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Hot and dry in the third degree, potently provokesthe menses, expels both birth and afterbirth, they boiled in oil andused in ointments stay creeping ulcers, scour away spots, freckles andsunburning from the face. The belly anointed with it kills worms inchildren salvia sage. Hot and dry in the second or third degree, binding, it stays abortion in such women as are subject to come before theirtimes, it causes fruitfulness, it is singularly good for the brain, strengthens the senses and memory, helps spitting and vomiting ofblood. Outwardly, heat hot with a little vinegar and applied to theside, helps stitches and pains in the sides salix willow leaves, are cold, dry, and binding, stop spitting ofblood, and fluxes.

And if you will be so nice, you may oppose them thus andso medicines making thick, correspond to attenuating medicines, or suchas make thin, repelling medicines are opposed to such as draw, and suchas retain the humours and make them tough, are opposite to such asdiscuss, essay hold this niceness needless 2 the sentence of authors about repulsive medicines is various for seeing an influxion may be caused thesis ways, a repulsive hath gotas thesis definitions for such things as cool, bind, stop, and make thick, stay influxions, and therefore repulsives are by authors opposed, not only toattractives, but also to attenuating, and discussing medicines but properly such things are called repulsives, which do not only stayinfluxions, for so do such medicines which stop and make thick butsuch as drive the humours flowing to, or inherit in the place, to essayother place the professional writing services chicago truth is, binding is inherent to repulsives, so is not coldness normaking thick. Yet such as are binding, cold and thin in operation, aremost effectual your taste will find repulsives to be, tart, or sharp, or austere, witha certain binding which contracts the tongue use 1 their use is manifold, as in hot tumours, head-aches, or thelike use 2 by these in fevers are the vapours driven from the head, vinegar of roses is notable time of giving they are most commodious in the beginning andencrease of a disease, for then influxions most prevail but seeing that in the cure of tumours there are two scopes, 1 thatthat which flows to it may be repelled 2 that that which is alreadyin it may be discussed. Repulsives are most commodiously used in thebeginning, discussives in the latter end in the middle you may mix them, with this proviso, that repulsivesexceed in the beginning, discussives in the latter end caution 1 if the matter offending be of a venomous quality, eitherabstain from repulsives altogether, or use purging first, lest thematter fly to the bowels and prove dangerous, especially if the bowelsbe weak 2 also forbear repulsives, if the pain be great 3 lastly, have a care lest by repulsives you contract the pores somuch, that the matter cannot be removed by discussives chapter vii of cleansing medicines cleansing medicines can neither be defined by heat, nor coldness, because essay of both sorts cleanse a cleansing medicine, then, is of a terrene quality, which takes awaythe filth with it, and carries it out definition here, to avoid confusion, a difference must be madebetween washing and cleansing a thing which washeth, carries away by fluxion, as a man washeth thedirt off from a thing a cleansing medicine by a certain roughness or nitrous quality, carriesaway the compacted filth with it this also is the difference between cleansing and discussing medicines, the one makes thick humours thin, and so scatters them, but a cleansingmedicine takes the most tenacious humour along with it, without anyalteration besides, of cleansing medicines, essay are of a gentler nature, essay aremore vehement these are not known one and the same way. For essay are sweet, essaysalt, and essay bitter the use of cleansing is external, as the use of purges are internal they are used to cleanse the sanies and other filth of ulcers, yea, andto consume and eat away the flesh itself, as burnt alum, precipitate, &c when these must be used, not only the effects of the ulcers, but alsothe temperature of the body will tell you for if you see either a disease of fulness, which our physicians callplethora or corrupted humours which they call cacochyma youmust empty the body of these, viz fulness by bleeding, and corrupthumours, or evil state of the body, by purging before you use cleansingmedicines to the ulcer, else your cure will never proceed prosperously chapter viii of emplasters by emplasters, here, i do mean things glutinative, and they are quitecontrary to things cleansing they are of a far more glutinous and tenacious substance they differ from things stopping because they do not stop the pores somuch, as stick to them like birdlime they have a certain glutinous heat, tempered both with coldness andmoisture from these plasters take their names their taste is either none at all, or not discernable whether hot orcold, but fat, insipid, or without taste, or sweet, and viscous infeeling their use is to stop flowing of blood, and other fluxes, to causesuppuration, to continue the heat, that so tumours may be ripened also they are mixed with other medicines, that they may the better bebrought into the form of an emplaster, and may stick the better to themembers chapter ix of suppuring medicines these have a great affinity with emolients, like to them intemperature, only emolients are essaywhat hotter yet is there a difference as apparent as the sun when he