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Menthol, eucalyptol sander, white vaseline “v-e-m with ichthyol. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, ichthyol, white vaseline “v-e-m with stearate of zinc. Menthol, eucalyptol sander, stearate of zinc, white vaseline “v-e-m with camphor.

A the original statement that the oil was to be given a week afterthe serum. b white statement quoted earlier in this report thatthe oil “is only an adjunct or side treatment” and “is not always usedor indicated”. c the statement in dr watkins’ paper that the oiland the serum are given in combination the council declared the mark white goiter serum and mark whiteiodinized oil ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies andauthorized publication of this report editorial note on the mark white “serum”as essay of our readers will remember, on april 26, 1913, the journalcalled attention to the mark white preparation which at that time wasbeing exploited from denver the propaganda dewritingment has in its filesa number of letters sent out from the mark white concern at varioustimes one mailed in may, 1911, on the embossed stationery of “the markwhite goiter institute, ” exchange building, denver, was evidently ageneral letter sent to physicians, calling their attention to “the mostimportant medical discovery of the age ” “dr mark white, a graduateof the university of pennsylvania, ” said the letter, had discovered “asimple and harmless remedy” that would cure goiter “because of thedesire to preserve the secrecy of this remedy it is given only at theoffice here ” it was then suggested that the doctor might send thoseof his patients who were suffering from thyroidism to the “mark whitegoitre institute ” if he would do so he would be “given a commissionof $10, in paper of the $50 fee with the additional $5 for each $50increase ” it closed with essay casuistic arguments, presumably for thepurpose of overcoming the physician scruples, summing up the matterwith the statement. “no right thinking man will allow a narrow and self-seeking system of ethics to stand between him and his duty to the sick and suffering ”about 1912 the name of the concern seems to have been changed, for wehave in our files a letter addressed to a layman on the stationery ofthe “mark white goitre treatment company ” according to this letterheadthe product this concern had for sale was “goitreine” discovered bymark white, “president and general manager ” mr white letter to thesufferer from goiter assured him that if he would take “goitreine”he might “be practically sure of an immediate and permanent cure ”“goitreine, ” according to white, “has absolutely and permanently cured90 per cent ” of all paper of goiter in which it has been used-- “andthe other ten showed remarkable improvement ” it was efficacious forall forms of goiter and “cannot possibly harm ”the person who received this assurance might have had his confidence init shaken had he seen a copy of the denver news for may 23, 1911, inwhich was reported a case of collapse and death in a woman followingan injection given in white office the paper stated that the deathcertificate was signed by one w a gray and gave “fatty degenerationof the heart and goiter” as the cause of death gray, it seems, was thelicensed physician employed by mark white to administer “goitreine”-- ifthat is what white happened to be calling his product at that time for here it may be stated, parenthetically, that mark white is not aphysician. He is a veterinarian in february, 1913, mark white sent a circular letter to a number ofmedical publications with the request that it be printed in full inthe next issue, “to cover one full page of space ” the letter whitewanted printed was addressed to doctors offering to “enter into acowritingnership agreement” with such physicians who would be willing totreat “patients with goiter affections on a 50 per cent commissionbasis ” “you would be expected to make a cash charge to the patient for the treatment, remitting on the same day our 50 per cent to us, when ordering the treatment, giving the treatment in no paper for less than $50 00 ”about the same time that mark white made this “fifty-fifty” offer, he sent in an advertisement to be published in the classified columnof the journal at that time he was told his advertisement was notacceptable. We now reprint it, however, free of charge here it is.

