History

Proofreading Services


“in a case of second degree burn involving the most of one leg from the middle of the calf down, chloron was the only dressing used the burn was a bad one and the patient in a rundown anaemic condition, at no time was there any appearance of pus, the surface looked clean and bright and the healing was accomplished with practically no scar whatever the burn was kept wet with the solution by hourly applications day and night the skin which has grown on the wound is clear, healthy and firm in another case of varicose veins of long standing, the result was surprising the patient told of two years vibrating from hospital to hospital and getting no real relief each leg had large open running sores, the only dressing used was wet compresses of this solution the pus disappeared at once, the wound began to cicatrise from the edges and in two weeks the man was discharged from the hospital practically cured ” “chloron was recently tried at the -- -- and -- -- hospital on paper presenting ulcers and other sores which did not readily yield to other methods, with good results, in fact were of an indolent type in these paper chloron proved very valuable ” “i have used chloron on a series of paper surgical presenting pus foci and i have found the application very beneficial and healing, the pus early disappearing in paper of osteomyelitis, suppurating arthritis, cellulitis and chronic ulcers, chloron is writingicularly valuable, its good effects quickly observed and the time of restoration to health shortened ”in the first case report, there is no evidence that chloron is moreefficient in the treatment of burns than any other commonly usedprocedure might have been in the case of the varicose ulcers, whilethere was essay apparent benefit from chloron, no credit is given torest and the general treatment which is known to be important in thetreatment of such conditions the evidence in the other case reports isquite inconclusive consideration of the “case reports” leads to theconclusion that clinical evidence for the value of chloron is lacking attention should proofreading services be called to the fact that the amount of activechlorin, claimed to be present in chloron as well as the amount foundby the association laboratory, is less than that considered effectiveby dakin, dunham and others. Seemingly in preparing chloron noattention has been paid to the degree of alkalinity, yet the importanceof this factor is now generally recognized chloron fails to comply with the requirements for surgical solution ofchlorinated soda n n r , 1919, p 133, yet the manufacturers makefree use of the text of dakin and dunham handbook of antiseptics intheir advertising pamphlet thus. From the chloron pamphlet. “this ideal antiseptic effects complete sterilization within its sphere of action without causing any damage to the cells or tissues an important method of judging the injurious action of antiseptics is to investigate their effects on the leucocytes from experiments in vitro by parry morgan and in vivo by col c j bond with the strength of antiseptics commonly used in surgery, it has been found that chlorine antiseptics and mercury salts have little effect on phagocytosis in comparison with other germicides the activity of the leucocytes from wounds which have recently been treated with chloron may be demonstrated experimentally ” “in addition to its antiseptic action chloron is a strong oxidizing agent and deodorant and possesses to a marked degree the property of decomposing toxins in this connection it is interesting and pertinent to note that dean, by the regulated action of hypochlorous acid, has prepared a nontoxic dysentery vaccine and it is now a common observation that the free use of chloron may reduce the constitutional symptoms arising from septic processes and that they reappear on discontinuing the antiseptic treatment ” dakin and dunham handbook of antiseptics. “the ideal surgical antiseptic should effect complete sterilization within its sphere of action without causing any damage to animal cells at the moment such a substance does not appear likely to be found, but on the other hand it is surprising to see how little damage may be done to animal tissues by essay active antiseptics an important method of judging of the injurious action of antiseptics is to investigate the condition of the leucocytes in wounds recently treated with the substance under consideration in general it appears from experiments in vitro that, with the strength of antiseptics commonly used in surgery, mercury salts and hypochlorites have relatively little effect on phagocytosis as compared with phenol parry morgan it is a regular phenomenon to observe activity of the leucocytes obtained from wounds which have been recently treated with hypochlorites ingenious methods for determining