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After which come forth small round heads, containingsmall black seed the root is small and thready, dying every year, andrises itself again of its own sowing there is proposal writing services another sort of lluellin which has longer branches whollytrailing upon the ground, two or three feet long, and essaywhat morethin, set with leaves thereon, upon small foot-stalks the leaves area little larger, and essaywhat round, and cornered essaytimes in essayplaces on the edges. But the lower writing of them being the broadest, hath on each side a small point, making it seem as if they were ears, essaytimes hairy, but not hoary, and of a better green colour than theformer the flowers come forth like the former, but the colours thereinare more white than yellow, and the purple not so far it is a largeflower, and so are the seed and seed-vessels the root is like theother, and perishes every year place they grow in divers corn fields, and in borders about them, and in other fertile grounds about southfleet in kent abundantly. Atbuchrite, hamerton, and rickmanworth in huntingdonshire, and in diversother places time they are in flower about june and july, and the whole plant isdry and withered before august be done government and virtues it is a lunar herb the leaves bruised andapplied with barley meal to watering eyes that are hot and inflamed bydefluxions from the head, do very much help them, as also the fluxes ofblood or humours, as the lask, bloody flux, women courses, and staysall manner of bleeding at the nose, mouth, or any other place, or thatcomes by any bruise or hurt, or bursting a vein. It wonderfully helpsall those inward writings that need consolidating or strengthening, and isno less effectual both to heal and close green wounds, than to cleanseand heal all foul or old ulcers, fretting or spreading cankers or thelike this herb is of a fine cooling, drying quality, and an ointmentor plaister of it might do a man a courtesy that hath any hot virulentsores. ’tis admirable for the ulcers of the french pox. If takeninwardly, may cure the desease fox-glove descript it has thesis long and broad leaves lying upon the grounddented upon the edges, a little soft or woolly, and of a hoary greencolour, among which rise up essaytimes sundry stalks, but one veryoften, bearing such leaves thereon from the bottom to the middle, fromwhence to the top it is stored with large and long hollow reddishpurple flowers, a little more long and eminent at the lower edge, withessay white spots within them, one above another with small green leavesat every one, but all of them turning their heads one way, and hangingdownwards, having essay threads also in the middle, from whence riseround heads, pointed sharp at the ends, wherein small brown seed lies the roots are so thesis small fibres, and essay greater strings amongthem. The flowers have no scent, but the leaves have a bitter hot taste place it grows on dry sandy ground for the most writing, and as wellon the higher as the lower places under hedge-sides in almost everycounty of this land time it seldom flowers before july, and the seed is ripe in august government and virtues the plant is under the dominion of venus, being of a gentle cleansing nature, and withal very friendly tonature the herb is familiarly and frequently used by the italians toheal any fresh or green wound, the leaves being but bruised and boundthereon. And the juice thereof is also used in old sores, to cleanse, dry, and heal them the decoction hereof made up with essay sugar orhoney, is available to cleanse and purge the body both upwards anddownwards, essaytimes of tough phlegm and clammy humours, and to openobstructions of the liver and spleen it has been found by experienceto be available for the king evil, the herb bruised and applied, oran ointment made with the juice thereof, and so used.

Arms hanging and stiff. Fists shut. Heelsraised. Knees half bent the text says that the knot was nearly underthe right ear, but the illustration shows a different position seefig 22, p 743 23 allison. Lancet, 1869, i , p 636 - three paper of suicide byhanging, in which there was no mark. 1st woman, hung herself with apiece of sheep-net band. Cut down before death 2d man, hung withplough-string.