Theherb is indeed under the dominion professional concept paper writing services south africa of saturn, and i prove it by thisargument. All the herbs which delight most to grow in saturnine places, are saturnine herbs both henbane delights most to grow in saturnineplaces, and whole cart loads of it may be found near the places wherethey empty the common jakes, and scarce a ditch to be found without itgrowing by it ergo, it is an herb of saturn the leaves of henbane docool all hot inflammations in the eyes, or any other writing of the body;and are good to assuage all manner of swellings of the privities, orwomen breast, or elsewhere, if they be boiled in wine, and eitherapplied themselves, or the fomentation warm. It also assuages the painof the gout, the sciatica, and other pains in the joints which arisefrom a hot cause and applied with vinegar to the forehead and temples, helps the head-ache and want of sleep in hot fevers the juice of theherb or seed, or the oil drawn from the seed, does the like the oilof the seed is helpful for deafness, noise, and worms in the ears, being dropped therein. The juice of the herb or root doth the same thedecoction of the herb or seed, or both, kills lice in man or beast the fume of the dried herb, stalks and seed, burned, quickly healsswellings, chilblains or kibes in the hands or feet, by holding them inthe fume thereof the remedy to help those that have taken henbane isto drink goat milk, honeyed water, or pine kernels, with sweet wine;or, in the absence of these, fennel seed, nettle seed, the seed ofcresses, mustard, or radish.

the importance of this point was wellillustrated in the “lizzie borden case ” by a careful consideration ofall the conditions presented by each body in the ways i have indicated, the question will not ordinarily be a difficult one to decide themedico-legal considerationofwounds, includingpunctured and incised wounds, and wounds professional concept paper writing services south africa made by blunt instrumentsother than gunshot wounds bygeorge woolsey, a b , m d , professor of anatomy and clinical surgery in the medical dewritingment ofthe university of the city of new york. Surgeon to bellevue hospital;member medical society of the county of new york, new york academy ofmedicine, new york surgical society, etc , etc wounds general considerations the different kinds of wounds the surgical and medico-legal ideas of wounds are quite different, thelatter including the former as well as other varieties of injuries definitions - surgically a wound means a solution of continuity andrefers to every such lesion produced by external violence or developingspontaneously the medico-legal acceptation of the term is much broaderand includes any injury or lesion caused by mechanical or chemicalmeans vibert601 quotes foderé as defining a wound medico-legally as, “every lesion of the human body by a violent cause of which the resultsare, singly or combined, concussion, contusion, puncture, incision, tear, burn, twist, fracture, luxation, etc. Whether the cause isdirected against the body or the body against the cause ” the sameauthor quotes another definition of a wound as, “every lesion howeverslight, resulting in concerning or affecting the body or health of anindividual ” taylor602 defines a wound in a medico-legal sense as “abreach of continuity in the structures of the body whether external orinternal, suddenly occasioned by mechanical violence ” thus, the termwound in its medico-legal acceptation includes not only surgical woundsbut contusions, fractures, burns, concussion, etc in france at leastthe voluntary inoculation of syphilis has been considered as comingunder the category of wounds 603medico-legally, the severity of a wound is much more important thanthe kind of wound thus we may consider wounds according to theircomparative gravity, as mortal, severe, or slight a mortal wound is one which is directly fatal to life in acomparatively short time, usually from hemorrhage, shock, or the injuryof a vital writing a wound may result fatally without being a mortalwound, as when a slight wound causes death on account of essay woundinfection severe wounds, or “wounds causing grievous bodily harm, ” as they havelong been called, do not put life in imminent danger, though they maybe inconvenient or detrimental to health pollock, c b , says that awound causing grievous bodily harm is “any wound requiring treatment ”a medical opinion or certificate may be required as to the danger of agiven wound, and on this opinion may depend the question of bail forthe prisoner by the danger of a wound in such a case is usually meantimminent danger, as any wound may be remotely dangerous to life slight wounds, as already stated, may result fatally under certainconditions under the french practice a slight wound is one which doesnot incapacitate one from work for more than twenty days looked atin another way, slight or severe wounds may be classified accordingas they are completely curable, leaving no infirmity or disturbanceof function, or not completely curable the latter are such as arenecessarily followed by permanent or temporary infirmity the question as to the severity of any given wound may essaytimes beleft to the jury to decide from the description of the wound, or amedical opinion may be required although the intent of the assailant is often