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at 173 c. The distillate has distillate did sharp odor, is not have much acid, but frees odor. No hcl very little gas detected. i₂ from ki;  no i₂ from distillation ki. Distillate not completed was neutral distillation not completed -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- the addition of chlorlyptus to a mixture of 10 per cent potassiumiodide, 10 per cent potassium iodate solution, brings about theliberation of iodine, increasing perceptibly on standing this showsthat the hydrogen chloride is gradually split off, and in time willcause a solution having a considerable degree of acidity when thistest is carried out on chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott, a small amountof iodine is liberated in a few minutes but does not increase, showinga slight initial acidity without further hydrolysis chlorinatedeucalyptol-squibb yields no free iodine after standing three hours when the chlorine content of chlorlyptus is determined according tothe method of carius, the amount is found to be 29 6 per cent themanufacturers give a method of determining chlorine by hunter fusionmethod it is believed that in this method hydrogen chloride maybe lost, and this opinion is substantiated by the firm statement, “chlorlyptus analyzed in this manner shows approximately 25 per cent of chlorine ” the chlorine content of chlorinated eucalyptol-abbott isfound to be 0 67 per cent , and that of the squibb brand to be 0 62 percent about one-fiftieth as much as in chlorlyptus to sum up. Chlorlyptus differs from chlorinated eucalyptol in odor, color, density, in reaction to silver nitrate, potassium iodide, sulphuric acid and the aqueous solution of potassium iodate andpotassium iodide the distillation of the two products occursdifferently chlorlyptus contains nearly 30 per cent of chlorine, which is approximately fifty times as much as in chlorinatedeucalyptol thus it appears to have considerable chlorine in thenegative form cl^- which may be relatively easily split off ashydrogen chloride b the persistence of the acid reaction of chlorlyptus in the body by the refereethis “chlorinated ozonized eucalyptus oil” is distinctly acid to litmuspaper it is claimed that further quantities of acid are liberated oncontact with water this is credited with producing a continuous acidreaction on the surface of tissues to which the oil may be applied andthis in turn is stated to be antiseptic or germicidal this theoretical speculation does not take into account the largequantity of reserve alkali in the body by which it combats attempts toalter its normal reaction it is therefore not convincing, unless it issupported by direct evidence in the absence of such data on the writing of the promoters of thepreparation, experiments were made to determine whether the oilpreserves its acid reaction in contact with mucous and serousmembranes the answers were clearly in the negative in the mouth, the reaction becomes neutral within ten or fifteenminutes.

A thief scaling a wall receivedat a distance of fifteen paces a charge of shot from a fowling-piece;he fell dead immediately the charge had struck him in the breast, centring over a space of three or four inches, but one shot hadpenetrated the aorta over the attachment of the sigmoid valves, andanother had traversed the entire wall of this vessel powder-marks - a very important writing of evidence in case of near woundsof gunshot character pertains to the powder-marks upon the clothingand skin naturally every one knows that when a weapon is dischargednear a given surface there will be more or less powder-marking uponthat surface, the same being due to writingicles of gunpowder which areincompletely or not at all consumed, and which are black becauseof the charcoal they contain. But the circumstances under whichpowder-marks of a given character can be inflicted are so extremelyvariable that no statistics or information of value in a generalway can be given thus the fineness of the marks will depend uponthe fineness of the powder, and the area covered and the depth ofthe marking upon the same, upon the distance of the muzzle from thesurface. And the only way to make out the exact distance of the muzzlefrom the surface at the time of the infliction of a given wound is touse the same weapon, if possible, with cartridges or charges out of thesame lot as that used at the time of injury distances could, perhaps, be stated in round numbers, but their value would only be remotelyapproximate, and in a given case the best evidence is to be obtained byexperiment with the fire-arm in question dimensions of perforations - at different times a great deal ofweight has been attached to the dimension of the perforation throughsuch objects as wood, glass, or even through the bones of the body, made by the bullet which is supposed or known to have destroyedlife wrong inferences have been drawn essaytimes from a study ofundischarged bullets or cartridges similar, at least before firing, to that which has been taken from a given body it has been stated, for instance, that such a bullet was too large to have passed throughsuch an aperture or to have made such a hole, or that it was so muchsmaller than a certain hole that it was not the writingicular missilewhich made that perforation upon this matter has hinged a great dealof uncertainty and consequently a good deal of study the size ofopening which a