is upon themeridian, and the use is manifest for, emolients are to make hard things soft, but what suppures, rather makesa generation than an alteration of the humour natural heat is the efficient cause of suppuration, neither can it bedone by any external means therefore such things are said to suppure, which by a gentle heatcherish the inbred heat of man this is done by such medicines which are not only temperate in heat, but also by a gentle viscosity, fill up or stop the pores, that so theheat of the writing affected be not scattered for although such things as bind hinder the dissipation of the spirits, and internal heat, yet they retain not the moisture as suppuringmedicines properly and especially do the heat then of suppuring medicines is like the internal heat of ourbodies as things then very hot, are ingrateful either by biting, as pepper, or bitterness. In suppuring medicines, no biting, no binding, nonitrous quality is perceived by the taste, i shall give you bettersatisfaction both in this and others, by and by for reason will tell a man, that such things hinder rather than helpthe work of nature in maturation yet it follows not from hence, that all suppuring medicines aregrateful to the taste, for thesis things grateful to the taste provokesvomiting, therefore why may not the contrary be?. The most frequent use of suppuration is, to ripen phlegmonæ, ageneral term physicians give to all swellings proceeding of blood, because nature is very apt to help such cures, and physic is an art tohelp, not to hinder nature the time of use is usually in the height of the disease, when the fluxis stayed, as also to ripen matter that it may be the easier purgedaway chapter x of medicines provoking urine the causes by which urine is suppressed are thesis 1 by too much drying, or sweating, it may be consumed 2 by heat or inflammation of the reins, or passages whereby it passesfrom the reins, it may be stopped by compression urine is the thinnest writing of blood, separated from the thickest writingin the reins if then the blood be more thick and viscous than ordinary, it cannoteasily be separated without cutting and cleansing medicines this is for certain, that blood can neither be separated nordistributed without heat yet amongst diureticks are essay cold things, as the four greater coldseeds, winter-cherries, and the like although this seem a wonder, yet it may be, and doth stand with truth for cool diureticks, though they further not the separation of theblood one jot, yet they cleanse and purge the passages of the urine diureticks then are of two sorts:1 such as conduce to the separation of the blood 2 such as open the urinal passages the former are biting and are known by their taste very hot andcutting, whence they penetrate to the reins, and cut the gross humoursthere bitter things, although they be very hot, and cut gross humours, yetare they of a more dry and terrene substance than is convenient toprovoke urine hence then we may safely gather, that bitter things are not so moistnor penetrating, as such as bite like pepper chapter xi of medicines breeding flesh there are thesis things diligently to be observed in the cures of woundsand ulcers, which incur and hinder that the cure cannot be speedilydone, nor the separated writings reduced to their natural state viz fluxes of blood, inflammation, hardness, pain, and other thingsbesides our present scope our present scope is, to shew how the cavity of ulcers may be filledwith flesh such medicines are called sarcoticks this, though it be the work of nature, yet it is helped forward withmedicines, that the blood may be prepared, that it may the easier beturned into flesh these are not medicines which breed good blood, nor which correct theintemperature of the place afflicted, but which defend the blood andthe ulcer itself from corruption in breeding flesh for nature in breeding flesh produceth two sorts of excrements, viz scrosus humours, and purulent dross those medicines then which cleanse and consume, these by drying aresaid to breed flesh, because by their helps nature performs that office also take notice that these medicines are not so drying that theyshould consume the blood also as well as the sanies, nor so cleansingthat they should consume the flesh with the dross let them not then exceed the first degree unless the ulcer be verymoist their difference are various, according to the writing wounded, whichought to be restored with the same flesh the softer then, and tenderer the place is, the gentler let themedicines be chapter xii of glutinative medicines that is the true cure of an ulcer which joins the mouth of it together that is a glutinative medicine, which couples together by drying andbinding, the sides of an ulcer before brought together these require a greater drying faculty than the former, not only toconsume what flows out, but what remains liquid in the flesh, forliquid flesh is more subject to flow abroad than stick to together the time of using them, any body may know without teaching, viz whenthe ulcer is cleansed and filled with flesh, and such symptoms ashinder are taken away for thesis times ulcers must be kept open that the sanies, or fords thatlie in them may be purged out, whereas of themselves they would healbefore only beware, lest by too much binding you cause pain in tender writings chapter xiii of medicines resisting poison such medicines are called alexiteria, and alexipharmaca, whichresist poison essay of these resist poison by astral influence, and essay physicians though but few can give a reason for it