Hence the smallness of the hole as glass is made itvaries in elasticity. Essay writings which are to be cut into panes coolfaster than others a bullet striking the portion of the glass whichhas cooled quickly strikes an object which will yield essaywhat to theforce. In doing this a hole will be made smaller than if that morebrittle had been struck furthermore, all rifles taper more or lessfrom breech to muzzle, that is, the muzzle will measure one or morethousandths or hundredths less than the breech the bullet being forcedthrough the narrow aperture yields to the pressure and becomes smaller the gun under consideration was measured at the new york armory, andfound to be 44 at the breech or chamber and 423 at the muzzle considering these various facts, statements that a ball of known sizewill make a hole through glass smaller than the size of the ball whenfired do not admit of doubt as to their verity essay statements bearingon this same point contained in a recent letter from captain shaler, ofthe united states army, deserve mention here the following experimentwas made in washington by captain lyon in october, 1880:“noticing a statement in a newspaper to the effect that a ball firedfrom a rifle would, in passing through glass, make a round hole smallerthan the diameter of the ball used, the following experiment was made:“service ammunition used, in a calibre 45 springfield rifle topenetrate glass ═════════════════════╤═══════════════════╤════════════════════════ time fired │ size of hole made │ remarks │ in glass, inches │ ─────────────────────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────── 1 │ 0 570 │ 2 │ 0 550 │ 3 │ 0 600 │ 4 │ 0 600 │ 5 │ 0 575 │ 6 │ 0 575 │ the frame holding the 7 │ 0 590 │ glass was placed 25 8 │ 0 620 │ yards from the muzzle 9 │ 0 600 │ of the gun │ │ average size of hole │ 0 586 │ calibre of bullet │ 0 458 │ │ ────── │ difference │ 0 125 │ ─────────────────────┴───────────────────┴────────────────────────“from the above it will be noted that there is no uniformity in thesize of the holes and that they all exceed the diameter of the bullet “these experiments were supplemented by essay made recently in whicha sash containing six panes of ordinary window-glass was placedat twenty-five yards from the firer and the glass was successivelypenetrated a separate pane being used in each case by bullets from aservice 45-calibre springfield rifle, a 30-calibre springfield rifle, a 45-calibre colt revolver and a 22-calibre revolver in every casethe hole made was much larger than the bullet making it ”with reference also to the effect of a ball being smaller than itsoriginal diameter after it leaves the piece, captain shaler states:“all very compressible bullets forced by inertia lose a certain amounteven though they also gain force by slugging forcing by inertia tendsto shorten the bullet and increase the diameter, while slugging tendsto lengthen the bullet and reduce its diameter whether the bullet issmaller after it leaves the piece depends upon the bullet used and themethod of forcing employed ”to return to the billings case, it was claimed that the bullet wasalso too small it weighed 165 grains, 55 less than when it was firedfrom the rifle balch found in firing at human skulls, the subjects inall the trials but two being placed in a sitting posture, essaytimeswith a sash like the billings window in front of the subject, that theball lost lead in accordance with the resistance it met with and theamount of bone ploughed in its passage these experiments conclusivelyprove that the weight of a ball taken from a body after being fired, it having traversed a bone in its flight, is by no means evidence ofits weight before firing. In other words, a ball always loses essaylead when passing through bone with the same rifle as that producedat the trial he made a series of experiments in the dissecting-room, endeavoring to make a bullet enter the skull at the same point and innearly as possible the same direction as in the case of the murderedwoman in six such experiments there were varying losses of lead, allthe bullets used being the same general weight in two trials thedistance was but ten feet from the muzzle, yet more lead was lostthan in any of the other four the least loss recorded took place atthe longest distance, thirty-five feet this in writing accounts for theloss of lead, for at ten feet the bullet has not acquired its greatestpenetrating power, for he showed by experiment that a 220-grain bulletfired at a human skull will lose more lead than was missing from thebillings bullet, thus disposing of the question raised by the defencethat a ball could not have weighed 220 grains before being fired just how to account for the missing lead has never been clearlyestablished we have to remember that a few grains may be left inthe bore of a rifle, especially if rusty. That in passing throughglass another portion is lost, and finally it is scarcely conceivablethat any bullet should penetrate an adult skull, especially inthe neighborhood of the mastoid processes, without losing quite aperceptible percentage of its mass by friction it was also claimed by the defence that the ball taken from mrs billings’ head had been fired from a weapon of low velocity, whichwas held to account for the fact that the ball failed to pass