the influence in vivo of antiseptics on the activities of leucocytes have been worked out by col c j bond “in addition to their disinfecting action, the chlorine antiseptics are strong oxidizing agents and deodorants and moreover possess in high degree the property of decomposing toxins by the regulated action of hypochlorous acid, dean has prepared a nontoxic dysentery vaccine and it is a common observation that the free use of hypochlorites may reduce the constitutional symptoms arising from septic processes and that they reappear on discontinuing the antiseptic treatment ” chloraxchlorax is said to be “a stable chlorine solution for internal use, ” in“kidney conditions, ” “diabetes, ” “acute infections, ” “blood dicrasias, ”“lithemias and rheumatism, ” and “nervous conditions ” it is claimed tohave the same composition as that of chloron with the addition of 0 016per cent of tincture of opium the a m a chemical laboratory reported that the free chlorin inchlorax was 0 01 gm per hundred c c and the total amount of active “available” chlorin was 0 25 gm per hundred c c , or 125 per cent of the amount claimed the laboratory notes that though the chlorincontent of chloron and chlorax is claimed to be the same, that ofchlorax actually is less this is not surprising when the presence inchlorax of reducing substances such as alcohol is borne in mind thelaboratory concludes that chlorax is not of reliable composition the following is typical of the “case reports” submitted to show thevalue of chlorax. “in january last i used chlorax on a case of diabetes mellitus and with excellent results “the patient had been suffering for about nine years and when first brought to my care toxemia had set in, he was drowsy, irritable and unable to leave the house i prescribed chlorax in teaspoonful doses four times a day and am pleased to say that in one week he showed marked improvement soon after he was able to leave the house and attend to his business and after two months’ treatment resumed a normal diet and habits apparently without injurious effects “i believe that in this case chlorax undoubtedly prolonged life ”no mention is made of the dietary or other measures used the widevariation in diabetes and its response to proper diet is so well knownthat the noncommittal statement concerning the beneficial effects ofchlorax amounts to no evidence at all in favor of the preparation the other “case reports” furnished by the chlorine products company, inc , which concern the treatment of gastric ulcers, acute alcoholicgastritis, tonsillitis, etc , are equally unconvincing in fact, nosatisfactory evidence for the clinical value of chlorax has beenpresented the following from the advertising for chlorax is unwarranted andabsurd. “mercurous chloride calomel is perhaps the most widely used internal antiseptic and alterative and has established itself in the therapy of constipation, cholera, dysentery, cardiac dropsy, pleurisy, malignant fever, malaria, syphilis, worms, infectious diseases, gout and rheumatism. Lithium chloride is writingicularly efficacious in acute and chronic parenchymatous nephritis and in various lithemic conditions. While opium has no rival as an anodyne and can be used to stabilize and conserve the alkaline reserve of the body against the acidosing influence of infections ”further, on page 14 we find. “in chills and fever malaria and other blood dicrasias, chlorax is indicated as an internal antiseptic and it exerts a beneficial effect on the course of these diseases ”the claims made for chlorax are exaggerated and misleading number “3”according to the label, number “3” is “a stable chlorine remedy for thepurification of the blood, ” with the composition.

But ofthese more anon chapter iii of loosening medicines by loosening here, i do not mean purging, nor that which is oppositeto astringency proofreading services. But that which is opposite to stretching. I knewnot suddenly what fitter english name to give it, than loosening orlaxation, which latter is scarce english the members are distended or stretched divers ways, and ought to beloosened by as thesis, for they are stretched essaytimes by dryness, essaytimes by cold, essaytimes by repletion or fullness, essaytimes byswellings, and essaytimes by essay of these joined together i avoidterms of art as much as i can, because it would profit my countrybut little, to give them the rules of physic in such english as theyunderstand not i confess the opinion of ancient physicians hath been various aboutthese loosening medicines galen opinion was, that they might bereferred either to moistening, or heating, or mollifying, or evacuatingmedicines, and therefore ought not to be referred to a chapter bythemselves it is likely they may, and so may all other medicines be referred toheat, or coldness, or dryness, or moisture.