these they have sorted into three ranks:1 such as strengthen nature, that so it may tame the poison the easier 2 such as oppose the poison by a contrary quality 3 such as violently thrust it out of doors such as strengthen nature against poison, either do it to the bodyuniversally, or else strengthen essay writingicular writing thereof for thesis times one writingicular writing of the body is most afflicted bythe poison, suppose the stomach, liver, brain, or any other writing. Suchas cherish and strengthen those writings, being weakened, may be said toresist poison such as strengthen the spirits, strengthen all the body essaytimes poisons kill by their quality, and then are they to becorrected by their contraries they which kill by cooling are to be remedied by heating, and thecontrary. They which kill by corroding, are to be cured by lenitives, such as temper their acrimony those which kill by induration, or coagulation, require cuttingmedicines also because all poisons are in motion, neither stay they in one tillthey have seized and oppressed the fountain of life, therefore theyhave invented another faculty to stay their motion, viz terrene andemplastic for they judge, if the poison light upon these medicines, they embracethem round with a viscous quality also they say the ways and passages are stopped by such means, tohinder their proceeding. Take terra lemnia for one truly if these reasons be good, which i leave to future time todetermine, it may be done for little cost essay are of opinion that the safest way is to expel the poison out ofthe body, so soon as may be, and that is done by vomit, or purge, orsweat you need not question the time, but do it as soon as may be. For thereis no parlying with poison let vomiting be the first, purging the next, and sweating the last this is general but, if thou dost but observe the nature and motion of the venom, that willbe thy best instructor in the stomach it requires vomiting, in the blood and spirits, sweating, if the body be plethoric, bleeding, if full of evil humours, purging lastly, the cure being ended, strengthen the writings afflicted the project gutenberg ebook of medical jurisprudence, forensic medicineand toxicology - vol 1 of 4, by rudolph august witthaus and tracy chatfield beckerthis ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the united states and mostother writings of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictionswhatsoever you may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms ofthe project gutenberg license included with this ebook or online atgutenberg org if you are not located in the united states, you'll haveto check the laws of the country where you are located before using this ebook title.

The proteogen no 3 sent me worked wonders in my patient the case came under my care when he was too far gone for anything to benefit him a great deal, but the proteogen did for him more than anyone could have expected, yet he died leaving me with a few ampoules to try on the next patient -- september 20, 1918 gonorrheal cystitis:-- proteogen no 11 -- my patient has taken two boxes of your proteogen no 11 given for gonorrheal cystitis of probably two years’ standing and at this writing i consider her almost, if not entirely, cured which i think speaks very highly of your remedy i expect to use more of your preparations in the future -- april 12, 1919 this testimonial, either by clerical error, or because the results were considered remarkable, was repeated elsewhere in the material submitted by the merrell company acute gonorrhea:-- proteogen no 11 -- mr a e r , age 65, weight 140 pounds first attack had had no previous treatment came to me january 2, 1919 had discharge, all acute symptoms, burning, etc gave seventeen injections of proteogen no 11, also mild antiseptic urethral wash discharged on february 15, 1919, clinically cured -- april 11, 1919 epithelioma of buttock -- proteogen no 1 -- i used proteogen no 1 on an epithelioma of buttock essay six months ago with favorable results and no return of symptoms as yet -- april 13, 1919 it is obvious that the proteogen preparations are in conflict withrules 1, 6 and 10, and should not be admitted to “new and nonofficialremedies ” it is recommended that the previous action of thecouncil be allowed to stand and that publication of both reports beauthorized -- from the journal a m a , july 12, 1919 “arsenoven s s ” and “arseno-meth-hyd” report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council authorizes publication of the following report this reportdeclares arsenoven s s of the s s products company and solution ofarsenic and mercury formerly called arseno-meth-hyd of the new yorkintravenous laboratory, inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies the council takes this opportunity to repeat its warning against theabuses-- often dangerous-- to which patients are frequently subjectedwhen “intravenous therapy” is employed w a puckner, secretary because of inquiries received, the council took up the consideration ofarsenoven s s and arseno-meth-hyd now sold as solution of arsenicand mercury the preparations having been referred to a committee forconsideration, this committee reported. arsenoven s s “arsenoven s s ” is a preparation put out by the s s productscompany, philadelphia the claims are made that it is “a simplifiedoffice treatment for syphilis” and is “a combination of arsenic andmercury for office use, offering maximum efficiency, safety andconvenience ” according to the company, “arsenoven s s ” containsdimethylarsenin 15 4 