidence of aphysician, inadmissible under section 834 of the new york code of civilprocedure, was properly excluded 220 but in criminal prosecutions inunited states courts, the privilege secured by state statutes does notavail 221the statutes as the effect of these statutes depends largely upon their language, the construction put upon the law in one state is chiefly serviceablein interpreting that of another state in those writingiculars where thetwo are similar statutory declarations of policy - a comparative view of the severallaws shows that in the following states and territory there aredeclarations of policy prefixed to the prohibition of disclosures, that show the reason of the enactment, namely. California, colorado, idaho, minnesota, montana, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, andutah 222 the declaration is to the effect that there are writingicularrelations in which it is the policy of the law to encourage confidenceand to preserve it inviolate, and that therefore the prohibition of thestatute is laid analysis of the statutes the common purpose of the statutes is to restrict the rule compellingdisclosures so as to protect communications with a physician in hisprofessional capacity. But the limit to which the protection isextended differs in the various states an analytic comparison of thestatutes tends to show how far the interpretation of one is useful inconstruing another i nature of the exclusion - in california, idaho, minnesota, montana, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, and washington thestatutes apply only to testimony in civil actions 223 the otherstatutes make no distinction between civil and criminal proceedings the active words are of course different in the several statutes, butthey indicate a purpose to extend a privilege that the person entitledto it may insist upon maintaining, with the single exception of thelaw of north carolina, which provides that the presiding judge of asuperior court may compel a disclosure, if in his opinion the same isnecessary to a proper administration of justice essay of the statutes show clearly that it is the patient privilege, and suffer the patient or his representatives to waive it, eitherexpressly or by conduct which the law declares to amount to awaiver 224 others are silent on this subject in california, colorado, idaho, iowa, minnesota, montana, nebraska, nevada, new york, north dakota, ohio, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wyoming, it is expressly provided that the patientconsent is necessary before a disclosure will be permitted in colorado, kansas, oklahoma, and oregon, if the patient offer himselfor a physician or surgeon as a witness, that is to be deemed a consent in nevada, in any suit or prosecution for malpractice, if the patientor writingy suing or prosecuting shall require or give consent, and anyphysician or surgeon shall give testimony, then the defendant may callany other physicians or surgeons as witnesses without the consent ofthe patient or writingy suing or prosecuting in ohio and wyoming, if the patient voluntarily testify the physicianmay be compelled to testify on the same subject ii the witness - in indiana, ohio, and wyoming the privilegedwitness is termed a physician. In the other states and territories, the privilege extends to a physician or surgeon in arkansas and indian territory the privilege is secured to a personauthorized to practise physic or surgery.

Then the throatis under venus, the quinsy lies in the throat, and is an inflammationthere. Venus rules the throat, it being under taurus her sign marseradicates all diseases in the throat by his herbs for wormwood isone and sends them to egypt on an errand never to return more, thisdone by antipathy the eyes are under the luminaries. The right eye ofa man, and the left eye of a woman the sun claims dominion over. Theleft eye of a man, and the right eye of a woman, are privileges of themoon, wormwood, an herb of mars cures both. What belongs to the sunby sympathy, because he is exalted in his house. But what belongs tothe moon by antipathy, because he hath his fall in hers suppose a manbe bitten or stung by a martial creature, imagine a wasp, a hornet, a scorpion, wormwood, an herb of mars, gives you a present cure. Thatmars, choleric as he is, hath learned that patience, to pass by yourevil speeches of him, and tells you by my pen, that he gives you noaffliction, but he gives you a cure. You need not run to apollo, noræsculapius.