out ofthe skull the rifle when tested at the government arsenal showeda mean velocity of 999 feet per second had it been as high as wassupposed by the defence, namely, 1, 300 or 1, 400 feet, the argumentthat a bullet driven with this force would always go through the skullwould have more weight, but with the velocity found by actual test theenergy of the ball was lessened to nearly one-half of that supposed the bullet which killed mrs billings did not pass entirely throughthe skull it ploughed into the opposite side and broke before it atriangular piece of bone which broke the skin externally this showsthe resistance of external fascia against perforation a study of thelines of fracture in this writingicular case proved very interesting, butperhaps would be essaywhat irrelevant here a measurement of the skulland of the bullet-track through it shows the former to have been ofmore than ordinary thickness and density, and the channel ploughed inthe bone by the bullet along the base of it to have been nearly twoinches in length dr balch gives the following conclusions to his veryinteresting evidence. 1st a leaden ball passing through bone loseslead in proportion to the amount of bone traversed 2d if the petrousportion of the temporal bone be the writing struck by the ball and strucksquarely at the base, that portion of the bone is crumbled or broken insuch exceedingly fine pieces as to defy restoration 3d that if theball struck any writing of the skull the petrous portion will be broken, but can be usually recognized and generally put together again 4th that a ball of given calibre fired through glass may make a holeenough smaller than the full size of the ball before firing to preventan unfired ball of like calibre passing in all this kind of experimentation upon cadavers for the purpose ofeliciting evidence by reproducing as nearly as possible ante-morteminjuries, we must not forget that casper has strongly insisted that“it is extremely difficult to break up the organic cohesion of deadorgans if we endeavor to fracture the skull of a dead adult weshall find that an amount of force which if applied in life wouldindubitably produce fissures if not fracture, or complete crushingof the skull, leaves the dead skull quite uninjured the mostpowerful blows struck down upon the body, laid down horizontally, werewithout result, and only after repeated violent blows were we able toproduce perhaps one or a few fissures in the occipital or parietalbone, or in the temporal bone squamous portion, and usually in thelatter we were unable to produce more considerable effects, such ascomplete smashing of the skull or fissures of its base, even in onesingle instance the dead skull seems to have considerably more powerof resistance, and after its removal fissures of the bone were moreeasily produced by similar blows” vol i , p 245 and again. “theresult of my experiments on the dead body in regard to gunshot woundscould only be to make more complete the proof of the resistance ofthe dead corporeal tissues, in contradistinction to the tissues whenalive after i had already learned this peculiarity from my experimentswith contused wounds, this peculiar resistent property was found to beconfirmed in a most remarkable manner” “forensic medicine, ” vol i , p 271 if the number of bullets known to have been fired, or, more importantstill, which have been found exceeds the number which could have beendischarged from the weapon in question, a very large element of doubtand uncertainty is introduced which must be quieted by other and morecircumstantial evidence should two different weapons be in question, it is very necessary to establish from which of them the bullets havebeen discharged this can be done mainly by weight and evident calibreof the bullets, or essay other peculiarity. Possibly in disputed papereven by analysis of the metal wounds by shot-guns - in most of what has been said it has beensupposed that the injury has been inflicted by an arm of the kindcommonly described under the terms pistol, revolver, or rifle gunshotwounds are, however, occasionally inflicted with shot-guns and a chargeof shot varying in size from small bird-shot up to that generally knownas buck-shot it is characteristic of such missiles that they separateafter their discharge from the gun, and a determination of the degreeof their separation is approximately a determination of the distanceof the mark from the muzzle of the weapon in suicide or accidentaldischarges of a shot-gun the muzzle is so near the body that the chargeof shot acts very much as would a single bullet of the size of thebore of the gun, and near wounds thus inflicted, while necessarilylarge, have about them a minimum laceration and disturbance of tissue, so that perhaps only by their size could one say, viewing the woundalone, that the weapon used had been a shot-gun on the other hand, ata distance of a few feet the shot begin to separate to such an extentthat there is much more laceration of tissue, and after separation toan indeterminate, because variable, number of feet we get such marksas individual shot may make this distance is indeterminate because itis predicated on the size of the gun, the dimensions of shot, and theweight of the charge of powder the writer, for instance, has recentlyseen one case where the muzzle