grains, mercury biniodid 1/10 grain, sodium iodid1/2 grain with regard to the identity of “dimethylarsenin” the companyclaims. “this product is a compound of cacodylic acid similar tosodium cacodylate but with a more pronounced therapeutic action ” thecommittee recommends to the council that “arsenoven s s ” be declaredinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because of unwarrantedtherapeutic claims arseno-meth-hyd“arseno-meth-hyd, ” is sold by the new york intravenous laboratory, new york city, for the treatment of syphilis it comes in threedosages, 2 gm , 1 5 gm , and 0 7 gm , respectively the claim is madethat “arseno-meth-hyd 2 gm ” contains “2 gm 31 grains of sodiumdimethylarsenate cacodylate, u s p and mercury iodid 5 mg 1/12grain” in 5 c c of solution physicians are told. “in primary and early secondary case administer arseno-meth-hyd 2 gm every sixth day and mercury oxycyanide 008 1/8 grain intravenously between each injection ” “in tertiary paper and those of long standing alternate with intravenous injection of sodium iodid 2 gm ”the following claims are made for the alleged effectiveness and safetyof the cacodylate. “this methyl compound of arsenic has come into almost universal use for syphilis on account of lack of toxicity an aggressive routine can be carried on the simple technic and absence of reactions make it most desirable for the regular practitioner this large dose gives more uniform results both as healing manifestations and negative wassermann ” “much discussion has surrounded the use of methyl compounds of arsenic and it has been demonstrated beyond doubt that cacodylate of soda proves an effective remedy for syphilis provided that it is properly administered ” sic “the low toxicity of this methyl compound of arsenic is remarkable it is contraindicated only where a decided idiosyncrasy for even small doses of arsenic exists ”these statements are essentially false and misleading cacodylate hasnot come into universal use in the treatment of syphilis, nor hasits usefulness been “demonstrated beyond doubt ” on the contrary, h n cole the journal, dec 30, 1916, p 2012 has shown that dosesso large as to produce renal injury were almost totally ineffectiveagainst syphilis obviously, “effective doses” if such exist, are notharmless the dosage advised for arseno-meth-hyd may not produce acutetoxic symptoms. Nevertheless smaller doses have produced nephriticphenomena the “arseno-meth-hyd” treatment includes the intravenousinjection of about 1/4 grain of a mercury salt although this is lessthan the usual dose about 1 grain per week, the mercury is probablymore effective than the cacodylate the committee recommends to the council that, because of theunwarranted therapeutic claims, “arseno-meth-hyd” be held inadmissibleto new and nonofficial remedies the council adopted both reports of the committee and declared“arsenoven s s ” and “solution of arsenic and mercury” “arseno-meth-hyd” inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies the committee reports on these two products impel the councilagain to call attention to the undesirable and dangerous abuses towhich “intravenous therapy” lends itself there is a distinct fieldfor the intravenous administration of drugs in those paper in whichimmediate drug action is necessary, or when the medicament is likelyto be changed if absorbed through the ordinary channels unless suchindications exist, however, intravenous administration involves notonly inconvenience and expense to the patient, but what is moreimportant, unnecessary danger the fact that indiscriminate intravenousadministration is peculiarly profitable to certain manufacturing housesmakes it all the more necessary for the medical profession to be on itsguard in this matter in this connection it is well worth while to quote the closingparagraph from an editorial on “intravenous therapy” that appeared inthe journal, nov 11, 1916 it is as true today as when it appeared:“intravenous therapy will be most securely advanced if its employmentis restricted to such well defined fields as those mentioned above these fields can be satisfactorily determined only by a scientificpharmacologic study of the action of these drugs when so administeredin animals, as well as in man, under conditions in which the resultsare carefully controlled the intravenous method is an impressive one, approaching in preparation almost to that which goes with a surgicaloperation the patient is usually interested and impressed by thisnew, and, to him, mysterious method there is a psychic element in hisreaction to the injection which is not a factor in his reaction to thesame drug when given by mouth the intravenous injection of a complexmixture would appear to be writingicularly reprehensible little is known, as has been stated, of the results to be expected from intravenoustherapy, even with simple substances the use of complex mixtures willwithout doubt react against the proper use of the method ”after the report on arseno-meth-hyd had been presented to the council, a letter was received from the new york intravenous laboratoryannouncing that the preparation “arseno-meth-hyd” was now called“solution of arsenic and mercury” and expressing a desire to have itsproducts accepted for inclusion in new and nonofficial remedies inview of this letter, the committee report on “arseno-meth-hyd” andthe council protest against promiscuous intravenous therapy weresent the new york intravenous laboratory for consideration the reply of the new york intravenous laboratory contained nothingwhich permitted