History

Proposal Essay Outline


It will, however, be listed in the “describedbut not accepted” dewritingment of new and nonofficial remedies thereport on apothesine that follows has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary apothesine, “the hydrochlorid of diethyl-amino-propyl-cinnamate, ” isan efficient local anesthetic it belongs to the procain rather thanto the cocain type, that is, it belongs to that type which, whileeffective for injection anesthesia especially when combined withepinephrin is relatively inefficient when applied to mucous membranes apothesine may also be used for spinal anesthesia its absolutetoxicity is less than that of cocain proposal essay outline as 20 is to 15, see table belowbut about twice that of procain as 20 is to 40, see table below itis non-irritant, is easily soluble and makes a stable solution so thatit may readily be sterilized the council took exception to certain claims made by parke, davis &company for their product on the ground that these claims were notsupported by acceptable scientific evidence one of the claims wasthat apothesine is applicable in any case in which any other localanesthetic is used this statement, made in thesis advertisements, is distinctly misleading as used when applied to mucous membranesapothesine is far inferior to cocain and to essay other localanesthetics, yet the claim obviously suggests that apothesine is anefficient substitute for any local anesthetic the manufacturers claimed, too, that apothesine is as potent as cocain the claim would lead the physician to think that apothesine had thesame anesthetic potency as cocain in solution of equal strength thisstatement, so far as it refers to the drug when applied to mucousmembranes, is not in accord with the facts and is true for injectionanesthesia only when stronger solutions are used the only supportfor the claim of equal efficiency appears to be the experiments withintracutaneous injections made by h c hamilton130 in parke, davis &company laboratory these differed considerably from the results ofsollmann 131 a further series of experiments were made by sollmannto compare still further the diverse results previously reportedby him and hamilton the latest series, while showing considerablevariations in the susceptibility of different skin areas, especiallytoward apothesine, demonstrated in every case that the efficiency ofapothesine is unmistakably lower than that of cocain, being at best onehalf the series also showed that the potency of apothesine was nevergreater than procain and averaged considerably below it 130 the comparative values of essay local anesthetics by h c hamilton, detroit, mich , from the research laboratory of parke, davis& co , j lab & clin m 4:60 nov 1918 131 comparative efficiency of local anesthetics, v, by t sollmann, from the pharmacological laboratory of the school of medicine, westernreserve university, j pharmacol & exper therap 11:69 feb 1918 another claim made for apothesine which the council holds is notsupported by evidence is that of superior safety this claim is madeon the basis of hypodermic injections in guinea-pigs carried out inthe laboratory of parke, davis & company such experiments provelittle because of the fact-- well known to laboratory workers-- that theuse of rodents in toxicity tests made by injecting a drug into thesubcutaneous tissues does not give a reliable index of the relativetoxicity of such a drug for man this is due writingly to the peculiarresistance of rodents to poisons and writingly to the great importance ofthe rate of absorption the organism destroys most local anesthetics sorapidly that the rate of absorption is more important than the absolutedose the absorption from hypodermic injections into guinea-pigsdiffers, of course, from that in clinical accidents, especially wherethe drug has been applied to mucous membranes one cannot, therefore, reliably estimate the degree of clinical danger on animals it has been shown that when toxicity tests of local anesthetics aremade on cats these animals seem to respond to the drugs in a mannermore closely approximating humans and it is a suggestive fact that themore toxic of local anesthetics, as shown by tests on cats, have beenfound the most dangerous in clinical use the absolute toxicity ofapothesine has been measured by eggleston and hatcher132 by theintravenous injection in cats the fatal doses, in terms of milligramsper kilogram ranged as follows. Alypin, holocain 10 beta eucain 12 5 cocain 15 apothesine 20 tropacocain 20-25 stovain 25-30 nirvanin 30-35 procain 40-45132 a further contribution to the pharmacology of the localanesthetics by eggleston and hatcher, from the dewritingment ofpharmacology, cornell university medical college, new york city, j pharmacol & exper therap 13:433 aug 1919 the absolute toxicity of apothesine is, therefore, only a littlelower than that of cocain, and is twice as great as that of procain the clinical dangers cannot be predicted by either method, sinceclinical