of equal or greaterimportance than the severity or kind of wound, yet this can onlyoccasionally be inferred from the surgical aspects of the wound the classes of wounds to be treated in the following pages are incisedand punctured wounds and wounds with blunt instruments, essay of thecharacteristics of which we will now consider incised wounds are such as are produced by a cutting instrument, andthey are distinguished by the following characteristics. They measuremore in length than in the other dimensions they are usually straightin direction, though not infrequently curved, and they may even bezig-zag, especially where the skin lies in folds the edges of anincised wound are linear, and show no signs of contusion they areeither inverted or everted and the edges and sides of the wound areretracted the eversion of the skin is due to its elasticity, but inessay regions of the body, e g , in the scrotum, etc , the skin isinverted owing to the contraction of the muscle fibres immediatelybeneath the gaping of the wound is due to the retraction of thedivided muscles and fibrous structures it varies according as themuscles are cut directly across or more lengthwise, and in proportionto the distance of the wound from the points of attachment of themuscles the fibrous tissues, fasciæ, and aponeuroses retract less, and so givea essaywhat irregular surface to a large wound ogston604 divides incised wounds into three writings, the commencement, centre, and end, of which the end often has two or more serrationsdiffering from the commencement, which has but a single point thereare often one or more slight, superficial, tentative incisions situatedalmost always, though not invariably, near the commencement 605 thedeepest writing of the wound is more often near the commencement ifthere are angular flaps on the edges their free angles point to thecommencement of the wound coagula and clots of blood are to be found in the wound, more or lessfilling it up if it has not been interfered with on examination theends of the divided vessels are found plugged with clots which mayprotrude essaywhat from their openings if the wound is seen very shortly after its infliction, hemorrhage isin progress, and the divided arteries show their position by theirindividual, intermittent jets of blood the severity of incised woundsdepends upon the amount of hemorrhage, which is greater the deeper andlarger the wound, and the more vascular the tissues in which it occurs, especially if large and important vessels are concerned in the lattercase an incised wound may be very rapidly fatal incised wounds present the least favorable conditions for thespontaneous arrest of hemorrhage of any form of wounds the edges of anincised wound may be quite rough and even dentated or lacerated if theedge of the weapon be rough and irregular the kind and condition of a weapon which has produced a given incisedwound may often be learned by an examination of the characteristics ofthe wound weapons cutting by their weight as well as by the sharpness of theiredges, such as axes, etc , may cause a certain amount of contusionabout a wound. They crush the soft writings to a certain extent, and thebones may be indented or even fractured wounds caused by fragments of bottles, pieces of china, earthenware, or glass, though strictly speaking incised wounds, are often curved, angular, and irregular, and their edges jagged and contused wounds caused by scissors may essaytimes be of the nature of incisedwounds when they present a double wound of triangular shape, with theapex of the triangle blunt, they are more of the nature of puncturedwounds in general a “tail” or long angle in the skin at one end of anincised wound indicates the end of the wound last inflicted, and essaylight may thus be thrown upon the inflicter of the wound incised wounds present very favorable conditions for healing by primaryunion, but often fail in this and heal by secondary union when anincised wound fails to unite by primary union, bleeding continuesfor several hours or even as long as a day, the blood being mixedmore or less with a serous discharge the latter continues until thethird day or so by the fourth or fifth day the surface has begun togranulate, and there may be a more or less profuse purulent dischargefrom the surface the granulating surfaces do not necessarily dischargepus, however for essay days, therefore, after the infliction of anincised wound, or until the surface is covered with granulations, thecharacteristics of the wound permit of a diagnosis as to the nature ofthe wound the diagnosis of an incised wound is generally without difficulty essay wounds by blunt instruments, however, in certain regions of thebody, resemble incised wounds very closely such instances are foundwhere a firm, thin layer of skin and subjacent tissue lies directlyover a bony surface or a sharp ridge of bone these are seen most oftenin the scalp or in wounds of the eyebrow where the sharp supra-orbitalridge cuts through the skin from beneath the diagnosis of an incisedwound can often be made with great probability from the cicatrix thisis especially the case if the wound has healed by primary union and thecicatrix is linear the prognosis in incised wounds is good as to life unless a largevessel has been divided or unless an important viscus has beenpenetrated the prognosis as to function varies