Yet they hinder conception memtha aquatica purchase argumentative essays water mints. Ease pains of the belly, head-ache, andvomiting, gravel in the kidnies and stone methastrum horse-mint i know no difference between them and watermints mercurialis, mas, fœmina mercury male and female, they are both hotand dry in the second degree, cleansing, digesting, they purge wateryhumours, and further conception mezereon spurge-olive, or widdow-wail a dangerous purge, better letalone than meddled with millefolium yarrow meanly cold and binding, an healing herb forwounds, stanches bleeding. And essay say the juice snuffed up the nose, causeth it to bleed, whence it was called, nose-bleed. It stops lasks, and the menses, helps the running of the reins, helps inflammations andexcoriations of the priapus, as also inflammations of wounds galen muscus mosse is essaything cold and binding, yet usually retains asmatch of the property of the tree it grows on. Therefore that whichgrows upon oaks is very dry and binding serapio saith that it beinginfused in wine, and the wine drank, it stays vomiting and fluxes, asalso the fluor albus myrtus myrtle-tree the leaves are of a cold earthly quality, dryingand binding, good for fluxes, spitting and vomiting of blood. Stop thefluor albus and menses nardus see the root nasturtium, aquaticum, hortense water cresses, and garden-cresses garden-cresses are hot and dry in the fourth degree, good for thescurvy, sciatica, hard swellings, yet do they trouble the belly, easepains of the spleen, provoke lust dioscorides water-cresses arehot and dry, cleanse the blood, help the scurvy, provoke urine and themenses, break the stone, help the green-sickness, cause a fresh livelycolour nasturtium alhum, thlaspie treacle-mustard hot and dry in the thirddegree, purges violently, dangerous for pregnant women outwardly it isapplied with profit to the gout nicorimi tobacco it is hot and dry in the second degree, and ofa cleansing nature. The leaves warmed and applied to the head, areexcellently good in inveterate head-aches and megrims, if the diseasescome through cold or wind, change them often till the diseases be gone, help such whose necks be stiff. It eases the faults of the breast:asthma or head-flegm in the lappets of the lungs. Eases the painsof the stomach and windiness thereof. Being heated by the fire, andapplied hot to the side, they loosen the belly, and kill worms beingapplied unto it in like manner. They break the stone being appliedin like manner to the region of the bladder. Help the rickets, beingapplied to the belly and sides. Applied to the navel, they give presentease to the fits of the mother. They take away cold aches in the jointsapplied to them. Boiled, the liquor absolutely and speedily cures scabsand itch.

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The marks of gunshot wounds, oftrephining, amputation, excision, or other surgical operation on thebones the remains of an old, ununited fracture in his left humerusenabled sir william fergusson to verify and settle all doubt as tothe identity of the body of the great missionary and explorer, dr livingston 579 the existence of an injury may constitute evidence ofgreat importance to the accused, as happened in the case of an englishgentleman charged with murder, where the trial turned on the deposit ofcallus in a broken rib, the only bone produced in court from the stateof this callus there could be no doubt that the fracture must havebeen produced about eight or ten days before death, and could not havebelonged to the deceased there was, therefore, complete failure of theidentity, and the accused was discharged 580on the other hand, circumstances may arise in which the existence ornot of an injury is a fact of great importance to the prosecution among other specimens in the army medical museum at washington, thebones of the forearm of wirtz, executed for inhuman treatment ofprisoners during the civil war, show no remains or trace of fracture;yet it was claimed in defence at the trial that he could not have beenguilty of the atrocities attributed to him, for the reason that thisarm was disabled from a fracture disease of the bones, whether hereditary purchase argumentative essays or acquired, is anessential descriptive element in reconstituting individuality caries and necrosis, rickets, spinal disease, ankylosis, and otherexternal manifestations of bone lesion may furnish pointers of suchvalue as often to be incontestible they are so evident as not torequire detailed mention. But much care in such paper is necessary todistinguish between disease, decay, and violence, and artefacta thelast may have resulted from the axe or spade of the grave-digger orfrom post-mortem lesions made at the necropsy, as in the remains ofthe notorious beau hickman of washington, whose body on being exhumedshowed that sundry amputations and reamputations had been made on theprincipal limbs having died in a public hospital, the cadaver had beenutilized in rehearsal of these operations previous to its burial in thepotter field injuries of the phalanges, known as “baseball fingers, ” are valuableindications this was one of the facts