accidents depend, in most instances, on idiosyncrasies, or thetechnic of application -- from the journal a m a , jan 24, 1920 eumictine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted and authorized publication of the report whichappears below this report declares “eumictine” ineligible for new andnonofficial remedies because 1 it conflicts with rule 10 in that itis unscientific, 2 it conflicts with rule 6 in that it is sold underunwarranted therapeutic claims, 3 it conflicts with rule 4 againstindirect advertising to the public in that the name “eumictine” isblown in the bottle for the obvious purpose of bringing the productto the attention of the public when it is prescribed in the originalpackage, and 4 because the name is therapeutically suggestive and notin any way descriptive of its composition w a puckner, secretary eumictine is a preparation from the laboratory of maurice le prince, paris, france, and is marketed in this country by george j wallau, inc , new york it is claimed that the product is “a balsamo-antisepticpreparation composed of santalol, salol, and hexamethylene-tetramine, in the form of gluten-coated capsules ” nowhere in the advertisingare the amounts of the ingredients given according to theamerican agent, however, “each capsule is supposed to contain 20centigrams of santalol, 5 centigrams of salol, 5 centigrams ofhexamethylene-tetramine ”eumictine is advised “in treating genito-urinary diseases urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, pyelitis, etc ” it is claimed to be “both anantiphlogistic modifying agent, a well-tolerated diuretic” which “maybe administered for long periods without ill effects ”the council declares eumictine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies because it is exploited in conflict with the following rules:it is unscientific rule 10 eumictine is composed ofhexamethylenamin, salol and sanalol in fixed proportions hexamethylenamin may serve a useful purpose in essay forms of infectionof the urinary tract, but neither it nor salol is of any considerablevalue in gonorrhea it is now known that the balsamic preparations, formerly so widely used, do not have the curative effects in gonorrheaand associated conditions that used to be ascribed to them to combinethree substances, none of which has any distinct therapeutic value inthe conditions for which eumictine is proposed, does not enhance theirvalue there is nothing original in the combination used in eumictine, or in the manner of dispensing it it is sold under unwarranted therapeutic claims rule 6 theseclaims are made not only for the components of eumictine but for thecombination itself though santalol has certain advantages over theessaywhat variable oil of santal and other balsamic resins, it is nottrue that santalol “does not cause congestion of the renal epithelium”or that it does not “produce exanthema as do copaiba, cubebs, andthe ordinary santal oil ” it is not true that salol is “devoid oftoxicity ” neither is it correct to say that salol “asepticizes anddisinfects the bladder, the prostate and the urethra ” the claim thathexamethylenamin “is of value when any acute symptoms or tendency toinflammation subsist” is not justified the claim that hexamethylenamin“renders soluble the uric acid and urates” is also without foundation the following paragraph is characteristic of the claims made foreumictine. “anti-gonorrhoic by its santalol, diuretic, urolytic and analgetic by its hexamethylenetetramin urotropin antiseptic and antipyretic by its salol, eumictine represents a real therapeutic advance in the scientific treatment of diseases of the urinary passages ”instead of being “a real therapeutic advance” in the treatment ofdiseases of the urinary passages, eumictine presents one of thecomplex combinations that have long retarded the scientific treatmentof these diseases eumictine also conflicts with rules 4 and 8 of thecouncil -- from the journal a m a feb 21, 1920 platt chlorides report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report on“platt chlorides ” it also declares the preparation inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies because its composition is uncertainand indefinite and because the claims made for it are exaggerated andmisleading w a puckner, secretary“platt chlorides, ” marketed by henry b platt, new york, is soldas a disinfectant and germicide only incomplete and contradictorystatements have been made in regard to its composition thesis yearsago about 1899 the composition of platt chlorides was given as“the chlorids of zn 40 per cent , pb 20, ca 15, al 15, mg 5, k 5 ” thestatement that the preparation contained 20 per cent of lead chloridis interesting, in view of the fact that lead chlorid is soluble inwater at ordinary temperatures to the extent of less than 1 per cent in a booklet, also issued a number of years ago, the following “formulaof platt chlorides” was given. “a saturated solution of metallic chlorids combined in the following proportions.