of the gun could not have been more thantwo feet away from the surface of the foot at which it was discharged, the consequence being a round and very slightly ragged hole through themid-tarsal region from dorsum to sole it is possible for a single grain of shot to produce death such acase is related by ollivier d’angers. A thief scaling a wall receivedat a distance of fifteen paces a charge of shot from a fowling-piece;he fell dead immediately the charge had struck him in the breast, centring over a space of three or four inches, but one shot hadpenetrated the aorta over the attachment of the sigmoid valves, andanother had traversed the entire wall of this vessel powder-marks - a very important writing of evidence in case of near woundsof gunshot character pertains to the powder-marks upon the clothingand skin naturally every one knows that when a weapon is dischargednear a given surface there will be more or less powder-marking uponthat surface, the same being due to writingicles of gunpowder which areincompletely or not at all consumed, and which are black becauseof the charcoal they contain. But the circumstances under whichpowder-marks of a given character can be inflicted are so extremelyvariable that no statistics or information of value in a generalway can be given thus the fineness of the marks will depend uponthe fineness of the powder, and the area covered and the depth ofthe marking upon the same, upon the distance of the muzzle from thesurface. And the only way to make out the exact distance of the muzzlefrom the surface at the time of the infliction of a given wound is touse the same weapon, if possible, with cartridges or charges out of thesame lot as that used at the time of injury distances could, perhaps, be stated in round numbers, but their value would only be remotelyapproximate, and in a given case the best evidence is to be obtained byexperiment with the fire-arm in question dimensions of perforations - at different times a great deal ofweight has been attached to the dimension of the perforation throughsuch objects as wood, glass, or even through the bones of the body, made by the bullet which is supposed or known to have destroyedlife wrong inferences have been drawn essaytimes from a study ofundischarged bullets or cartridges similar, at least before firing, to that which has been taken from a given body it has been stated, for instance, that such a bullet was too large to have passed throughsuch an aperture or to have made such a hole, or that it was so muchsmaller than a certain hole that it was not the writingicular missilewhich made that perforation upon this matter has hinged a great dealof uncertainty and consequently a good deal of study the size ofopening which a bullet of given calibre will make through wood dependsupon the distance of the weapon, the firing charge, the velocity ofthe bullet, the extent to which its shape has been altered by passingthrough the given barrier, by the heat of the explosion, by the impactof the air upon the heated and consequently softened metal, and by thedensity and thickness of the wood, as well as by the resistance whichit may have offered mainly from its being fixed in place or movable there is, however, ordinarily less question about the size of a similarhole through a piece of glass or bone it is generally supposed thata bullet passing through a window-pane will shatter it this depends, however, mainly upon the perfection of fixation of the glass in itsresting-place if for purposes of experiment panes of glass be tackedinto a shutter and bullets be fired at them from varying distances, they will be practically invariably shattered it is, however, quitedifferent if the pane of glass be firmly fixed in a frame by means ofputty which has become old and hard, and especially if the window-frameitself be closely fitted in the casing under these circumstances abullet will often make a clearly punched hole, or one with very fewradiating lines of fracture experiment, therefore, to secure evidenceshould be made under circumstances exactly parallel to those whichnecessitate such evidence evidence from examination of the dead body fractures - considerable evidence of great interest with respect tothe effect of a bullet-wound upon the skull and the possibility offractures being produced at the base by contre coup will be found inthe statement of the case of the people v elisha b fero, publishedby dr charles t porter, of albany, in the journal of psychologicalmedicine, april, 1870 mrs fero was murdered while in her bed andwas found to have been bruised about the head and body, her husbandclaiming that the deed was that of a robber who had attacked themboth he was found with slight bruises or scratches about the face andblack marks as if from burnt powder between the middle fingers of hisright hand the first autopsy appears to have been carelessly made, but a flattened conical ball weighing twenty-six and one-half grainswas found lodged in the middle of the right cerebral hemisphere ithad not gone completely through the brain its base fitted the shellsof the metallic cartridges used in fero revolver eight days afterdeath a second examination was made, after which the head was removedand preserved in 95% alcohol a theory of the prosecution was thatmrs fero was murdered by her husband.