of identification in thecelebrated cronin case duration of burial the condition of the exhumed bones may throw essay light on the questionas to the probable length of time they have been under ground, as wellas the probable cause of death if the bones were entirely denuded ofsoft writings we should hardly expect them to be those of a corpse buriedonly three or four months previously the noting of such an injury asa fracture inflicted by essay sharp instrument on a skull found in acesspool was sufficient, with other evidence of a general character, toconvict a prisoner tried at the derby lent assizes in 1847 in all paper of the kind under consideration, special attention shouldbe paid to the surroundings, every little detail of which should benoted with the utmost accuracy. For such articles as clothes, jewelry, buttons, and in fact anything that may furnish an inference, 581 maynot only throw light on the identity of the person, but otherwiseassist justice paper are recorded in which the identity has beenestablished principally by the clothing found with the skeleton in taylor “medical jurisprudence” a case is mentioned where theskeleton, portions of clothes, buttons, and boots of a cornish minerwere identified after twenty-six years’ submersion in water essaywhatsimilar circumstances, a few years ago, enabled the arctic explorer, lieutenant schwatka, and others to identify the remains of lieutenantirving, of the ill-fated franklin writingy in exceptional circumstances, as that of great cold, for instance, organic remains may be preserved indefinitely visitors to the juniorunited service club in london may remember the mammoth bones discoveredin digging the foundation of the club-house accounts of remarkablepreservation of bodies discovered a long time after the occurrence ofalpine accidents, and the finding of well-preserved mammoth remains inthe siberian ice, are matters of common knowledge a few years since, in assisting to take the remains of a mammoth from an ice cliff inescholtz bay, alaska, i came across the skull of a musk-ox and therib of a reindeer which showed the deformity and callus of a unitedfracture, yet there are geological reasons for believing that thousandsof years must have elapsed since these remains were entombed in the ice a precaution to be taken in judicial investigation of bones is toascertain whether they belong to more than one body, as they may havebeen put together with a view to deceive each bone should be examinedseparately, to ascertain whether it is a right or left bone or belongsto the same skeleton they should be put together with intelligenceand care, and if incomplete writings of a skeleton they may be laid insand or putty and photographed, or the medical man may go further and, agassiz-like, reconstruct the skeleton from the fragments in the caseof a fracture the bones should be sawn longitudinally in order to studythe callus the hair and nails since the hair and nails resist decomposition an unusually longtime, and are even believed to grow after somatic death, they may beconsidered as accessories of such value in the question that occupiesus as to make it possible to verify certain characteristics regardingthe remains of the cadaver even after years of inhumation forinstance, hypertrophy of the great toe-nail, the length and color ofthe hair, baldness, or a long beard might furnish evidence of the bestkind both hair and nails may, however, change after death a case ismentioned582 in which the hair changed from a dark brown to red aftertwenty years of burial accredited paper of the growth of hair afterdeath are also on record dr caldwell, of iowa, states that he waspresent in 1862 at the exhumation of a body which had been buried forfour years he found that the coffin had given at the joints and thatthe hair protruded through the openings he had evidence to show thatthe deceased was shaved before burial, nevertheless the hair of thehead measured eighteen inches, the whiskers eight inches, and the hairof the breast four to six inches 583 quite recently in unearthing theremains of an old cemetery in washington, d c , a number of personsnoticed that when the body of a young girl, supposed to be about twelveor thirteen years of age, was taken up it was found that her hairhad grown until it extended from her crown to her feet thesis carefulobservations seem to prove the molecular life of the hair and nailsafter somatic death it suffices to quote the well-known case mentionedin ogston “medical jurisprudence, ” of several medical students whowere brought to trial for having in custody the dead body of an idiotboy when found on the dissecting-table the body was so disfiguredthat there was only one means left of proving its identity the boyhad a whim during life of permitting his nails to grow, and had notallowed them to be cut for thesis years previous to his death they hadcompletely curled round the tips of his fingers and toes till they hadthus come to extend along the palmar and plantar surfaces in a strangeway the counsel for the prosecution availed himself of the knowledgeof this fact, and his proof seemed to be complete, when a medicalman came