The last time you boilit, boil it so long till your herbs be crisp, and the juice consumed, then strain it pressing it hard in a press, and to every pound ofointment add two ounces of turpentine, and as much wax, because greaseis offensive to wounds, as well as oil 2 ointments are vulgarly known to be kept in pots, and will last abovea year, essay above two years chapter xi of plaisters 1 the greeks made their plaisters of divers proposal essay outline simples, and put metalsinto the most of them, if not all. For having reduced their metals intopowder, they mixed them with that fatty substance whereof the rest ofthe plaister consisted, whilst it was thus hot, continually stirringit up and down, lest it should sink to the bottom. So they continuallystirred it till it was stiff.

All the sorts are hot inthe second degree, and dry in the third. Helps dropsies, the yellowjaundice, infirmities of the spleen, and provokes urine dioscorides polygonum knotgrass polytricum maidenhair portulaca purslain. Cold and moist in the second or third degree:cools hot stomachs, and it is admirable for one that hath his teeth onedge by eating sour apples, it cools the blood, liver, and is good forhot diseases, or inflammations in any of these places, stops fluxes, and the menses, and helps all inward inflammations whatsoever porrum leeks see the roots primula veris see cowslips, or the flowers, which you will prunella self-heal, carpenter-herb, and sicklewort moderately hotand dry, binding see bugle, the virtues being the same pulegium pennyroyal. Hot and dry in the third degree. Provokesurine, breaks the stone in the reins, strengthens women backs, provokes the menses, easeth their labour in child-bed, brings away theplacenta, stays vomiting, strengthens the brain, breaks wind, and helpsthe vertigo pulmonaria, arborea, et symphytum maculosum lung-wort it helpsinfirmities of the lungs, as hoarsness, coughs, wheezing, shortness ofbreath, &c you may boil it in hyssop-water, or any other water thatstrengthens the lungs pulicaria fleabane. Hot and dry in the third degree, helps thebiting of venomous beasts, wounds and swellings, the yellow jaundice, the falling sickness, and such as cannot make water. Being burnt, the smoak of it kills all the gnats and fleas in the chamber. It isdangerous for pregnant women pyrus sylvestris wild pear-tree i know no virtue in the leaves pyrola winter-green cold and dry, and very binding, stops fluxes, and the menses, and is admirably good in green wounds quercus folia oak leaves. Are much of the nature of the former, staythe fluor albus see the bark ranunculus hath got a sort of english names. Crowfoot, king-kob, gold-cups, gold-knobs, butter-flowers, &c they are of a notable hotquality, unfit to be taken inwardly. If you bruise the roots and applythem to a plague-sore, they are notable things to draw the venom tothem raparum folia if they do mean turnip leaves, when they are youngand tender, they are held to provoke urine rosmarirum rosemary, hot and dry in the second degree, binding, stops fluxes, helps stuffings in the head, the yellow jaundice, helpsthe memory, expels wind see the flowers serapio, dioscorides rosa solis see the water rosa alba, rubra, damascena white, red, and damask roses rumex dock. All the ordinary sort of docks are of a cool and dryingsubstance, and therefore stop fluxes. And the leaves are seldom used inphysic rubus idæus. Raspis, raspberries, or hind-berries. I know no greatvirtues in the leaves ruta rue, or herb of grace.