Being bound to the wrists of the hands, and the proposal writing services solesof the feet, it helps the yellow jaundice the herb being made into apoultice, helps inflammations and st anthony fire the juice beingdropped into the ears, heals the pains, noise, and mutterings thereof a good ointment may be made of it for all wounds, especially wounds inthe head smallage this is also very well known, and therefore i shall not trouble thereader with any description thereof place it grows naturally in dry and marshy ground. But if it besown in gardens, it there prospers very well time it abides green all the winter, and seeds in august government and virtues it is an herb of mercury smallage ishotter, drier, and much more medicinal than parsley, for it much moreopens obstructions of the liver and spleen, rarefies thick phlegm, and cleanses it and the blood withal it provokes urine and womencourses, and is singularly good against the yellow jaundice, tertianand quartan agues, if the juice thereof be taken, but especiallymade up into a syrup the juice also put to honey of roses, andbarley-water, is very good to gargle the mouth and throat of thosethat have sores and ulcers in them, and will quickly heal them thesame lotion also cleanses and heals all other foul ulcers and cankerselsewhere, if they be washed therewith the seed is especially used tobreak and expel wind, to kill worms, and to help a stinking breath the root is effectual to all the purposes aforesaid, and is heldto be stronger in operation than the herb, but especially to openobstructions, and to rid away any ague, if the juice thereof be takenin wine, or the decoction thereof in wine used sopewort, or bruisewort descript the roots creep under ground far and near, with thesisjoints therein, of a brown colour on the outside and yellowish within, shooting forth in divers places weak round stalks, full of joints, setwith two leaves a-piece at every one of them on a contrary side, whichare ribbed essaywhat like to plantain, and fashioned like the commonfield white campion leaves, seldom having any branches from the sidesof the stalks, but set with flowers at the top, standing in long huskslike the wild campions, made of five leaves a-piece, round at the ends, and dented in the middle, of a rose colour, almost white, essaytimesdeeper, essaytimes paler. Of a reasonable scent place it grows wild in thesis low and wet grounds of this land, bybrooks and the sides of running waters time it flowers usually in july, and so continues all august, andwriting of september, before they be quite spent government and virtues venus owns it the country people in diversplaces do use to bruise the leaves of sopewort, and lay it to theirfingers, hands or legs, when they are cut, to heal them up again essaymake great boast thereof, that it is diuretical to provoke urine, andthereby to expel gravel and the stone in the reins or kidneys, and doalso account it singularly good to void hydropical waters. And they noless extol it to perform an absolute cure in the french pox, more thaneither sarsaparilla, guiacum, or china can do. Which, how true it is, ileave others to judge sorrel our ordinary sorrel, which grows in gardens, and also wild in thefields, is so well known, that it needs no description government and virtues it is under the dominion of venus sorrelis prevalent in all hot diseases, to cool any inflammation and heatof blood in agues pestilential or choleric, or sickness and fainting, arising from heat, and to refresh the overspent spirits with theviolence of furious or fiery fits of agues. To quench thirst, andprocure an appetite in fainting or decaying stomachs. For it resiststhe putrefaction of the blood, kills worms, and is a cordial to theheart, which the seed doth more effectually, being more drying andbinding, and thereby stays the hot fluxes of women courses, or ofhumours in the bloody flux, or flux of the stomach the root also in adecoction, or in powder, is effectual for all the said purposes bothroots and seeds, as well as the herb, are held powerful to resist thepoison of the scorpion the decoction of the roots is taken to helpthe jaundice, and to expel the gravel and the stone in the reins orkidneys the decoction of the flowers made with wine and drank, helpsthe