bullet of given calibre will make through wood dependsupon the distance of the weapon, the firing charge, the velocity ofthe bullet, the extent to which its shape has been altered by passingthrough the given barrier, by the heat of the explosion, by the impactof the air upon the heated and consequently softened metal, and by thedensity and thickness of the wood, as well as by the resistance whichit may have offered mainly from its being fixed in place or movable there is, however, ordinarily less question about the size of a similarhole through a piece of glass or bone it is generally supposed thata bullet passing through a window-pane will shatter it this depends, however, mainly upon the perfection of fixation of the glass in itsresting-place if for purposes of experiment panes of glass be tackedinto a shutter and bullets be fired at them from varying distances, they will be practically invariably shattered it is, however, quitedifferent if the pane of glass be firmly fixed in a frame by means ofputty which has become old and hard, and especially if the window-frameitself be closely fitted in the casing under these circumstances abullet will often make a clearly punched hole, or one with very fewradiating lines of fracture experiment, therefore, to secure evidenceshould be made under circumstances exactly parallel to those whichnecessitate such evidence evidence from examination of the dead body fractures - considerable evidence of great interest with respect tothe effect of a bullet-wound upon the skull and the possibility offractures being produced at the base by contre coup will be found inthe statement of the case of the people v elisha b fero, publishedby dr charles t porter, of albany, in the journal of psychologicalmedicine, april, 1870 mrs fero was murdered while in her bed andwas found to have been bruised about the head and body, her husbandclaiming that the deed was that of a robber who had attacked themboth he was found with slight bruises or scratches about the face andblack marks as if from burnt powder between the middle fingers of hisright hand the first autopsy appears to have been carelessly made, but a flattened conical ball weighing twenty-six and one-half grainswas found lodged in the middle of the right cerebral hemisphere ithad not gone completely through the brain its base fitted the shellsof the metallic cartridges used in fero revolver eight days afterdeath a second examination was made, after which the head was removedand preserved in 95% alcohol a theory of the prosecution was thatmrs fero was murdered by her husband. That he shot her, as well asstruck her numerous blows upon both sides of the head and its frontand back with essay broad, heavy, and elastic body, making fracturesfound on autopsy not the least interesting writing of the testimonyis that referring to the condition of tissues alleged to have beenbruised after long preservation in alcohol the expert testimony inthis case appeared to show that such fractures as were found, withoutreference to the fact of external bruises, were due to the unskilfulmanner in which the skull-cap was removed in this connection itis well right here to emphasize the fact that fresh fractures canbe produced in the skull by too forcible or injudicious effortsto remove the calvarium when making autopsies, or that fracturespreviously existing can be extended or complicated in the same way shaw in his “manual of anatomy” says. “the question whether there hasbeen a fracture of the cranium previous to death is essaytimes moredifficult to decide than a person not accustomed to make dissectionsmight imagine if the fracture has occurred immediately before thepatient death, there will be found coagulated blood upon the bonesand in the fissures if the patient has survived for essay time, therewill be marks of inflammation and, perhaps, pus in contact with theskull, but if a fracture has been made in making the examination, which essaytimes happens in even very careful dissectors’ hands, theblood in the fracture will not be coagulated, nor will there be anyeffusions around the portions in beck medical journal, vol xxii , p 28, mr alcock essay time since stated in a public lecture inlondon that he had known a fracture of the base of the skull producedby the awkward and violent tearing of the upper portion by the saw inpenetrating enough to divide the bones, and this to be mistaken by theinexperienced operator for fracture of the skull producing death beinga medico-legal case, it might have led to melancholy consequences hadnot the error been detected by an observer ” that an extensive andoften complicated fracture by contre coup can occur as the result ofgunshot injuries of the skull is a fact well known to all surgeons ofexperience and laid down in all text-books and illustrated in all largemuseums in view of these well-known facts, it would always be well to insistin paper of this kind that the saw alone should be used and not thehammer nor the chisel when a cranial bone is fractured blood ispoured out from the ruptured vessels, as is always the case with anybone its amount varies indefinitely with the number and size of theruptured vessels, the activity of circulation, the length of time aperson lives, etc the blood may collect in circumscribed masses orbecome infiltrated in the surrounding tissues, although usually bothphenomena are observed the extent to which infiltration takes placedepends upon the