it is worthmentioning in this connection that mr sinclair in his latest bookdevotes a few pages to a eulogy of dr abrams and his methods thismaterial has not only been reproduced by dr abrams in his “houseorgan” physico-clinical medicine but is reprinted in leaflet form andis being distributed by essay of the individuals who are exploiting theabrams methods such reprints have been sent to this office by bothlaymen and physicians mr sinclair’ letterto the editor -- a few weeks ago you published an article dealingwith the discoveries or claims of dr albert abrams of san francisco i happen to be attending dr abrams’ clinic at the time and havediscussed this article with him at essay length dr abrams follows thepolicy of ignoring attacks on his work, taking the view that in thelong run, the man who cures disease makes his way in the world in spiteof all opposition however, it is easy to see that he has been deeplyhurt by this attack on his reputation, and as one of his friends andmost ardent admirers i am taking the liberty of addressing a letter toyou i proposal essay outline do not know if the rules of your publication permit interventionin medical affairs by a mere layman permit me to introduce myselfas a layman who for essay twenty years tried faithfully to be curedof various diseases by thesis doctors of the best reputation in thesiswritings of the world, and failed. And who, therefore, was compelled, asa matter of self-protection, to look into the question of health forhimself i have read so thesis different kinds of books on health andmade so thesis experiments of my own that nowadays when i meet with agroup of physicians i find that before long they come to accept me asone of themselves you may not go that far, but at least you may be sogenerous as to allow me to tell you a little of what i have seen duringthe time i have spent in the clinic of dr albert abrams i observe that in the course of your two page article dealing with thissubject, you nowhere have anything to charge against dr abrams, nordo you show that you have investigated his work you consider that allyou have to do is to quote dr abrams’ own words as to what he can do, and that these words refute themselves italics our -- ed also youquote dr abrams’ schedules of prices, and imply that his motives aremercenary i will take up these two questions one at a time what dr abrams can dofirst, as to what dr abrams can do. I have been here and have seenhim do all that he claims to do therefore, you will understand thatthis portion of your argument does not produce much impression on me imerely say to you, why do you not come and see, or why do you not sendessay reliable representative to see-- before you take it for grantedthat abrams is a knave or a lunatic?. this man is not merely a colleagueof yours. He is a fellow of the royal medical society of great britainwe know of no such society -- ed and surely he was entitled to alittle elementary courtesy from you why did you not at least writeto him and permit him to put before you a little of his evidence onthe genuineness of his work?. you admit that he is a graduate of theuniversities of heidelberg and stanford. Dr abrams is not a graduateof “stanford ”-- ed you admit that he was graduated from heidelberg atthe age of twenty it happens that this was the youngest and remainsthe youngest age at which any man has taken a doctor degree at thatuniversity in a hundred years if you had inquired further you mighthave learned that ten years ago abrams was one of the most respectedphysicians in san francisco what has he done since to forfeit thehonors of a lifetime?. all that he has done is to shut himself up in hislaboratory and make the most revolutionary discoveries of this or anyother age. And now when he emerges and offers this work to the world, you can think of nothing to do but jeer at him i spent two weeks in his clinic. Then i took six months to write tohis physicians all over the country, and to experiment with hiscures on a great number of my friends italics again ours -- ed now i am spending another two weeks in his clinic, and i venture tostake whatever reputation i have, or hope to have in this world, uponthe statement that albert abrams has discovered the great secret ofthe diagnosis and cure of all the major disease again we mustitalicize -- ed he has proven by diagnosing with the taps of hisown sensitive finger tips over 15, 000 people, and my investigationconvinces me that he has cured over 95 per cent of these who havetaken his treatments moreover, he has taught his method to 200 or 300other physicians, and essay 80 per cent of these have submitted to meanswers to a questionnaire in which they claim thousands of cures you may say, perhaps, that i am not competent to judge of cures for the sake of argument, i will grant that. But i assert that i amcompetent to judge of physicians, for i have tested several score ofthem, and if i ever knew a devoted scientist and a great humanitarian, it is albert abrams in his clinic i have met perhaps a hundredphysicians, and i venture to assert that a number of these are menboth of integrity and capacity, and when i asked them why they came, igot invariably one answer. “because i sent him blood specimens and ifound that invariably he sent me a