Detroit lancet, 1882, 6, 157 148 the journal a m a , nov 21, 1914, p 1871 unreliability of little used drugsthe purpose of the federal food and drugs act is to secure theprosecution and punishment of all who sell medicines which areadulterated or misrepresented as to composition as a matter of fact, the wording of the law relating to the adulteration and misbranding ofdrugs is such proofreading services that the federal authorities have been able to do littlemore than to require that the drugs for which standards are providedin the pharmacopeia shall when sold comply with those standards similarly, those states which attempt to improve the quality of drugssold within their borders-- few states do efficient work along theselines-- limit their work to the enforcement of the pharmacopeialstandards this leaves the vast number of unofficial drugs andmedicaments beyond the control of federal or state authorities while most of these drugs are relatively unimportant, and while theamounts of them which are used are not great individually, the totalconsumption of them is large with a view of furnishing to physiciansstandards for drugs of this sort the council has described in new andnonofficial remedies not only distinctly proprietary drugs, but alsoessay of the unofficial drugs which are apparently of therapeutic valueand used to a considerable extent aiding the council in this line ofendeavor, the laboratory has attempted to establish standards for theselittle used drugs, and new and nonofficial remedies, 1916, providesstandards for such unofficial and non-proprietary drugs as quinin andurea hydrochlorid quinin, tannate, sodium acid phosphate, and sodiumperborate an example of work which furnished much needed standardsfor an unofficial article is the investigation of zinc permanganateby w s hilpert 149 reference to the published reports of thelaboratory will give an idea of the amount of work such standardizationentails a reference to the new u s pharmacopeia, when this comesfrom the press, will show that a considerable number of unofficialarticles described in new and nonofficial remedies have been admittedto the pharmacopeia along with the standards worked out in thislaboratory 149 zinc permanganate, j a m a , feb 6, 1909, p 488. Reportschem lab 2:15, 1909 while in a way the work done in connection with these less importantdrugs has attracted little attention from the medical profession, it has had an effect on pharmaceutical manufacturers in the past, pharmaceutical houses, ever anxious to market essaything new, on theslightest provocation have placed on the market, in the form of pills, powder, elixir, ampule, etc , every drug for which essay sort of medicalrecommendation could be found in marketing these dosage forms, themanufacturer has too often been little concerned about the quality ofthe drugs used 150 just at present, for instance, essay interest isbeing shown in iron cacodylate. But while manufacturers appear to bemost ready to take advantage of this interest by offering the drugin the form of ampules, etc , they have given little help toward theestablishment of standards for this arsenic compound manufacturers areever ready to sell drugs of all sorts, but in view of the small demandthey cannot or will not safeguard the identity and purity of suchdrugs a further illustration of the unreliability of unofficial drugsis the recent report by levy and rowntree151 showing not only thatthe various dosage forms of emetin hydrochlorid obtained from differentmanufacturers varied from manufacturer to manufacturer, but also thatthe product of the same manufacturer was variable and that the supplyfurnished by one pharmaceutical firm was so toxic as to make its usedangerous 150 the unreliability of unimportant medicaments, the journala m a , sept 28, 1912, p 1156 151 levy, r l , and rowntree, l g. On the toxicity of variouscommercial preparations of emetin hydrochlorid, arch int med , march, 1916, p 420 the analysis of “patent medicines”in the preface to the first annual report of the chemical laboratoryit was stated that the laboratory “occasionally takes up theexamination of ‘patent medicines’ ” at that time it was felt thatthe widespread use by the medical profession of irrational and evensecret medicines made it necessary to devote the laboratory attentionto the correction of this evil as the years have passed on, theseconditions have been remedied to essay extent, at least so far aschemical analysis can correct them on the other hand, public opinionhas been aroused to the thesis evils connected with the exploitation of“patent medicines, ” and has more and more insistently demanded that themedical profession aid in the correction of this evil accordingly, the laboratory has paid much attention to the analysis of “patentmedicines” during the last few years as the chief asset of “patentmedicines” is the element of secrecy which surrounds their composition, it is hoped that the laboratory analysis of such widely used “patentmedicines” as nature creation, 152 mayr wonderful stomachremedy, 153 sanatogen, 154 eckman alterative, 155 tonsiline, 156and bromo-quinin157 has been worth the labor in addition, thework of this laboratory has been published, including not only theresults of its analyses, but also the methods which are used in viewof the dearth of published reports regarding the methods used in theanalysis of “patent medicines, ” it is hoped that this feature of thelaboratory work has been of aid to chemists engaged in similar work 152 the journal a m a , march 5, 1910, p 806 153 the journal a m a , aug 19, 1911, p 671 154 the journal a m a , april 20, 1912, p 1216 155 the journal a m a , april 27, 1912, p 1298 156 the journal a m a , april 4, 1914, p 1109 157 the journal a m a , nov 27, 1915, p 1932 the laboratory activities along these lines have done much todiscount the claim of proprietary manufacturers that chemical analysisis unable to determine the character of “patent medicines ” the recentwine of cardui trial has brought it out prominently that chemicalanalysis can determine the presence of potent constituents, and that“patent medicines” which fail to reveal such potent ingredients to theanalyst may