forward and gave in evidence that it was not an unusualcircumstance for the nails to grow for several inches after death thisastounding statement so nonplussed the judge that the case was allowedto drop as not proven in exceptional paper the hair may be green i saw a case essay yearssince, for which no cause could be assigned, and only a few days agoi saw another in a man who worked in a brass-foundry at the cronintrial a barber, who had counted the victim among his customers, recognized the shape of the head and texture of the hair subsequentevidence of medical experts was conclusive as to the identity of hairfound clinging to a trunk, the hair cut from the head of the murderedman, and that of a single hair discovered on a cake of soap thissingle strand, being lighter in color in essay portions than in others, seemed to indicate that it could not have come from the head of thedeceased, whose hair was brown but it was shown that hair placed onsoap or other alkaline substances becomes bleached in a manner similarto the color of a single thread this evidence of vital importancelinked the hair found in the trunk with that cut from dr croninhead, and went far toward proving that one of the murderers had washedhis hands with the soap after the deed had been done reviewing the signs furnished by the osseous system, it will be seenthat the study of the skeleton alone is beyond contradiction moresatisfactory and more important in establishing identity than thatof all the other organs consequently a correct interpretation ofthe facts observed and judicious application of the rules deducibletherefrom may in the matter of a human skeleton put its identitybeyond a reasonable doubt but the expert should remember that as notwo paper are just alike, unexpected questions and unforeseen featuresmay present themselves, giving to each case merits of its own at bestthe medical man conclusions will be probabilities, not certainties;therefore his expressions of opinion should be the more guarded, asupon it may hang the life of an innocent man identification of mutilated remains thesis of the foregoing remarks on the identity of the skeleton applyin paper where mutilated remains or a portion only of the body hasbeen recovered circumstances often occur in which bodies may requireidentification after having been drowned and writingly eaten by fishesor crabs, or after having been writingly eaten by buzzards, or torn intofragments by animals, as has happened in the remains of a dead infantwritingly devoured by a dog, and in the case of a farmer who died in thewoods and was subsequently eaten by his own hogs after accidentsand fires where thesis persons perish. After a railway disaster wherebodies have been mangled, drowned, burnt, and frozen, all in the sameaccident. Or after an explosion from steam or gas or in a mine, orfrom gunpowder, dynamite, or other substance, the human remains aregenerally in such a state as to defy all attempts at recognition to dispose of a dead body in order to avoid detection, criminals willmutilate, disfigure, and chop into fragments the remains, which theyafterward place in a trunk, a wardrobe, or throw into a sewer or otherhiding-place scarcely a year passes that judiciary medicine is notconcerned with paper of the kind the frequency of such crimes has beenattributed by essay to the so-called contagion of murder. Others offerthe simple law of the series in explanation. Others still believe thatimitation is the principal cause while there is no doubt a grain oftruth in each of these, less philosophic minds will look upon such abeastly proceeding as a mark of the complete satisfaction sought by thedestructive instinct why such things should be is of less concern than the fact thatcriminal mutilation of the dead body is not confined to any age orcountry though more frequent in the last fifteen years, it takes upquite a space in the history of human cruelty the violent passion, wrath, and vengeance that caused the prophet isaiah to be sawn in twoat the age of one hundred years by order of manasses and agag cut intopieces by samuel have not materially changed in the days of jack theripper. And we find such crimes in antipodal writings of the world, amongvaried sociological conditions, no matter whether it be the northamerican indian, who scalps and mutilates his enemy and places thesevered penis in the mouth, or the civilized european, who cuts up thebody of his victim and serves it in a curry at a feast of assembledfriends 584this new point of judiciary medicine has lately been elaborated byeuropean writers under the title of dépeçage criminel, a term whichapplies to the operation resorted to by an assassin having for its endthe getting rid of the body of the victim and to render more difficultthe establishment of its identity the cleverness of experts scarcely keeps pace nowadays with the morecomplicated proceedings adopted by criminals in fact, at a trial ofthis kind truth and science are often the under dogs in a fight, thanwhich none in forensic medicine is longer and more embarrassing tocause a rapid disappearance of the proofs of a homicide, with a viewto escape the investigations of