correct diagnosis ” not once, but atleast two score times, i have seen albert abrams take a blood specimenbrought to him, without even the name of the patient, and heard himdiagnose cancer or sarcoma, and from the blood specimen locate thegrowth precisely to an inch italics fail one here!. -- ed then i haveseen the patient, an entire stranger to abrams, brought into the clinicand examined, not merely by abrams, but by a score of other physicians, and the growth found precisely at the spot indicated this was donetwice between the time when this letter was dictated and the time whenit was transcribed three times, yesterday, i saw a diagnosis made ofsyphilis and the patient brought in, and all the standard reactionsdemonstrated i have seen, not once, but hundreds of times, tubercularlesions diagnosed and located from the blood specimen and the patientbrought in and the condition demonstrated by percussion all thesethings are going on day after day they are being done in otherclinics in several score of cities, and you may have the addresses forthe asking why do you not ask?. we have essay such addresses in thepropaganda files -- ed the economic elementi take up the second criticism, that albert abrams is mercenary hecharges $200 00 for the clinical course, which may last as long asthe physician wishes it seems to me that that price is to be judgedessaywhat in relation to what he has to teach he maintains a largeestablishment. He has need of thesis assistants, and expensive apparatusfor his research work he charges for the use of his oscilloclast adeposit of $250 00, and a rental of $5 00 per month the former itemcovers the cost of manufacturing the machine, and the second item mustbe compared with the fact that a great number of physicians who areusing this instruments are today enjoying incomes of from $1, 000 00to $2, 000 00 per week once more, italics!. -- ed a few weeks ago i visited a physician who told me he had treatedthirty-two patients that day with his one instrument, and that hisincome was over $1, 300 00 for that week, and i could name several whohave given similar accounts it may be, of course, that you will saythey should not charge so much the average charge is about $200 00 fora guaranteed cure of such diseases as syphilis, tuberculosis, cancerand sarcoma italics our again -- ed do you know anyone who willguarantee to cure a cancer or sarcoma at any price?. no!. -- ed i am sure you will agree with me that it would be possible to findphysicians who would be willing to put up thesis hundreds of dollars toguarantee that neither cancer nor sarcoma can at the present time becured except by operation and i can recall thesis paper in my lifetimewhen i paid hundreds and even thousands of dollars to be cured ofdiseases by the medical profession, and i am unable to recall a singlecase where i was ever cured of anything still this need not be anindictment of scientific medicine -- ed finally, as regards to the subject of mercenary motives, permitme to state that i have in my possession a letter from dr abramsstating that what he desires is to have established an institute forthe purpose of making his work known to the world, and that if suchan institute is established he is prepared to give up all his otherwork and devote all his time, without compensation, to the institute furthermore, he is willing to furnish his instruments without charge toany medical institution which requests them within the last few days, on account of the enormous number of blood specimens brought into hisclinic, dr abrams has signed in my presence, and is prepared to issuea statement to the effect that his charge for examining blood specimensis to be raised from $10 00 to $25 00 and all checks are to be madepayable to a trust fund which is to be immediately established, for thepurpose of founding the institution above referred to i do not see howthe medical profession can ask for more than this.

  • college essays writing services
  • a site to buy argumentative essays
  • smart essay
  • toefl essay topics
  • pay for my essays
  • essay writer pro
  • geology homework help
  • help writing papers for college
  • comparative essay sample
  • a descriptive essay
  • urgent essay help
  • how to write college application essay
  • jishka homework help
  • where can i find someone to write my paper
  • help me with my paper
  • how to quote a play in an essay
  • essay on friendship
  • genetically modified food essay
  • what does an essay consist of
  • sat without essay
  • apa format example essay