quantity of blood and the nature of the surroundingtissues in loose tissues like those about the orbit infiltration ismuch more rapid and extensive examination of the weapon - french medical jurists have tried toindicate how we may determine the time elapsed between the death of aperson and the discharge of a weapon found near the body, but exactstatements in this matter are utterly out of the question certainfacts bearing on the subject are these. When recently discharged therewill be found adhering to the barrel of the piece and consisting of thefouling of which sportsmen complain, a quantity of potassium sulfidmixed with charcoal this is shown by its forming a strong alkalinesolution with water, evolving an odor of hydrogen sulfid, and a darkprecipitate with a solution of acetate of lead depending upon thedegree of exposure to air and moisture, after essay hours or days thissulfid becomes converted into potassium sulfate, which forms a neutralsolution with water and gives a white precipitate with acetate of lead;but if a considerable time has elapsed since the discharge of the pieceoxid of iron iron rust with traces of sulfate may be found ann d’hygiene, 1834, p 458. 1837, p 197. 1842, p 368 was the weapon fired from a distance or near by?. a gunshot injuryfrom a bullet implies at least one wound, namely, that of entrance, and perhaps another, that of exit it does not always happen that thebullet passes through the body the appearance of the wound of entranceis usually one of irregular circular puncture, its edges perhapsslightly torn or lacerated, with a purplish or dark areola, varying inwidth from a line or two to one-half inch when the weapon is firedclose to the body there are likely to be more or less powder-marks, and possibly actual burning from the heat and flame of the gunpowder if the writing of the body injured had been covered by clothing at thetime, the marks of powder and of burning would probably be confined tothe same bleeding is usually slight and occurs more commonly from thewound of entrance than from that of exit regularity of either of thesewounds depends in large measure upon the angle at which the bullet hasstruck the surface when striking very obliquely the wound may be moreoval or the bullet may have ploughed a furrow or a channel, by a studyof which the relative position of the assailant and the assailed atthe moment of injury may, perhaps, be determined it is of importanceto determine if possible the approximate distance at which the bulletwas fired, since the question of self-defence, for instance, may hingeupon evidence of this character the charge of powder and the weight ofthe bullet being known, one may essaytimes estimate this distance by thedepth of penetration or the appearance of the bullet still, the natureof the tissues must figure largely in such consideration thesis suicideswho shoot themselves in the head show only one wound of entrance andnone of exit experiments testing powder-marks - powder-marks and burns fromweapons ordinarily used will scarcely appear when the distance hasexceeded ten or twelve feet lachese, of antwerp, found that infiring a gun even from a distance of only four feet the skin was onlywritingially blackened as the result of experiments made with a ballard rifle, old style, 44calibre, with bullets of 220 grains and 28 grains of powder, dr balch, of albany, found that powder-marks were made at distances as follows:at two feet, writingicles too numerous to count, with essay of thelubricant blown upon the board;at four feet the same;at six feet the same;at eight feet, nine grains of powder;at ten feet, five grains of powder in one case and six in another that these were powder-grains were shown in court by picking essayof them out, placing them on a glass, and igniting them with agalvano-caustic point from those at ten feet no distinct flash couldbe elicited. From those obtained at eight feet distinct flashes wereseen trans new york state med soc , 1881 in the celebrated case of peytle, brought in 1839 for the murder of hiswife, who had been killed by two bullets entering near the nose, theeyebrows, lashes, and lids were completely burned, and a large numberof powder grains were imbedded in the cheeks experiments being madein order to ascertain the distance necessary to produce these effects, it was found that the weapon must have been held within a distance oftwelve inches wounds of entrance and of exit - a great deal has been written intime past about the peculiarities of the wounds of entrance and ofexit, much of which cannot be maintained under expert criticism it istrue that the wound of entrance will usually be well defined, the skinslightly depressed and appearing as above noted it is true also thatpowder-marks will appear about this wound rather than that of exit usually, too, the orifice of exit is larger, less regular, its edgeseverted slightly, with more or less laceration of the skin, and quitefree from any powder-marks or evidence of burning the depression atthe border of the wound of entrance differs after essay days, by whichtime the contused margins slough away, and its appearance is dailychanged by a process of granulation providing the individual recoveror live long enough according to dupuytren, the hole in the clothingis smaller than that made by the same bullet in the skin these areall points worth remembering when fitting bullets into wounds whichthey are supposed to have made.