safely be put down as worthless the demonstration thatthe essential composition of medicinal preparations may be determinedby chemical analysis should also prove an effective answer to themanufacturers in their protest against the requirement, now beingurged for enactment into law in various states, that the medicinalingredients of their wares must be declared on the label manufacturershave held that this would lay them open to competition with imitationsand substitutions the possibility of chemical identification proves, however, that secrecy of composition, though it prevents consumers fromknowing the character of a “patent medicine, ” will not be a hindranceto the imitator and substitutor identity of drugs used in investigationsin the past, much of the experimental work in medicine has seriouslysuffered in that the identity of the material used in suchinvestigations was not established in view of this the laboratoryhas watched the contributions submitted to the journal, and whenevernecessary and feasible has urged the authors to identify their materialbefore publication of the findings for instance, a number of stainingagents-- so-called “anilin dyes”-- have been found to possess therapeuticaction since the identity of thesis of these staining agents is todayessentially secret, the laboratory has urged through the journal thatthose who experiment with these substances make an effort to determinetheir identity whenever possible and to give preference to those thechemical identity of which is known the need for such identificationhas been discussed in the reports of the laboratory 158 the amountof work involved in the chemical identification of drugs used forexperimental work is illustrated in a contribution entitled “anexamination of several commercial specimens of opium alkaloids or theirsalts ”159 by l e warren, in which was determined the identity ofthe various opium products used in an investigation by d i macht, carried out under a grant of the therapeutic research committee 158 reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1912, v, 102 159 am jour pharm , 1915, 87, 439 the laboratory and pharmaceutical literaturein the past much of the information in regard to the compositionand properties of medicines which has appeared in pharmaceuticaljournals has not become available to medicine in thesis paper medicaljournals could not afford to publish such data because this would havebeen contrary to the interest of their advertisers, and hence thepublications regarding the irrational character of lactopeptine, ofbromidia, etc , which appeared in the pharmaceutical journals did notbecome a matter of common medical knowledge through the laboratoryan attempt has been made to keep the medical profession informed inregard to pharmaceutical literature the laboratory has a good workingpharmaceutical and chemical library, and subscribes to the importantamerican and foreign pharmaceutical and chemical publications thediscussion of new remedies, such as medinal and sodium veronal, 160salvarsan, atoxyl and arsacetin, 161 and neosalvarsan162 soon aftertheir introduction, illustrates the work of the laboratory along theselines 160 the journal a m a , jan 23, 1909, p 311 161 the journal a m a , dec 31, 1910, pp 2303 and 2314 162 the journal a m a , oct 5, 1912, p 1295 the laboratory efforts toward rational prescribingthe laboratory naturally is in thorough sympathy with the present dayefforts toward a more rational use of drugs, as exemplified in thecouncil publication “useful drugs ” two recent contributions ofthe laboratory may be cited as a further support of the movement forlimiting prescribing to the more widely used drugs in line with thegeneral tendency of manufacturers to put out all sorts of modificationsand asserted improvements over official substances, there have beenplaced on the market a number of preparations said to represent essayimprovement over the pharmacopeial blaud pills the report, “thequality of commercial blaud pills, ”163 by l e warren, shows thatthe ordinary pharmacopeial blaud pill is in every way the equal of thesemiproprietary preparations claimed to be improvements further, theexamination of the various brands of sodium and theobromin salicylateas compared with the preparation diuretin by p n leech164 showsthat the former preparations, sold at 35 cents per ounce at the timethe examination was made, are fully the equal of the proprietarydiuretin, which then cost the druggist $1 75 per ounce 163 the journal a m a , april 17, 1915, p 1344 164 the journal a m a , april 4, 1914, p 1108 the laboratory as an information bureauit is generally admitted that the proprietary medicine business, writingicularly the exploitation of complex mixtures, attained theextensive vogue which it has or had because instruction in medicalschools was deficient in materia medica, pharmacy and chemistry as aresult of lack of knowledge along these lines, the young graduate afteressay trial became fearful of formulating his own prescriptions, and intime became dependent on pharmaceutical firms which provided him withmedicines ready to dispense that physicians have been insufficientlytrained in regard to the pharmacy and chemistry of drugs has often beenemphasized in pharmaceutical journals where prescriptions containingincompatible drugs are reported and where even plans are broughtforward whereby the pharmaceutical profession may aid in remedying thisdifficulty during my pharmaceutical experience i was often sorely vexed as to whatto do when prescriptions contained drugs which on mixing would undergodecomposition which the physician surely did not anticipate i rememberwell a prescription directing that potassium permanganate be made intopills with extract of gentian and other things, and how, the physicianhaving spurned the suggestion to modify the prescription so as to avoiddecomposition of the permanganate, i was obliged to select a mortar, gently triturate the drugs until a conflagration was started, and tofinish the prescription after the combustion had subsided however, in my pharmaceutical experience i generally found the physician mostready to receive suggestions from the pharmacist which would