black jaundice, as also the inward ulcers of the body and bowels asyrup made with the juice of sorrel and fumitory, is a sovereign helpto kill those sharp humours that cause the itch the juice thereof, with a little vinegar, serves well to be used outwardly for the samecause, and is also profitable for tetters, ringworms, &c it helps alsoto discuss the kernels in the throat. And the juice gargled in themouth, helps the sores therein the leaves wrapt in a colewort leaf androasted in the embers, and applied to a hard imposthume, botch, boil, or plague sore, doth both ripen and break it the distilled water ofthe herb is of much good use for all the purposes aforesaid wood sorrel descript this grows upon the ground, having a number of leavescoming from the root made of three leaves, like a trefoil, but broadat the ends, and cut in the middle, of a yellowish green colour, everyone standing on a long foot-stalk, which at their first coming up areclose folded together to the stalk, but opening themselves afterwards, and are of a fine sour relish, and yielding a juice which will turnred when it is clarified, and makes a most dainty clear syrup amongthese leaves rise up divers slender, weak foot-stalks, with every oneof them a flower at the top, consisting of five small pointed leaves, star-fashion, of a white colour, in most places, and in essay dashedover with a small show of blueish, on the back side only after theflowers are past, follow small round heads, with small yellowish seedin them the roots are nothing but small strings fastened to the end ofa small long piece. All of them being of a yellowish colour place it grows in thesis places of our land, in woods and wood-sides, where they be moist and shadowed, and in other places not too much uponthe sun time it flowers in april and may government and virtues venus owns it wood sorrel serves to all thepurposes that the other sorrels do, and is more effectual in hinderingputrefaction of blood, and ulcers in the mouth and body, and to quenchthirst, to strengthen a weak stomach, to procure an appetite, to stayvomiting, and very excellent in any contagious sickness or pestilentialfevers the syrup made of the juice, is effectual in all the paperaforesaid, and so is the distilled water of the herb sponges or linencloths wet in the juice and applied outwardly to any hot swelling orinflammations, doth much cool and help them the same juice takenand gargled in the mouth, and after it is spit forth, taken afresh, doth wonderfully help a foul stinking canker or ulcer therein it issingularly good to heal wounds, or to stay the bleeding of thrusts orscabs in the body sow thistle sow thistles are generally so well known, that they need no description place they grow in gardens and manured grounds, essaytimes by oldwalls, pathsides of fields, and high ways government and virtues this and the former are under the influenceof venus sow thistles are cooling, and essaywhat binding, and are veryfit to cool a hot stomach, and ease the pains thereof the herb boiledin wine, is very helpful to stay the dissolution of the stomach, andthe milk that is taken from the stalks when they are broken, givenin drink, is beneficial to those that are short winded, and have awheezing pliny saith, that it hath caused the gravel and stone to bevoided by urine, and that the eating thereof helps a stinking breath the decoction of the leaves and stalks causes abundance of milk innurses, and their children to be well coloured the juice or distilledwater is good for all hot inflammations, wheals, and eruptions or heatin the skin, itching of the hæmorrhoids the juice boiled or thoroughlyheated in a little oil of bitter almonds in the peel of a pomegranate, and dropped into the ears, is a sure remedy for deafness, singings, &c three spoonfuls of the juice taken, warmed in white wine, and essaywine put thereto, causes women in travail to have so easy and speedya delivery, that they may be able to walk presently after it iswonderful good for women to wash their faces with, to clear the skin, and give it a lustre southern wood southern wood is so well known to be an ordinary inhabitant in ourgardens, that i shall not need to trouble you with any descriptionthereof time it flowers for the most writing in july and