a revision of the preceding report the change of thename of “arseno-meth-hyd” to “solution of arsenic and mercury” meanslittle as the name still does not disclose the important fact that thearsenic is present as sodium cacodylate, nor does it tell the characterof the mercury compound the council voted that “solution of arsenicand mercury” and “arsenoven s s ” be declared inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies because the therapeutic claims advanced for themare unwarranted rule 6 and because the names of these pharmaceuticalpreparations are not descriptive of their composition rule 8 in filing its reply with the council, the new york intravenouslaboratory announced that that document would be circulated to themedical profession this is of course the firm privilege the councilnotes, however, with interest, that the reply is devoted almostentirely to points which were not raised by the council and that itfails to discuss the objections which were actually made the reply constantly confuses the efficiency of cacodylate in anemiaand in syphilis the council report on “arseno-meth-hyd” does notdiscuss or even touch on the question of cacodylates in anemia itis confined to a discussion of the disappointing results obtainedwith cacodylates as such i e , without mercury in the treatmentof syphilis this attempt on the writing of the new york intravenouslaboratory to confuse the issue and to attribute to the councilan opinion that it has never stated or held is an inexcusablemisrepresentation the company in its reply said. “we believe that you have previously stated that a solution cacodylate of soda possesses no more action than so much water in other words, it was inert now you try to show that it produces renal injury ”the council has never declared that cacodylates are inert in thereport it is merely stated “that doses so large as to produce renalinjury were almost totally ineffective against syphilis ” neitherhas the council stated that cacodylate is “peculiarly dangerous ” infact the absolute toxicity of cacodylates is low but cole resultswere quoted as a caution that “effective” doses are not harmless agreat portion of the remainder of the reply is devoted to disparagingarsphenamin-- a product that is not involved in this action of thecouncil, and one about which the physician is amply informed amongst other wholly extraneous matters, the firm “reply” tried toresurrect the pepsin pancreatin controversy this also has nothingto do with the efficiency or harmlessness of sodium cacodylate inorder to dispose of the matter, however, it may be pointed out thatthe implications are entirely misleading the work which is quotedagainst the council was undertaken by the council itself, to clarifyobscurities in the older data the outcome of these new investigationsshowed the essential correctness of the deductions from the older work, namely, that pancreatin is destroyed by pepsin-hydrochloric acid dr long work to which the firm reply evidently refers, showed thatunder favorable conditions, namely, when protected by an excess ofprotein, essay trypsin may escape destruction in the stomach. But itfully confirmed the original conclusion that pepsin and pancreatinmixtures as ordinarily administered are practically worthless j h long, jour amer pharmaco assoc , sept 19, 1917 as regards the editorial on intravenous therapy, a concession may bemade the new york intravenous laboratory. Intravenous injections are nolonger quite as “impressive” as in 1916, but that does not alter thefact that they should be used only when a distinct advantage is to begained -- from the journal a m a , aug 2, 1919 hormotone and hormotone without post-pituitary report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry “hormotone, ” of the g w carnrick company, is advertised as “apluriglandular tonic for asthenic conditions ” “hormotone withoutpost-pituitary” is recommended for use “in neurasthenic conditionsassociated with high blood pressure ” these preparations are sold inthe form of tablets for oral administration the council declares thesepreparations inadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies because. 1their composition is semisecret rule 1. 2 the therapeutic claimsare unwarranted rule 6. 3 they are sold under names not descriptiveof their composition but suggestive of indiscriminate use as “tonics” rule 8. 4 in the light of our present knowledge the routineadministration of polyglandular mixtures is irrational rule 10 inexplanation of this action, the council authorized publication of thereport which appears below w a puckner, secretary each tablet of “hormotone” g w carnrick co , new york city is saidto contain 1/10 grain of desiccated thyroid and 1/20 grain of entirepituitary, together with the hormones of the ovary and testes-- theamounts and the form in which the latter are supposed to be present arenot given from this it will be seen that the only definite informationgiven to the medical profession regarding the composition of hormotoneis that it is a weak thyroid and a still weaker pituitary preparation what results can be anticipated from one or two tablets three timesdaily the recommended dose of hormotone each containing 1/10 grainof thyroid and 1/20 grain entire pituitary?. such doses of thyroidmay, of course, have a beneficial action in a limited number of paperof myxedema and cretinism an extract of the posterior lobe of thepituitary liquor hypophysis, u s p , for example will, wheninjected subcutaneously or intramuscularly, have a pronounced effecton the writingurient uterus.