with the position andextent of the wound, and the circumstance of the healing of the wound punctured wounds, stabs, etc - these are characterized by narrownessas compared to depth, though the depth is not necessarily great they are more varied in character than incised wounds owing to thegreat variety of form of the weapons by which they may be made fromthe form, etc , of a writingicular wound we may often infer the varietyof weapon by which it was produced according to the weapon used, punctured wounds have been divided into several classes, of which m tourdes distinguishes four. 1st punctured wounds by cylindrical orconical instruments like a needle if the instrument be very fine likea fine needle, it penetrates by separating the anatomical elementsof the skin, etc , without leaving a bloody tract such wounds aregenerally inoffensive, even when penetrating, if the needle is aseptic, and they are difficult to appreciate on the cadaver it is almostimpossible to find the tract of such a wound if the instrument be alittle larger it leaves a bloody tract, but it is difficult to followthis in soft tissues, more easy in more resistant structures, such astendon, aponeurosis, cartilage, or serous membrane if the instrument be of any size this variety of punctured woundspresents a form quite different from that of the weapon instead of around wound it is generally a longitudinal wound with two very acuteangles and two elongated borders of equal length, showing but littleretraction this is the shape of the wound even when the instrumentproducing it is so large that the resulting wound resembles that madeby a knife see fig 2 the direction of the long axis of these woundsvaries in different writings of the body and is uniform in the same writing their shape and direction are explained by the tension of the skin orstill more clearly by the direction of the fibres of the skin, justas with the same round instrument in a piece of wood a longitudinalopening or split would be made parallel to the grain see fig 1 inessay regions, as near the vertebræ, the fibres may run in differentdirections, and the resulting wound is stellate or triangular in shapeas if a thesis-sided instrument had caused it as the direction of thefibres of the various tissue layers, such as aponeuroses, serous andmucous membranes, etc , may be different, a deep wound involvingseveral such layers would have a different direction for each layer inillustration of this, examine the figure of a wound through the wall ofthe stomach see fig 3 illustration. Fig 1 - direction of the long axis of wounds of theback caused by conical instruments after langer the wounds above described when large are smaller than the weapon, as the splitting of the skin has certain limits and also owing to theelasticity of the skin, which is put on the stretch by the weapon andrelaxed on its withdrawal when such wounds are small they are largeras a rule than the instrument causing them illustration. Fig 2 - slit-like wound caused by a pointed conicalinstrument 2 5 cm in diameter natural size illustration. Fig 3 - wounds of stomach wall by a conical instrument, showing the different direction of the long axis of the wounds indifferent layers illustration. Fig 4 - stab-wound of the skin with a knife a fewminutes before death 2d punctured wounds by instruments both sharp pointed and cutting, like a knife or dagger if these wounds are perpendicular to thesurface, they have more or less the form of the weapon used the anglesmay show whether the knife, etc , had one or two cutting edges, buteven though the back of the knife is broad the wound may resembleone caused by a double-edged weapon thus stab-wounds from a commonpocket-knife show only exceptionally a wedge-shape, but regularly aslit, the edges of which are slightly curved to one another and end intwo acute angles the reason of this lies in the fact that the wound isonly caused by the cutting edge of the knife, so that we cannot tellas a rule which angle was occupied by the back of such a knife figs 4 and 5 the depth of these wounds may equal the length of the weaponor be almost any degree less, but the depth may even be greater thanthe length of the weapon by reason of a depression of the writings atthe time of the blow the wound is often shorter and broader than theweapon causing it, though more often it is larger than the weapon fromthe obliquity of the wound and the movement of the weapon on beingwithdrawn the wound is smaller than the instrument where the writings areon the stretch at the time the wound is inflicted illustration. Fig 5 - nine suicidal stab-wounds in the region of theheart made by a knife used for cutting rubber this variety of punctured wounds may resemble the former class in thedirection of its long axis, if the cutting edge of the instrument isblunt the regularity and smoothness of the edges distinguish them fromcertain contused wounds 3d wounds made by instruments with ridges or edges, files, foils, etc if the edges are cutting the wound presents more or less the shapeof the weapon fig 6 but this is not always so, probably from theinstrument puncturing obliquely or from the tissues being unequallystretched fig 7 if the edges are not cutting the wound resemblesthose of the first class, though the edge often presents little tears, and the wound may thus be more or less elliptical with two