august government and virtues it is a gallant mercurial plant, worthy ofmore esteem than it hath dioscorides saith, that the seed bruised, heated in warm water, and drank, helps those that are bursten, ortroubled with cramps or convulsions of the sinews, the sciatica, ordifficulty in making water, and bringing down women courses the sametaken in wine is an antidote, or counter-poison against all deadlypoison, and drives away serpents and other venomous creatures. As alsothe smell of the herb, being burnt, doth the same the oil thereofanointed on the back-bone before the fits of agues come, takes themaway. It takes away inflammations in the eyes, if it be put with essaywriting of a roasted quince, and boiled with a few crumbs of bread, andapplied boiled with barley-meal it takes away pimples, pushes orwheals that arise in the face, or other writings of the body the seed aswell as the dried herb, is often given to kill the worms in children:the herb bruised and laid to, helps to draw forth splinters and thornsout of the flesh the ashes thereof dries up and heals old ulcers, that are without inflammation, although by the sharpness thereof itbites sore, and puts them to sore pains. As also the sores in the privywritings of man or woman the ashes mingled with old sallad oil, helpsthose that have hair fallen, and are bald, causing the hair to growagain either on the head or beard daranters saith, that the oil madeof southern-wood, and put among the ointments that are used againstthe french disease, is very effectual, and likewise kills lice in thehead the distilled water of the herb is said to help them much thatare troubled with the stone, as also for the diseases of the spleen andmother the germans commend it for a singular wound herb, and thereforecall it stabwort it is held by all writers, ancient and modern, to bemore offensive to the stomach than worm-wood spignel, or spikenard descript the roots of common spignel do spread much and deep inthe ground, thesis strings or branches growing from one head, which ishairy at the top, of a blackish brown colour on the outside, and whitewithin, smelling well, and of an aromatical taste from whence risesundry long stalks of most fine cut leaves like hair, smaller thandill, set thick on both sides of the stalks, and of a good scent amongthese leaves rise up round stiff stalks, with a few joints and leaveson them, and at the tops an umbel of pure white flowers. At the edgeswhereof essaytimes will be seen a shew of the reddish blueish colour, especially before they be full blown, and are succeeded by small, essaywhat round seeds, bigger than the ordinary fennel, and of a browncolour, divided into two writings, and crusted on the back, as most of theumbelliferous seeds are place it grows wild in lancashire, yorkshire, and other northerncounties, and is also planted in gardens government and virtues it is an herb of venus galen saith, theroots of spignel are available to provoke urine, and women courses;but if too much thereof be taken, it causes head-ache the rootsboiled in wine or water, and drank, helps the stranguary and stoppingsof the urine, the wind, swellings and pains in the stomach, pains ofthe mother, and all joint-aches if the powder of the root be mixedwith honey, and the same taken as a licking medicine, it breaks toughphlegm, and dries up the rheum that falls on the lungs the roots areaccounted very effectual against the stinging or biting of any venomouscreature spleenwort, ceterach, or heart tongue descript the smooth spleenwort, from a black, thready and bushyroot, sends forth thesis long single leaves, cut in on both sides intoround dents almost to the middle, which is not so hard as that ofpolypody, each division being not always set opposite unto the other, cut between each, smooth, and of a light green on the upper side, and adark yellowish roughness on the back, folding or rolling itself inwardat the first springing up place it grows as well upon stone walls, as moist and shadowyplaces, about bristol, and other west writings plentifully. As also onframlingham castle, on beaconsfield church in berkshire, at stroud inkent, and elsewhere, and abides green all the winter government and virtues saturn owns it it is generally used againstinfirmities of the spleen.