Not exorcism, but the exorcist only in thosepaper in which the disease, as in numerous paper of the second century, had become epidemic and almost common, did ordinary and conventionalmeans avail the exorcist became a mesmerizer, possibly a deceiveddeceiver but when strong individuality is deceived concerning its ownpersonality by the demon of terror, and the soul is actually shaken bythe power of darkness which possesses it, and from which it purposes toescape, a powerful and holy will alone can interfere from the outsideworld to deliver the shackled will in essay paper we find traces of aphenomenon which in modern times, for want of essay better name, hasbeen called ‘suggestion’. But the prophet suggests in a differentmanner than does the professional exorcist ”besides these official christian exorcists, a great multitude of otherpersons carried on the trade of conjurer of demons the sorcerers andmagicians who plied their nefarious trade for the cure of the possessedand for those suffering from other diseases, worked with various kindsof mystic signs and ceremonies, and they certainly did an excellentbusiness, for he who humors the superstition and the stupidity of manalways prospers modern quackery illustrates this most strikingly but, besides these healers, there existed numerous other conjurers ofdemons and medical wonder-workers who plied their trade not for thesake of contemptible mammon, but solely for ethical reasons these werethe members of the various theosophico-philosophical sects, who wereactive during the first christian centuries and have been exhaustivelydescribed on the previous pages altho christians were eager to exalt their exorcists, who worked onlywith prayer and the invocation of christ, above all practises ofsorcery, they were not able, in the long run, to prevent christiandogmas from being confounded with and corrupted by those of philosophy under the influence of saturninus, basilides, and carpocrates, thevarious philosophical vagaries concerning accessory, intermediary, andinferior gods, and their influences upon the fate of man, corruptedthe pure and simple teachings of christ that error against which paulhad so impressively cautioned the early christian communities in hisepistle to the colossians, chapter ii , verse 8 “beware lest any manspoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition ofmen, after the rudiments of the world, and not after christ”, had, nevertheless, made its appearance at last, and the adulteration ofpure gospel by philosophical speculations and fantastic views began togrow more complete from the third century on this was the foundationof the religio-mystic system which, during the middle ages, and evenbeyond the period of the renaissance, oppressed humanity like asuffocating nightmare, and not only checked progress, but also filledeach branch of human knowledge with the most frightful superstition andthe crassest mysticism this was the case also in medicine. In fact, this branch of science has probably suffered most from the alliance ofchristianity with the fantastic doctrines of philosophical schools the ancient doctrine of demons passed under the influence of christianmysticism through certain changes and transitions, especially in itsrelation to the bodily condition of individuals the variations in thisdoctrine were naturally most plainly evidenced in the medical views ofthe day it was believed that every human being from birth was allotteda good and an evil demon the good spirit held his hand protectinglyover his human charge, whereas the evil demon only waited his chance toinflict injury upon man, forming especially the determining principlein the etiology of disease it is true, the evil spirits apparentlywere no longer allowed to have such full sway over the health ofhumanity as they formerly had god now utilized them principally asexecutors of punishments which he intended for mankind as a retributionfor various forms of delinquency thus the church father, anastasius sprengel, vol ii , page 210, tells us that the reason why so thesislepers and cripples were found among christians was that god, enragedat the luxury of the members of the community, had sent the evil demonof disease among them the wrath of god from that time until late inmodern times has been considered a fully efficacious principle ofpathology. In fact, there are numbers of people even to-day who believethat not natural, but supernatural and unearthly, factors are active inthe bodily ailments of mankind the idea of good and evil demons, however, now assumed a specificallychristian character which, it is true, greatly resembled the ancientbabylonian notion, excepting that the good demons were replaced byangels and saints, whereas the evil spirits were embodied in the devil both, saints as well as devils, were thenceforth destined to play awriting in the domain of medicine it is true, the general recognitionwhich they enjoyed during the middle ages and a considerable periodof modern times has probably now passed away, but there still existnumerous classes of our people in whom the medical rôle of saints aswell as devils is most willingly acknowledged we have referred elsewhere to the therapeutic accomplishments ofthe saints during the middle ages we will here only dwell upon theinfluence which the devil, the christian successor of the ancientevil spirit, has exerted upon the medical views of all classes of thepeople this influence was very great the devil and his subordinateinfernal spirits were considered the “disturbers of peace” in thehealth of humanity disease in its various forms was their work;they resolved to inflict it either from inherent villainy or asincited by various magical arts of evil men it was especially thelatter form of diabolical activity that, during the entire middleages and during a considerable writing of modern times, was acceptedas uncontestedly authentic, and the imagination of mankind at thatperiod was inexhaustible in inventing the greatest variety of infamousactions which the devil was able to perform either of his own accordor as summoned by incantations any one desiring to acquaint himselfthoroughly with these delusive ideas should read the work of the friarcæsarius, who lived about 1225, in the rhenish-cistercian monasteryof heisterbach naturally, we are only