In doing this a hole will be made smaller than if that morebrittle had been struck furthermore, all rifles taper more or lessfrom breech to muzzle, that is, the muzzle will measure one or morethousandths or hundredths less than the breech the bullet being forcedthrough the narrow aperture yields to the pressure and becomes smaller the gun under consideration was measured at the new york armory, andfound to be 44 at the breech or chamber and 423 at the muzzle considering these various facts, statements that a ball of known sizewill make a hole through glass smaller than the size of the ball whenfired do not admit of doubt as to their verity essay statements bearingon this same point contained in a recent letter from captain shaler, ofthe united states army, deserve mention here the following experimentwas made in washington by captain lyon in october, 1880:“noticing a statement in a newspaper to the effect that a ball firedfrom a rifle would, in passing through glass, make a round hole smallerthan the diameter of the ball used, the following experiment was made:“service ammunition used, in a calibre 45 springfield proposal essay outline rifle topenetrate glass ═════════════════════╤═══════════════════╤════════════════════════ time fired │ size of hole made │ remarks │ in glass, inches │ ─────────────────────┼───────────────────┼──────────────────────── 1 │ 0 570 │ 2 │ 0 550 │ 3 │ 0 600 │ 4 │ 0 600 │ 5 │ 0 575 │ 6 │ 0 575 │ the frame holding the 7 │ 0 590 │ glass was placed 25 8 │ 0 620 │ yards from the muzzle 9 │ 0 600 │ of the gun │ │ average size of hole │ 0 586 │ calibre of bullet │ 0 458 │ │ ────── │ difference │ 0 125 │ ─────────────────────┴───────────────────┴────────────────────────“from the above it will be noted that there is no uniformity in thesize of the holes and that they all exceed the diameter of the bullet “these experiments were supplemented by essay made recently in whicha sash containing six panes of ordinary window-glass was placedat twenty-five yards from the firer and the glass was successivelypenetrated a separate pane being used in each case by bullets from aservice 45-calibre springfield rifle, a 30-calibre springfield rifle, a 45-calibre colt revolver and a 22-calibre revolver in every casethe hole made was much larger than the bullet making it ”with reference also to the effect of a ball being smaller than itsoriginal diameter after it leaves the piece, captain shaler states:“all very compressible bullets forced by inertia lose a certain amounteven though they also gain force by slugging forcing by inertia tendsto shorten the bullet and increase the diameter, while slugging tendsto lengthen the bullet and reduce its diameter whether the bullet issmaller after it leaves the piece depends upon the bullet used and themethod of forcing employed ”to return to the billings case, it was claimed that the bullet wasalso too small it weighed 165 grains, 55 less than when it was firedfrom the rifle balch found in firing at human skulls, the subjects inall the trials but two being placed in a sitting posture, essaytimeswith a sash like the billings window in front of the subject, that theball lost lead in accordance with the resistance it met with and theamount of bone ploughed in its passage these experiments conclusivelyprove that the weight of a ball taken from a body after being fired, it having traversed a bone in its flight, is by no means evidence ofits weight before firing. In other words, a ball always loses essaylead when passing through bone with the same rifle as that producedat the trial he made a series of experiments in the dissecting-room, endeavoring to make a bullet enter the skull at the same point and innearly as possible the same direction as in the case of the murderedwoman in six such experiments there were varying losses of lead, allthe bullets used being the same general weight in two trials thedistance was but ten feet from the muzzle, yet more lead was lostthan in any of the other four the least loss recorded took place atthe longest distance, thirty-five feet this in writing accounts for theloss of lead, for at ten feet the bullet has not acquired its greatestpenetrating power, for he showed by experiment that a 220-grain bulletfired at a human skull will lose more lead than was missing from thebillings bullet, thus disposing of the question raised by the defencethat a ball could not have weighed 220 grains before being fired just how to account for the missing lead has never been clearlyestablished we have to remember that a few grains may be left inthe bore of a rifle, especially if rusty. That in passing throughglass another portion is lost, and finally it is scarcely conceivablethat any bullet should penetrate an adult skull, especially inthe neighborhood of the mastoid processes, without losing quite aperceptible percentage of its mass by friction it was also claimed by the defence that the ball taken from mrs billings’ head had been fired from a weapon of low velocity, whichwas held to account for the fact that the ball failed to pass out ofthe skull the rifle when tested at the government arsenal showeda mean velocity of 999 feet per second had it been as high as wassupposed by the defence, namely, 1, 300 or 1, 400 feet, the argumentthat a bullet driven with this force would always go through the skullwould have more weight, but with the velocity found by actual test theenergy of the ball was lessened to nearly one-half of that supposed the bullet which killed mrs billings did not pass entirely throughthe skull it ploughed into the opposite side and broke before it atriangular piece of bone which broke the skin externally this showsthe resistance of external fascia against perforation a study of thelines of fracture in this writingicular case proved very interesting, butperhaps would be essaywhat irrelevant here a measurement of the skulland of the bullet-track through it shows the former to have been ofmore than ordinary thickness and density, and the channel ploughed inthe bone by the bullet along the base of it to have been nearly twoinches in length dr balch gives the following conclusions to his veryinteresting evidence. 