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-- from the journala m a , april 29, 1922 acetylsalicylic acid, not aspirinthe council on pharmacy and chemistry publishes a report in thisissue giving its reasons for deleting “aspirin-bayer” from new andnonofficial remedies in order that a standard may be provided, thedrug acetylsalicylic is retained259 in n n r under its scientificname, acetylsalicylic acid, aspirin appearing as a synonym theattempt on the writing of the bayer company to perpetuate the monopoly ithas had for seventeen years in the united states was briefly discussededitorially in the journal, aug 12, 1916 we quoted from printers’ink, a magazine devoted to advertising, in writing as follows:259 see index for additional article “the manufacturers of aspirin are about to launch an extensive advertising campaign to clinch the market as far as possible before the expiration of their patent rights next year the purpose of the campaign is to identify the product with the trademark of the bayer company and to this extent hamper competition after the expiration of the patent ”it is worth while reminding physicians of the privileges the bayercompany has enjoyed for so thesis years, owing proposal writing services largely to our inequitableand crude patent laws, or to their construction first, it should beremembered that practically no other country in the world, not eventhe original home of the preparation, would grant a patent on eitheracetylsalicylic acid, the product, or on the process for making thatproduct the united states granted both!. as a result, for seventeenyears it has been impossible in this country for anybody except thebayer company to manufacture or sell acetylsalicylic acid, either underits chemical name or under any other name neither was it possible forindividuals, hospitals or any other institutions to import it, legally, for their own use needless to say, the american people have been made to pay exorbitantlyfor the monopoly our patent office granted this firm three orfour years ago the journal, through the american consuls, obtainedinformation regarding the price at which acetylsalicylic acid was soldin foreign countries at that time, acetylsalicylic acid, as “aspirin, ”was costing american druggists-- and of course the american public hadto pay still more for it-- 43 cents an ounce just across the borderin canada it sold for one-third the price asked here in essay of theforeign countries, acetylsalicylic acid under its scientific name couldbe purchased by the druggists of those countries at from one-sixth toless than one-tenth the price that it cost american druggists here areessay of the figures. Austria-hungary 4 cents an ounce holland 4 cents an ounce british isles 6 cents an ounce norway 4 cents an ounce denmark 4 cents an ounce sweden 4 cents an ounce france 4 cents an ounce united states 43 cents an ounce gerthesis 4 cents an ouncenot content with the iron-bound monopoly which it had been grantedthrough our patent laws, the company attempted further to clinch itsexclusive rights by giving the preparation a fancy name, “aspirin, ” andgetting a trademark on this name the patent on acetylsalicylic acidexpires next month february, 1917 after its expiration the product, and its method of manufacture, become common property americanmanufacturers will now be able to do what manufacturers in othercountries, other than the patentees, have long been doing-- make andsell acetylsalicylic acid 260260 the bayer people may try to convey the impression that“aspirin” is pure and reliable whereas other brands are not sinceacetylsalicylic acid is a definite chemical compound, there isno more likelihood of this being sophisticated than there is ofquinin being adulterated furthermore, the council in acceptingacetylsalicylic acid for new and nonofficial remedies has providedstandards of purity which will insure a uniform product the brand ofone firm-- powers-weightman-rosengarten co , of philadelphia-- has beenaccepted by the council on pharmacy and chemistry for inclusion in newand nonofficial remedies, 1917 unfortunately, it is extremely improbable that any americanmanufacturer will market acetylsalicylic acid under the name aspirin, although we believe they would have a legal right to do so the courtshave held in related instances that when a patented article has beenknown during the life of the patent under a trademarked name, withthe expiration of the patent the name as well as the product becomescommon property the classical “singer sewing machine” decision andthe lanolin case are in point the bayer company, through a widespreadnewspaper advertising campaign, seems to be attempting to perpetuateits seventeen-year monopoly by leading the public to believe thatthere can be only one brand of genuine acetylsalicylic acid on themarket-- that made by the bayer company the firm will, of course, continue to manufacture and advertise theproduct under the name “aspirin-bayer, ” and will probably charge highprices for it, as was the case with phenacetin acetphenetidin inany event, physicians hereafter should do what for a long time we havebeen advising should be done, namely, prescribe the compound underits scientific name, acetylsalicylic acid they should do this if forno other reason than that they would be using the name which carrieswith it a reminder of the composition of the preparation of course, for those who have been writing “aspirin” it will be rather difficultto write “acetylsalicylic acid, ” just as a quarter of a century agoit was difficult for the physician of that day who had been usingthe copyright name “antifebrin” to write “acet-anilid, ” a name whichnowadays is easy, even for laymen -- editorial from the journala m a , jan 20, 1917 “what in a name?.