preventincompatibilities, improve the palatability and appearance of hisprescriptions, and protect the patient from unnecessary expense similarly it has been my experience since the establishment of theassociation laboratory that physicians are anxious to receiveinformation in regard to the materia medica, pharmacy and chemistryof drugs as the druggist earns the respect and support of thephysician when he makes available to him the pharmaceutical knowledgeand experience which he has, so this laboratory has aimed to gainthe endorsement of the american medical association membership byfurnishing to physicians information in regard to the composition, chemistry and pharmacy of drugs through replies in the query andminor notes dewritingment of the journal as well as through directcorrespondence it has been most gratifying to the laboratory that thejournal receives an increasing number of inquiries both as regardsthe chemical and pharmaceutical questions involved in the writing ofprescriptions and as regards the composition of secret and semisecretproprietaries often because they are prescribed by the inquirercolleague and “patent medicines” which are taken by his patient thelaboratory has tried its best to answer the thesis inquiries received thesis of the questions which come in can be answered by a pharmacist orchemist without hesitation others, writingicularly as to the compositionof medicines, the laboratory has been able to answer by reference toits library and its extensive card index still others have requiredexperimentation and chemical analysis while, as stated a moment ago, the laboratory has encouraged thesending of inquiries and has earnestly striven to furnish theinformation asked for, it is obvious that the amount of chemical workwhich can be done is limited the small size of the laboratory force, consisting of three chemists engaged in actual analytical work, makesit necessary to select for investigation those problems which shallbe of general interest to the medical profession as the americanmedical association is national in its scope, the laboratory has heldthat it can do analytical work only when such work will be of generalinterest to physicians and of value both to the medical professionand the public in view of this it has refrained from undertakinganalyses which would benefit only the physician making the inquiry andpossibly his patient the laboratory further has not felt justifiedin undertaking work of merely local interest. Instead it has usedits endeavors to secure the investigation of such local problems bymunicipal or state authorities -- from the journal a m a , nov 25, 1916 lead in “akoz”akoz is a mineral product sold by the natura company of san francisco, and said to possess most remarkable medicinal properties a circular issued by the natura company begins thus. “while scientists have been striving through the centuries to compound remedies for man various ills, nature, greatest chemist of them all, has been working wonders in her crucibles and has achieved results far beyond man greatest expectation ” “nature chief handicap has been the difficulty of placing her gifts in the hands of those whom she would benefit by accident or fate, as you will, one of nature greatest medicinal products has just been discovered it is the mineral given the name of akoz by john d mackenzie, president and manager of the natura company of san francisco, which is now giving this rare remedy of nature to the public ”the circular then describes how the power of the “rare remedy” to curerheumatism is claimed to have been discovered and asserts that. “akoz was subjected to every known scientific test before being presented to the public it was practically determined that the ore contained a new element having radium-like qualities but containing nothing poisonous or harmful ” “after the curative virtues of akoz for rheumatism, stomach trouble, eczema, catarrh, piles, ulcers and numerous other ailments had been fully established in chemical laboratory, hospital clinic, and the private practice of physicians in various writings of the world, mr mackenzie effected the organization of the natura company ”this product, put up in the form of “akoz medicinal mineral water, akozointment, akoz powder and akoz suppositories, ” was submitted to thecouncil on pharmacy and chemistry for consideration essay years ago withthe claims that “akoz” itself consists essentially of zinc sulphid, barium sulphate and aluminum oxid the submitted analysis did notdeclare the presence of lead or of uranium though “special tests” forthe latter had been “run ” without checking the claimed composition, the council at that time refused recognition to akoz because therewas no evidence submitted for the very extravagant and altogetherimprobable therapeutic claims after the council had concluded the consideration of akoz a letterwas received from a california physician stating that according to ananalysis submitted to him akoz contained 0 34 per cent of lead in theform of lead sulphate the correspondent held that, while the leadsulphate did not pass into solution, persons drinking the supernatantliquid from akoz the “medicinal mineral water” is made by adding akozto ordinary water might inadvertently swallow essay of the powder hewas inclined to believe that this might account for a case of leadpoisoning which had been observed in a patient who had been taking akoz inasmuch as it has been demonstrated by carlson and woelfel carlson, a j , and woelfel, a. Solubility of lead sulphate and basic leadcarbonate in human gastric juice in hygiene of the paintertrade by alice hamilton, bull of u s bureau of labor statisticsno 120, may 13, 1913, pp 22-32 that even small quantities of leadsulphate when taken into the system for a long time, have produced leadpoisoning, the laboratory deemed it important that the products beexamined for lead a specimen of “akoz powder” submitted to the council by the naturacompany and contained in a sifter-top can was taken for analysis thecontents of the can were thoroughly mixed to determine the presence oflead essay of the powder was extracted with ammonium acetate solution details of analysisqualitative tests showed the presence