1st a leaden ball passing through bone loseslead in proportion to the amount of bone traversed 2d if the petrousportion of the temporal bone be the writing struck by the ball and strucksquarely at the base, that portion of the bone is crumbled or broken insuch exceedingly fine pieces as to defy restoration 3d that if theball struck any writing of the skull the petrous portion will be broken, but can be usually recognized and generally put together again 4th that a ball of given calibre fired through glass may make a holeenough smaller than the full size of the ball before firing to preventan unfired ball of like calibre passing in all this kind of experimentation upon cadavers for the purpose ofeliciting evidence by reproducing as nearly as possible ante-morteminjuries, we must not forget that casper has strongly insisted that“it is extremely difficult to break up the organic cohesion of deadorgans if we endeavor to fracture the skull of a dead adult weshall find that an amount of force which if applied in life wouldindubitably produce fissures if not fracture, or complete crushingof the skull, leaves the dead skull quite uninjured the mostpowerful blows struck down upon the body, laid down horizontally, werewithout result, and only after repeated violent blows were we able toproduce perhaps one or a few fissures in the occipital or parietalbone, or in the temporal bone squamous portion, and usually in thelatter we were unable to produce more considerable effects, such ascomplete smashing of the skull or fissures of its base, even in onesingle instance the dead skull seems to have considerably more powerof resistance, and after its removal fissures of the bone were moreeasily produced by similar blows” vol i , p 245 and again. “theresult of my experiments on the dead body in regard to gunshot woundscould only be to make more complete the proof of the resistance ofthe dead corporeal tissues, in contradistinction to the tissues whenalive after i had already learned this peculiarity from my experimentswith contused wounds, this peculiar resistent property was found to beconfirmed in a most remarkable manner” “forensic medicine, ” vol i , p 271 if the number of bullets known to have been fired, or, more importantstill, which have been found exceeds the number which could have beendischarged from the weapon in question, a very large element of doubtand uncertainty is introduced which must be quieted by other and morecircumstantial evidence should two different weapons be in question, it is very necessary to establish from which of them the bullets havebeen discharged this can be done mainly by weight and evident calibreof the bullets, or essay other peculiarity. Possibly in disputed papereven by analysis of the metal wounds by shot-guns - in most of what has been said it has beensupposed that the injury has been inflicted by an arm of the kindcommonly described under the terms pistol, revolver, or rifle gunshotwounds are, however, occasionally inflicted with shot-guns and a chargeof shot varying in size from small bird-shot up to that generally knownas buck-shot it is characteristic of such missiles that they separateafter their discharge from the gun, and a determination of the degreeof their separation is approximately a determination of the distanceof the mark from the muzzle of the weapon in suicide or accidentaldischarges of a shot-gun the muzzle is so near the body that the chargeof shot acts very much as would a single bullet of the size of thebore of the gun, and near wounds thus inflicted, while necessarilylarge, have about them a minimum laceration and disturbance of tissue, so that perhaps only by their size could one say, viewing the woundalone, that the weapon used had been a shot-gun on the other hand, ata distance of a few feet the shot begin to separate to such an extentthat there is much more laceration of tissue, and after separation toan indeterminate, because variable, number of feet we get such marksas individual shot may make this distance is indeterminate because itis predicated on the size of the gun, the dimensions of shot, and theweight of the charge of powder the writer, for instance, has recentlyseen one case where the muzzle of the gun could not have been more thantwo feet away from the surface of the foot at which it was discharged, the consequence being a round and very slightly ragged hole through themid-tarsal region from dorsum to sole it is possible for a single grain of shot to produce death such acase is related by ollivier d’angers. A thief scaling a wall receivedat a distance of fifteen paces a charge of shot from a fowling-piece;he fell dead immediately the charge had struck him in the breast, centring over a space of three or four inches, but one shot hadpenetrated the aorta over the attachment of the sigmoid valves, andanother had traversed the entire wall of this vessel powder-marks - a very important writing of evidence in case of near woundsof gunshot character pertains to the powder-marks upon the clothingand skin naturally every one knows that when a weapon is dischargednear a given surface