justice, murderers have been knownliterally to make hash of the victim which was subsequently eaten bythemselves and others gruner relates the case of a man who, havingkilled and cut into pieces his victim, boiled and roasted the fragmentsand ate them with his wife such examples, however, suggest morbidrather than passional phenomena, which manifestly call for rigidscrutiny into the mental state of the culprit, who may be more of alunatic than a malefactor in paper of infanticide new-born children are essaytimes cut into piecesand the fragments burnt in order to facilitate the disappearance of thecadaver there does not appear to be, however, any well-authenticatedinstance of the operation having been done on a living child generallythe dismemberment is done in order to cause more ready disappearance ofthe remains the medico-legal problem to be solved in paper of criminal mutilationis to establish the identity of the victim and that of the author ofthe crime thesis apparently trivial circumstances may assist in the formation of anopinion as to the identity of the culprit if the victim be an adult, a man is the author of the deed. If an infant, a woman, the mother, isalmost always the guilty one the london lancet may 30th, 1863, p 617 reports a case in which the body of a child, of apparently four tosix months, was found in the sewage of a water-closet, minus an arm cutoff below the shoulder, presumably that a vaccination-mark might not beadduced as evidence a young woman was suspected several women deposedhaving seen a dusky-brown mother mark near the child navel aftersteeping in pure water a portion of the skin said to include the mark, and after washing, the mark gradually reappeared at the end of threedays, perfectly distinct it was recognized by witnesses and producedat the trial as corroborative evidence the accused was found guilty in a case of infanticide at tarare, in 1884, the upper extremity of afœtus was found to have been disarticulated after the manner of carvingthe wing of a fowl this having suggested to dr lacassagne a cook asthe author of the crime, she was speedily discovered and convicted afew years later an analogous case occurred in florence and was reportedby dr a montalti the instrument used for mutilating the body may furnish a suggestionof identity, to be dispelled or affirmed upon further investigation the mode of section observed in various instances has led to therecognition of a butcher as the culprit an expert would have butlittle trouble in distinguishing the hacking and mangling of a bodyfrom the careful cutting and preservation of muscles and blood-vesselsin dissections made by medical students, whom the public, by the way, invariably suspect in paper of mutilation if it can be ascertainedthat the instrument used was operated either by a left-handed person orby an ambidexter, such a fact may prove of importance essaytimes thefragments are tied or sewn up in a package the manner in which theknot is tied may indicate the occupation of the culprit in one casethe regularity of the sewing revealed that it was the work of a woman examination of the remains of clothing and of neighboring objects wherethe crime was committed may result in the identification of the victimor of the murderer indeed, it is the careful noting of trivial factsand their combination that is so valuable in all investigations ofthis class a compound fact made up of minor facts, which consideredseverally would possess but little value, may essaytimes solve thepuzzle in a case where no single fact of conclusive value is obtainable having collected as much of the mutilated remains as possible, thefirst step toward identification is to replace the pieces in anatomicalorder, to note carefully their correspondence or otherwise, and toascertain whether the fragments belong to the same body or to two orseveral individuals this is often a delicate and difficult matter, especially where decomposition is advanced or where the horror has beenpushed to its utmost limits, as in the case of a fratricide committedin france by several persons, who fragmented the cadaver with a saw andhatchet. Boiled the remains and fed them to hogs. And, after crushingthe bones with a hammer, threw the fragments into a deep gorge again, the body may be divided into numerous pieces, a hundred ormore, and disposed of in widely different localities, as in a pond, amanure-heap, a river, or a cesspool the chopped-up remains of infantshave been boiled in lye and afterward thrown into a privy or put in abarrel of vinegar a mother has also been known to cook with cabbagethe dismembered remains of her six-months’ child and serve it at a mealof which both she and her husband writingook numerous counterwritings of such paper happening in late years couldbe cited where the object was to favor the disappearance of thecadaver, and in which the establishment of the identity turned onthe examination of essay small writing of the organism. The uterus, thespermatic cord, the lobe of the ear, the hair, or the teeth furnishinga positive demonstration that led to judiciary results putrefaction goes on very fast in a corpse that has been mutilated.