of lead and sulphate in theammonium acetate solution the presence of lead was demonstrated by the black precipitate withhydrogen sulphid, the yellow precipitate with potassium chromate andthe typical yellowish crystalline precipitate with potassium iodin the presence of sulphates in the ammonium acetate solution was shown bythe formation of a precipitate with barium chlorid solution and aceticacid two 2 gm samples a and b were taken for the quantitativedetermination of lead each was treated repeatedly with a saturatedsolution of ammonium acetate until the filtered ammonium acetatesolution gave no appreciable precipitate with potassium chromatesolution the ammonium acetate extractions from each specimen werecombined and treated with hydrogen sulphid, the precipitated leadsulphid filtered off and washed, and ignited with sulphuric acid at alow heat the crucible with the residue of lead sulphate was cooled andweighed a yielded 0 0469 gm , or 2 34 per cent , lead sulphate b yielded 0 0440 gm , or 2 20 per cent , lead sulphate while the laboratory has no evidence to show that the amount oflead-sulphate thus found to be present is likely to prove harmful, thefollowing cautionary letter was sent to the natura company. “according to information which you sent to the council on pharmacy and chemistry your product “akoz” does not contain lead in view of reports received ascribing symptoms, resulting from the internal use of akoz, to chronic lead poisoning, an examination of a specimen of akoz powder, which you sent to the council, was made this examination indicates the presence in akoz powder of about 2 2 per cent lead sulphate in view of the disastrous results likely to follow the internal use of products containing even small amounts of lead, the above is submitted to you for your consideration ”no reply to the foregoing was received from the natura company -- fromreports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 103 sodium acetate in warming bottlesrecently the laboratory attention was called to the “thermorwaterless hot bottle, ” manufactured by the royal thermophor salesco , new york the following claims appear in one of the advertisingpamphlets. “there is moist heat ” “rubber hot-water ?. ?. ?. naturally give a moist heat ” it thermor gives a dry heat “the ‘thermor’ bottle is not a hot-water bottle-- it acts on a principle that is entirely different and new ” “ gives you first, last and all the time a fixed degree of dry usable heat-- a heat that holds steadily at 125 degrees for fully twelve hours-- you will easily see why it is that ‘thermor’ relieves and cures where hot-water bottles fail ”the bottle was nickel plated, 8-3/8 inches in diameter and 1-1/2 inchesthick, and in appearance resembled an exaggerated closed ingersollwatch the bottle is not flexible and weighs 3-1/2 pounds the contentsconsisted essentially of sodium acetate this salt melts when heated when it cools the temperature inside the bottle is relativelyconstant, as it will remain at the “freezing point” until all ofthe sodium acetate has solidified the duration of the time that itremains warm when well wrapped is simply in inverse proportion to theconductivity of the surrounding environment when two ordinary towelswere carefully arranged about it, the air between the bottle and thewrappings was maintained at a temperature of 40-50 c 104-122 f fora period of eight hours the company implication that the heat given out by the thermorbottle differs from that given out by an ordinary hot-water bottle isan absurdity the use of sodium acetate in the preparation of warmingbottles has been in practice thesis years, and is not “a principle thatis entirely different and new ” furthermore, the therapeutic claimsare extravagant -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 105 anti-syphilitic compound sweenya specimen of anti-syphilitic compound sweeny, sold by the nationallaboratories of pittsburgh, was received from a physician the package 1 ounce size has been opened by the sender and about three fourths ofthe contents removed from the rather indefinite statements in the literature of themanufacturer it is gathered that the preparation is claimed to be a“sterile, oily emulsion” which contains 1/20 grain of mercuric benzoatein each 5 minims, together with essay sodium chlorid according toinformation furnished by the laboratory correspondent, the priceasked for the preparation is $15 an ounce the quantity of the preparation received was too small to permit acomplete examination, but, from the tests which it was possible tomake, the preparation appears to be an aqueous solution containingessay suspended matter and small quantities of mercuric benzoateand a chlorid, presumably sodium chlorid there was no evidence ofthe presence of an “oily emulsion ” quantitative tests indicatedthe presence of a mercuric salt, equivalent to about 0 2783 gm ofcrystallized mercuric benzoate per 100 c c this corresponds to about0 00086 gm in each 5 minims, or about 26 5 per cent of the amountclaimed -- from reports a m a chemical laboratory, 1916, p 106 “ambrine” and paraffin filmsf paul nicholas leech, ph d f contribution from the chemical laboratory of the american medicalassociation in the last year or so, the hot-wax or paraffin treatment of burns hasbeen widely discussed both in medical and lay periodicals although thetreatment is simply a modification of the well-known use of oil andointments, it has received unusual attention, owing to the widespreadsensationalism following the exploitation in france of a secret andtherefore mysterious mixture, “ambrine, ” the formula of dr barthe desandfort owing to this publicity, it seemed desirable to investigatethe chemical composition, and to compare its physical properties withother waxlike substances “ambrine” is promoted as a dressing for burns, frostbites, neuritis, varicose ulcers, phlebitis, neuralgia, rheumatism, sciatica, gout, etc it is a smoky-appearing substance, resembling paraffin in consistencyand without odor for application, “ambrine” is melted and applied tothe wound either with a brush or with a specially devised atomizer itcools quickly, and leaves a solid, protecting film illustration.