And being made into an electuarywith honey, do help the consumption, old coughs, shortness of breath, and thin rheums. As also the megrim they mightily expel the wind, andprovoke urine. Help the mother, and kill the worms the leaves alsowork the like effect a bath of the decoction of leaves and berries, issingularly good for women to sit in, that are troubled with the mother, or the diseases thereof, or the stoppings of their courses, or for thediseases of the bladder, pains in the bowels by wind and stoppage ofthe urine a decoction likewise of equal writings of bay-berries, cumminseed, hyssop, origanum, and euphorbium, with essay honey, and the headbathed therewith, wonderfully helps distillations and rheums, andsettles the pallate of the mouth into its place the oil made of theberries is very comfortable in all cold griefs of the joints, nerves, arteries, stomach, belly, or womb, and helps palsies, convulsions, cramp, aches, tremblings, and numbness in any writing, weariness also, andpains that come by sore travelling all griefs and pains proceedingfrom wind, either in the head, stomach, back, belly, or womb, byanointing the writings affected therewith. And pains in the ears are alsocured by dropping in essay of the oil, or by receiving into the earsthe fume of the decoction of the berries through a funnel the oiltakes away the marks of the skin and flesh by bruises, falls, &c anddissolves the congealed blood in them it helps also the itch, scabs, and weals in the skin beans both the garden and field beans are so well known, that it saves me thelabour of writing any description of them the virtues follow government and virtues they are plants of venus, and the distilledwater of the flower of garden beans is good to clean the face andskin from spots and wrinkles, and the meal or flour of them, or thesmall beans doth the same the water distilled from the green husk, is held to be very effectual against the stone, and to provoke urine bean flour is used in poultices to assuage inflammations arising fromwounds, and the swelling of women breasts caused by the curdling oftheir milk, and represses their milk. Flour of beans and fenugreekmixed with honey, and applied to felons, boils, bruises, or blue marksby blows, or the imposthumes in the kernels of the ears, helps themall, and with rose leaves, frankincense and the white of an egg, beingapplied to the eyes, helps them that are swollen or do water, or havereceived any blow upon them, if used with wine if a bean be writinged intwo, the skin being taken away, and laid on the place where the leechhath been set that bleeds too much, stays the bleeding bean flourboiled to a poultice with wine and vinegar, and essay oil put thereto, eases both pains and swelling of the privities the husk boiled inwater to the consumption of a third writing thereof, stays a lask. And theashes of the husks, made up with old hog grease, helps the old pains, contusions, and wounds of the sinews, the sciatica and gout the fieldbeans have all the aforementioned virtues as the garden beans beans eaten are extremely windy meat. But if after the dutch fashion, when they are half boiled you husk them and then stew them i cannottell you how, for i never was a cook in all my life, they arewholeessay food french beans descript this french or kidney bean arises at first but with onestalk, which afterwards divides itself into thesis arms or branches, butall so weak that if they be not sustained with sticks or poles, theywill be fruitless upon the ground at several places of these branchesgrow foot stalks, each with three broad round and pointed green leavesat the end of them. Towards the top comes forth divers flowers madelike to pease blossoms, of the same colour for the most writing that thefruit will be of, that is to say, white, yellow, red, blackish, or ofa deep purple, but white is the most usual. After which come long andslender flat pods, essay crooked, essay straight, with a string runningdown the back thereof, wherein is flattish round fruit made like akidney. The root long, spreads with thesis strings annexed to it, andperishes every year there is another sort of french beans commonly growing with us in thisland, which is called the scarlet flower bean this rises with sundry branches as the other, but runs higher, tothe length of hop-poles, about which they grow twining, but turningcontrary to the sun, having foot-stalks with three leaves on each, as on the others. The flowers also are like the other, and of a mostorient scarlet colour the beans are larger than the ordinary kind, ofa dead purple colour turning black when ripe and dry.