there will be more or less powder-marking uponthat surface, the same being due to writingicles of gunpowder which areincompletely or not at all consumed, and which are black becauseof the charcoal they contain. But the circumstances under whichpowder-marks of a given character can be inflicted are so extremelyvariable that no statistics or information of value in a generalway can be given thus the fineness of the marks will depend uponthe fineness of the powder, and the area covered and the depth ofthe marking upon the same, upon the distance of the muzzle from thesurface. And the only way to make out the exact distance of the muzzlefrom the surface at the time of the infliction of a given wound is touse the same weapon, if possible, with cartridges or charges out of thesame lot as that used at the time of injury distances could, perhaps, be stated in round numbers, but their value would only be remotelyapproximate, and in a given case the best evidence is to be obtained byexperiment with the fire-arm in question dimensions of perforations - at different times a great deal ofweight has been attached to the dimension of the perforation throughsuch objects as wood, glass, or even through the bones of the body, made by the bullet which is supposed or known to have destroyedlife wrong inferences have been drawn essaytimes from a study ofundischarged bullets or cartridges similar, at least before firing, to that which has been taken from a given body it has been stated, for instance, that such a bullet was too large to have passed throughsuch an aperture or to have made such a hole, or that it was so muchsmaller than a certain hole that it was not the writingicular missilewhich made that perforation upon this matter has hinged a great dealof uncertainty and consequently a good deal of study the size ofopening which a bullet of given calibre will make through wood dependsupon the distance of the weapon, the firing charge, the velocity ofthe bullet, the extent to which its shape has been altered by passingthrough the given barrier, by the heat of the explosion, by the impactof the air upon the heated and consequently softened metal, and by thedensity and thickness of the wood, as well as by the resistance whichit may have offered mainly from its being fixed in place or movable there is, however, ordinarily less question about the size of a similarhole through a piece of glass or bone it is generally supposed thata bullet passing through a window-pane will shatter it this depends, however, mainly upon the perfection of fixation of the glass in itsresting-place if for purposes of experiment panes of glass be tackedinto a shutter and bullets be fired at them from varying distances, they will be practically invariably shattered it is, however, quitedifferent if the pane of glass be firmly fixed in a frame by means ofputty which has become old and hard, and especially if the window-frameitself be closely fitted in the casing under these circumstances abullet will often make a clearly punched hole, or one with very fewradiating lines of fracture experiment, therefore, to secure evidenceshould be made under circumstances exactly parallel to those whichnecessitate such evidence evidence from examination of the dead body fractures - considerable evidence of great interest with respect tothe effect of a bullet-wound upon the skull and the possibility offractures being produced at the base by contre coup will be found inthe statement of the case of the people v elisha b fero, publishedby dr charles t porter, of albany, in the journal of psychologicalmedicine, april, 1870 mrs fero was murdered while in her bed andwas found to have been bruised about the head and body, her husbandclaiming that the deed was that of a robber who had attacked themboth he was found with slight bruises or scratches about the face andblack marks as if from burnt powder between the middle fingers of hisright hand the first autopsy appears to have been carelessly made, but a flattened conical ball weighing twenty-six and one-half grainswas found lodged in the middle of the right cerebral hemisphere ithad not gone completely through the brain its base fitted the shellsof the metallic cartridges used in fero revolver eight days afterdeath a second examination was made, after which the head was removedand preserved in 95% alcohol a theory of the prosecution was thatmrs fero was murdered by her husband. That he shot her, as well asstruck her numerous blows upon both sides of the head and its frontand back with essay broad, heavy, and elastic body, making fracturesfound on autopsy not the least interesting writing of the testimonyis that referring to the condition of tissues alleged to have beenbruised after long preservation in alcohol the expert testimony inthis case appeared to show that such fractures as were found, withoutreference to the fact of external bruises, were due to the unskilfulmanner in which the skull-cap was removed in this connection itis well right here to emphasize the fact that fresh fractures canbe produced in the skull by too forcible or injudicious effortsto remove the calvarium when making autopsies, or that fracturespreviously existing can be extended or complicated in the same way shaw in his “manual of anatomy” says.