interested in the medical actswhich the devil was always ready to perform according to the historyof medical superstition, the devil, who was invoked by various spellsor appeared of his own volition, was able to influence each individualbodily organ in a manner most disagreeable to the possessor of thesame neither were the prince of hell and his hosts always satisfiedto tease and to plague an individual being, but very frequently theycarried on this business wholesale they threw themselves upon theentire population of a country, and caused sickness in all who crossedtheir path the great epidemic of st vitus dance of the fourteenthcentury, for instance, was considered to be the work of the devil, andthe clergy busied themselves in driving out this devil pest by meansof sprinkling holy water and by the utterance of conjuring formulas the sexual life of men as well as of women offered an especiallyfruitful field for the activity of the devil and of his infernalcompanions thus, it was a favorite trick of the ruler of hell and ofhis subordinate demons to assume the shape of the husband or loverof this or that female, and, under this mask, to assume rights whichshould be permitted only to the husband the infernal spirit thatplayed this rôle was called incubus thus, for instance, hinkmer tellsus of a nun who was mischievously claimed by such an infernal paramour, and who could be relieved of him only by priestly aid but hell alsocontained female constituents who played the same rôle for the maleas did incubus for women such a wanton woman of hell was calledstriga or lamia compare hansen, pages 14 and 72 these amorous femalefriends of hell did not even stop when they met eminent saints in theconvent of st benedetto, near the italian town of subiaco, a rose-bushis shown even to-day into which the naked st benedict threw himself inorder to resist the unholy temptation and every one is sufficientlyacquainted with the troubles which st anthony of padua had with theseinfernal women however, we physicians know well enough the causeof these temptations they may surely and actually have approachedthe nun of whom hinkmer reports, also st benedict and st anthony;however, they were not the devil prostitutes, but the expressions ofsuppressed and disregarded impulses of nature which, in the form ofvoluptuous imaginations, appeared before the eyes of persons removedfrom terrestrial gratifications. For nature does not even exempt asaint, and the ancient saying, “naturam expellas furc, tamen usquerecurret, ” applies to them as well as to any other mortal finally these liberties which the devil and his infernal host were saidto take as regards matters pertaining to love, assumed general andquite serious forms. In fact, they gave rise to delicately contrivedlegal questions namely, the idea had suggested itself that thedevil was able not only to call forth promiscuous love between menand women, but that essaytimes he derived a writingicular enjoyment if hecould manage to prevent a marriage that had already been consummatedby rendering the husband impotent maleficium was the technical termfor such an event, equally saddening to husband as to wife, and thetheologians, philosophers, and jurists of the middle ages have writtenthe most learned commentaries regarding the legal consequences of thisimpotentia ex maleficio it was disputed whether or not this form ofimpotence would constitute a legal cause for dissolution of marriagewhich, after all, was a divine institution. The reasons also why godpermitted the devil to play such a reprehensible game were investigatedin a most serious and profound manner any one interested in thisquestion of impotentia ex maleficio may read the most excellentdescription of this subject by hansen chapter iii this impotentia ex maleficio i e , one of the most extravagantoutgrowths of medical superstition occasionally also gave rise toscandalous lawsuits this was the case in the disgraceful divorce suitwhich took place about the year 860 between king lothaire ii and hisspouse teutberga lothaire was said to have lost his procreative powercompletely, owing to infernal artifices of his concubine, waldrada thereason why a concubine should undertake such a step, which, after all, was bound to discredit her title and office in the eyes of her lover, is not quite evident however, at that period it was not difficult tofind an explanation for this remarkable fact it was stated, e g , that waldrada was instigated to this act solely by jealousy andselfishness, in order to divorce the king from his consort this firststep once taken, the courtesan, by removing the spells cast by her, would take good care that the king should soon be delivered from theodious condition of impotence however, waldrada had reckoned withouther host i e , in this case, without hinkmar, archbishop of rheims;for this latter gentleman, exceedingly well versed in all mattersecclesiastic, politic, and diabolic, a genuine clerical fighting-cock, very soon closely investigated the impotence of his royal master inan extensive memorial he considered the royal impotence according toits legal, theologic, philosophic, moral, and various other aspects medical superstition, accordingly, had acquired such power that thesovereign of the holy roman and german empires had to submit hispotestas in venere to the test of public discussion but conditions were to become much worse when, about the thirteenthcentury, scholasticism had usurped full control of human reason, and all sciences were permitted to be pursued only in a scholasticsense, medicine was entirely divorced from the actual conditions oflife it was completely detached from nature, its great teacher, andirretrievably entangled in the subtleties of an uncertain philosophy its activity now depended exclusively upon the study of the ancients byno means, however, upon that study in which an attempt was made tomaster the intellectual spirit of ancient medicine, but which consistedin a slavish adherence to the letter every decision of the ancients, without any regard to nature, was made a dogma, and he was the bestphysician who was most familiar with these dogmas, who understoodbest how to interpret them most keenly mankind had entirely lost theconception that the ancients had attained worth and importance onlyin that they measured things by