Blood always fluid. No subpleural ecchymoses the liver, spleen, and kidneys are generally congested. The kidney morethan the other organs named the spleen is said to be often anæmic semen has essaytimes been found, unexpelled, in the urethra page922 experimented on three kittens, suffocating them in cinders the post-mortem examinations showed the veins engorged, left side of heart empty, right side full of dark, half-clotted blood lungs distended, much congested, color violet. Thesis small fluid hemorrhages in substance. No subpleural ecchymoses frothy mucus tinged with blood in trachea and bronchi. Bronchi congested brain and abdominal organs normal proof of death by suffocation it is essaytimes difficult in a given case to state whether death is dueto suffocation there is no lesion which of itself could be accepted asproof but a collation of the lesions found taken in connection withthe surroundings of the body will in thesis if not in most paper lead toa definite conclusion infants have been found alive four and five hours after having beenburied in the earth 923 if the pulverulent material has penetratedinto the œsophagus and stomach, the burial has occurred during life exceptionally when burial has occurred after death and traces of thematerial are found in the air-passages, they are not found in theœsophagus or stomach the committee on “suffocation, ” of the new york med leg soc , reported924 the following group of appearances as evidences of death by suffocation. The general venous character of the blood, the turgidity of the larger veins, the congestion of the parenchymatous organs, especially at the base of the brain, the lungs congested in a variable degree and œdematous, frothy mucus in the bronchi, the right side of the heart always fuller than the left fitz925 holds that suffocation is a condition composed of a group of symptoms and appearances due most probably to accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood and a deficiency of oxygen the appearances are. The blood dark and fluid though in gradual suffocation there may be clots in the right side of the heart, the right side of the heart full, venous congestion of the lungs not constant, interstitial emphysema of the lungs, and venous congestion of the liver, kidneys, and brain he prefers the word engorgement to congestion in this connection tardieu926 holds that when in infants buried in pulverulentsubstances we find emphysema of the lungs in high degree, bloody frothin the air-passages, abundant subpleural and subpericardial ecchymosesand the blood fluid, the burial has occurred during life the samelesions are found in small animals similarly treated it must not be forgotten that an intoxicated person or one in anepileptic spasm is practically helpless, and can, therefore, besuffocated, accidentally or otherwise, under circumstances in which onein possession of his senses would be able to escape accidental, homicidal, and suicidal suffocation accidental suffocation is frequent, as has already appeared suicidal suffocation is very rare homicidal suffocation occurs foreign bodies have been forced into the air-passages smothering hasbeen done by holding the face in various materials to prevent accessof air. By pressure on the chest. By forcible closure of the mouth andnose as in burking. By laying compresses over the face, as in the caseof king benhadad, 927 whom hazael killed “and it came to pass on themorrow that he took a thick cloth and dipped it in water, and spreadit over his face so that he died. And hazael reigned in his stead ”benhadad was already quite ill and not expected to live death by suffocation928 may be considered as presumptive of homicideunless the facts are already referable to accident in infants, suffocation is, of course, either accidental or homicidal;in adults usually accidental the absence of signs of a strugglein adults suggests accident. Unless there is cause of suspicion ofprevious stupefying with narcotics taylor929 calls attention to a dangerous practice among essayattendants upon infants, of putting into the mouth of the child toquiet it a bag containing sugar. And instances a case in which thechild would have died of suffocation but for the fortunate discovery ofa writing of the bag protruding from the mouth in ten years, 3, 612 deaths were reported in the city of london, ofinfants smothered by being overlaid 930infants may be born into a mass of blood and fæces, from which theunattended mother in her weakness may be unable to remove them page931 shows by experiment that the inspiratory effort when violently exerted is sufficient to convey small objects into the air-passages cinders passed thus into the trachea and œsophagus of kittens and rabbits berenguier932 experimented on new-born pups, placing them in ashes, plaster, and starch in ashes they lived fifteen hours. These found their way into the middle of the œsophagus, but were stopped at the glottis plaster and starch formed a paste with the oral mucus and the movement of the mass was not so great as the ashes in no case did either of the materials pass beyond the glottis tardieu933 examined three infants which had been buried during life one was in ashes.

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No pulse. No heart-beatrecognizable. No respiration. No reflex action galvanism failed toarouse any muscular action the details are too numerous to give all ofthem there was reduplication of heart-sounds for several days, due tointerference with pulmonary circulation she recovered both bodily andmental health 45 richards. Indian med gaz , 1886, xxi , p 78 - man, age 20;suicide. Was cut down and lived for four days 46 kite. Univ med mag , 1888-89, i , p 475 - man, age 69.