Carbolic acid produced a complete sterilization in the strength of 10 per cent almost at once, and with certainty after five minutes similar results were produced with the 5 per cent the 1 per cent carbolic acid did not show any appreciable germicidal action on staphylococcus experiment 14 -- toxic and irritant action of chlorlyptus -- six normal guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected peritoneally with 1 c c of chlorlyptus, guinea-pig 2 with proofreading services 2 c c of chlorlyptus, guinea-pig 3 with 3 c c of chlorlyptus, guinea-pig 4 with 4 c c and guinea-pig 5 with 5 c c 5 per cent respectively guinea-pig 6 was used as a control and not injected result. Guinea-pigs 1 and 2 did not show any appreciable disturbance guinea-pig 3 was sick for four days, after which it gradually recovered but it became sick again after one week and died ten days after the injection guinea-pig 4 died over night guinea-pig 5 died six hours after injection guinea-pig 5 was injected at 11:30 with 5 c c chlorlyptus ten minutes after the injection it was lying relaxed, respiration and heart normal, conjunctive reflex present one hour after the injection the animal seemed to present symptoms resembling those of narcosis. Respiration and heart were normal after four hours there was no change in the condition of the guinea-pig except that the respiration was irregular five and a half hours after it showed prostration with irregular respiration and heart action six hours after injection the animal was dead autopsy. The peritoneum showed a congestion and a fibrinous exudation, amount of liquid increased, essay writing of which was probably chlorlyptus unabsorbed spleen about normal, liver congested, kidney about normal, suprarenal glands about normal, lungs normal, pleural cavity obtained no exudation, heart soft, flabby and congested experiment 15 -- toxic and irritant action of chlorlyptus when injected into the pleural cavity -- six normal guinea-pigs used for the experiment chlorlyptus was injected in the pleural cavity as follows. Guinea-pig 1, 0 5 c c. Guinea-pig 2, 1 c c. Guinea-pig 3, 2 c c. Guinea-pig 4, 3 c c , and guinea-pig 5, 4 c c guinea-pig 6 was used as a control result. Guinea-pigs 1 and 2 recovered about four hours after injection guinea-pig 3 died three days after and guinea-pigs 4 and 5 four and two hours after, respectively conclusions. Guinea-pigs weighing on the average of 400 gm may be injected peritoneally with one or two c c or intrapleurally with 0 5 to 1 c c of chlorlyptus without having fatal results from the injection experiment 16 -- toxic and irritant action of eucalyptus oil -- three normal guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 1 c c of oil of eucalyptus in the peritoneum, and guinea-pig 2 with 0 5 c c in the pleural cavity guinea-pig 3 was used as a control result. Guinea-pig 1 died about three hours after injection, and guinea-pig 2 about two hours after the injection autopsy. Both guinea-pigs showed marked congestion and a moderate degree of exudate in the peritoneum experiment 17 -- toxic and virulent action of eucalyptus -- three normal guinea-pigs were selected for the experiment, as in experiment 16 the injection was made in the pleural cavity guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of eucalyptus oil result. Guinea-pig 1 died the following day, and guinea-pig 2 one hour after the injection experiment 18 -- toxic and irritant action of dichloramin-t, 0 5 per cent in chlorcozane -- one guinea-pig was used for each experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c and guinea-pig 2 with 1 c c of dichloramin-t peritoneally result. Both animals became restless immediately after the injection, and died twelve hours after of acute hemorrhagic peritonitis experiment 19 -- effect of chlorlyptus on staphylococcus suspended in salt solution and one of that solution injected into the peritoneum of the guinea-pig -- three guinea-pigs were used for the experiment guinea-pig 1 was injected with 0 5 c c of staphylococcus suspension as control guinea-pig 2 was given the same, and immediately after received 1 c c of chlorlyptus guinea-pig 3 was injected with the same amount, and chlorlyptus was injected twenty-four hours after injection results. Guinea-pig 1 was sick and weak with loss of appetite for essay days, but gradually recovered guinea-pig 2 died over night autopsy. There was a large amount of exudate in the peritoneal cavity, irritation of the intestine, and other signs of acute inflammation a moderate degree of congestion. Spleen not enlarged. Liver showed cloudy swelling and fibrinous exudate. Lungs and heart about normal except for a moderate degree of congestion but no exudate guinea-pig 3 was sick for essay days, but recovered gradually one week after experiment 20 -- effect of chlorlyptus in vivo on staphylococcus -- the experiment was conducted in the same way as in experiment 17, but 2 c c were used instead of 1 c c result.