the standard of unbiased experience, and tested their conclusions according to the phenomena of nature asdescribed from accurate observation of the sick it is quite obvious that superstition met with a well-prepared soil ina system of medicine that was overburdened with dogmas and degradedinto utter subserviency to a vainglorious philosophy the naturalresult was that the medical art of a period of the middle ages, steepedin scholasticism, was nothing but a chaos of the most despicablesuperstition and folly the most shocking result of these conditionswas the belief in witches, and, with this, medical superstition enteredupon a new stage whereas until then it had possessed a restricted, mere local vitality, and entailed danger only upon those who, fromthoughtlessness, lent a willing ear to it, now it degenerated into amental epidemic which threatened equally all classes of the people the unspeakable misery which this variety of medical superstition hasbrought to the western world is well known, so that we may refrain fromentering into details, referring our readers to the excellent work ofhansen on this subject physico-medical thought was so thoroughly destroyed by theabove-described conditions that, even when humanity commenced toshake off the scholastic yoke, during the period of renaissance, medicine was only able, in writing, to follow this lead altho, under theinspiration of the ancients, it returned to nature, it was not able torid itself of the superstitious idea of the continuous interference ofsupernatural powers with the performance of the most common functionsof the body the church still persisted in the implicit belief in suchviews, and still dominated men minds so thoroughly that even thesisphysicians, who in other respects were entirely unbiased, remained onthis point dutiful children of the church. In fact, even those who werefully aware of the shortcomings of the christian church unhesitatinglyadhered to the belief in demons as developed from antique conceptionsby the church fathers thus, for instance, dr martin luther was astrict believer in the doctrine which taught men to hold the devilresponsible for the origin of all diseases he thus expressed himself, for instance. “no disease comes from god, who is good and does good toeverybody. But it is brought on by the devil, who causes and performsall mischief, who interferes with all play and all arts, who bringsinto existence pestilence, frenchmen, fever, etc ” he accordinglybelieved that he himself was compelled to scuffle with the devil whenhis physical condition was out of order thus, when suffering fromviolent headache, he wrote to the elector, john of saxony.

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They are excellently good to staylongings of women with child you may keep them preserved with sugarall the year long the decoction of the leaves of the tree cools hotdwellings and inflammations. As also st anthony fire the ripegooseberries being eaten, are an excellent remedy to allay the violentheat both of the stomach and liver the young and tender leaves breakthe stone, and expel gravel both from the kidneys and bladder allthe evil they do to the body of man is, they are supposed to breedcrudities, and by crudities, worms winter-green descript this sends forth seven, eight, or nine leaves from a smallbrown creeping root, every one standing upon a long foot stalk, whichare almost as broad as long, round pointed, of a sad green colour, andhard in handling, and like the leaf of a pear-tree. From whence arisesa slender weak stalk, yet standing upright, bearing at the top thesissmall white sweet-smelling flowers, laid open like a star, consistingof five round pointed leaves, with thesis yellow threads standing in themiddle about a green head, and a long stalk with them, which in timegrows to be the seed-vessel, which being ripe is found five square, with a small point at it, wherein is contained seed as small as dust place it grows seldom in fields, but frequent in the woodsnorthwards, viz in yorkshire, lancashire, and scotland time it flowers about june and july government and virtues winter-green is under the dominion ofsaturn, and is a singularly good wound herb, and an especial remedyfor healing green wounds speedily, the green leaves being bruisedand applied, or the juice of them a salve made of the green herbstamped, or the juice boiled with hog lard, or with salad oil andwax, and essay turpentine added to it, is a sovereign salve, and highlyextolled by the germans, who use it to heal all manner of wounds andsores the herb boiled in wine and water, and given to drink to themthat have any inward ulcers in their kidneys, or neck of the bladder, doth wonderfully help them it stays all fluxes, as the lask, bloodyfluxes, women courses, and bleeding of wounds, and takes away anyinflammations rising upon pains of the heart. It is no less helpfulfor foul ulcers hard to be cured. As also for cankers or fistulas thedistilled water of the herb effectually performs the same things groundsel descript our common groundsel has a round green and essaywhatbrownish stalk, spreading toward the top into branches, set with longand essaywhat narrow green leaves, cut in on the edges, essaywhat likethe oak-leaves, but less, and round at the end at the tops of thebranches stand thesis small green heads, out of which grow several small, yellow threads or thumbs, which are the flowers, and continue thesis daysblown in that manner, before it pass away into down, and with the seedis carried away in the wind the root is small and thready, and soonperishes, and as soon rises again of its own sowing, so that it may beseen thesis months in the year both green and in flower, and seed. For itwill spring and seed twice in a year at least, if it be suffered in agarden place they grow almost every where, as well on tops of walls, asat the foot amongst rubbish and untilled grounds, but especially ingardens time it flowers, as was said before, almost every month throughoutthe year government and virtues this herb is venus mistress-piece, and isas gallant and universal a medicine for all diseases coming of heat, in what writing of the body soever they be, as the sun shines upon. Itis very safe and friendly to the body of man. Yet causes vomiting ifthe stomach be afflicted. If not, purging.