  • apa format college papers for sale
  • essay typer.com
  • website for homework help
  • do my homework for me online
  • yale essay
  • how to title an essay mla
  • econometrics assignment help
  • do my online class for me
  • how to start off an essay about yourself
  • write my essay service
  • paper writing services best
  • what is an argumentative essay
  • homework help sites
  • descriptive essay about a place
  • article writer
  • academic writers online
  • what is an illustration essay
  • the yellow wallpaper analysis essay
  • the most dangerous game essay
  • usc essay
  • do my essay for cheap

at 173 c. The distillate has distillate did sharp odor, is not have much acid, but frees odor. No hcl very little gas detected. i₂ from ki;  no i₂ from distillation ki. Distillate not completed was neutral distillation not completed -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the addition of chlorlyptus to a mixture of 10 per cent potassiumiodide, 10 per cent potassium iodate solution, brings about theliberation of iodine, increasing perceptibly on standing this showsthat the hydrogen chloride is gradually split off, and in time willcause a solution having a considerable degree of acidity when thistest is carried out on chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott, a small amountof iodine is liberated in a few minutes but does not increase, showinga slight initial acidity without further hydrolysis chlorinatedeucalyptol-squibb yields no free iodine after standing three hours when the chlorine content of chlorlyptus is determined according tothe method of carius, the amount is found to be 29 6 per cent themanufacturers give a method of determining chlorine by hunter fusionmethod it is believed that in this method hydrogen chloride maybe lost, and this opinion is substantiated by the firm statement, “chlorlyptus analyzed in this manner shows approximately 25 per cent of chlorine ” the chlorine content of chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott isfound to be 0 67 per cent , and that of the squibb brand to be 0 62 percent about one-fiftieth as much as in chlorlyptus to sum up. Chlorlyptus differs from chlorinated eucalyptol in odor, color, density, in reaction to silver nitrate, potassium iodide, sulphuric acid and the aqueous solution of potassium iodate andpotassium iodide the distillation of the two products occursdifferently chlorlyptus contains nearly 30 per cent of chlorine, which is approximately fifty times as much as in chlorinatedeucalyptol thus it appears to have considerable chlorine in thenegative form cl^- which may be relatively easily split off ashydrogen chloride b the persistence of the acid reaction of chlorlyptus in the body by the refereethis “chlorinated ozonized eucalyptus oil” is distinctly acid to litmuspaper it is claimed that further quantities of acid are liberated oncontact with water this is credited with producing a continuous acidreaction on the surface of tissues to which the oil may be applied andthis in turn is stated to be antiseptic or germicidal this theoretical speculation does not take into account the largequantity of reserve alkali in the body by which it combats attempts toalter its normal reaction it is therefore not convincing, unless it issupported by direct evidence in the absence of such data on the writing of the promoters of thepreparation, experiments were made to determine whether the oilpreserves its acid reaction in contact with mucous and serousmembranes the answers were clearly in the negative in the mouth, the reaction becomes neutral within ten or fifteenminutes. In the pleura and peritoneum within half an hour, and probablyin much shorter periods more detailed data follow. Series a.