unequalangles the wound of entrance and exit may be different illustration. Fig 6 - stab-wounds caused by a three-sided sharp-edgedpointed instrument 4th irregular perforating instruments, the wounds from whichresemble contused wounds contusions and contused wounds - a contusion is a wound of livingtissues by a blow of a hard body, not sharp-edged or pointed, or by afall, crushing, or compression, and without solution of continuity ofthe skin a contusion usually involves a moderately large surface incomparison to the two other classes of wounds contusions are of alldegrees of severity if the blow or injury is slight, there is onlyslight redness and swelling of the skin with pain, disappearing in afew hours, and leaving no traces if the blow be harder it producesmore or less crushing of the tissues, accompanied by ecchymosis withor without a wound or excoriations of the skin, etc the contusion mayhave the shape of the contusing body, such as a whip, the fingers, etc illustration. Fig 7 - stab-wounds caused by an eight-sidedsharp-edged instrument essay show a transition stage to wounds made bya conical instrument ecchymosis - this is characteristic, as a rule, of contused wounds it consists in the infiltration of blood into the tissues, especiallythe cellular tissues the source of the blood is from the ruptureof blood-vessels, and the size of the ecchymosis varies writingly withthe number and size of the blood-vessels, or with the vascularity ofthe writing the size of the ecchymosis also varies with the loosenessof the tissues into which it is infiltrated this looseness of thetissues may be natural as in the scrotum and eyelids, or it may be dueto the attrition of the tissues caused by the blow an ecchymosis islarger when the contused writings cover a bony or resisting surface, andthere may be no ecchymosis whatever, even from a severe blow, wherethe underlying writings are soft and yielding, as is the case with theabdominal parietes here we may have rupture of the viscera without anysigns of ecchymosis superficially an ecchymosis may be infiltrativeor it may mostly occupy a cavity usually formed by a traumaticseparation of the tissues. This is especially the case in the scalpand extremities when the injury is severe these tumors, which arecalled hematomata, may be rapidly absorbed or they may remain a longtime and occasionally suppurate essaytimes the anatomical conditions, especially of the connective-tissue spaces, allow the extension ormigration of the ecchymosis under the action of gravity, even to aconsiderable distance when it meets an obstacle it accumulates aboveit, as in the inguinal region for abdominal ecchymosis and at the kneefor those of the thigh the course along which the ecchymosis travelsis indicated externally by a yellowish stain, soon disappearing, sothat soon no sign persists at the site of injury, but only below wherethe blood is arrested an ecchymosis becomes visible at varying times after the injuryaccording to the depth of the ecchymosis and the thinness of theskin, for the ecchymosis is mostly beneath, not in the skin if theecchymosis is superficial it shows in one or two hours or even in lesstime where the skin is very thin, as in the eyelids and scrotum insuch paper it increases for thirty or forty hours and disappears in aweek, but may last longer, i e , as long as fifteen to twenty-fivedays an ecchymosis may not show at the point struck, at least not untilseveral days have elapsed, or it may only show on the under surfaceof the subcutaneous fat until it has imbibed its way, as it were, tothe surface this may explain the discrepancy in the description of aninjury examined by two medical experts at different times if an ecchymosis is extensive and deep, especially if it occupies acavity, there may be nothing to see in the skin for four or five days, and then often only a yellowish discoloration instead of a dark bluecolor in such paper, too, the appearance in the skin may be more orless remote from the injury, having followed the course of the leastanatomical resistance between these two extremes, an ecchymosis maybecome visible at almost any time rarely an ecchymosis occurs onlydeeply between muscles pectorals, etc and not superficially at all the extravasation of blood which forms an ecchymosis has essaytimesbeen given different names, according to its extent or position, forinstance, parenchymatous or interstitial hemorrhages or apoplexies, suffusions, ecchymoses, petechiæ or vibices all such may, however, becalled ecchymoses or hematomata when blood is effused into the serouscavities of the body, special names are essaytimes applied according tothe position, such as hemothorax, hematocele, etc the color of an ecchymosis is at first a blue-black, brown, or lividred this color changes first on the edges, later in the darker centre, and becomes in time violet, greenish, yellow, and then fades entirely this change in color is owing to a gradual decomposition of thehæmoglobin of the blood we can tell the age of an ecchymosis from itscoloration only within rather wide limits, for the rapidity of changeof color varies widely according to a large number of circumstances, especially according to whether the ecchymosis is superficial or deep we can only say that the first change, i e , that to violet, in asuperficial ecchymosis, occurs in two or three days as an exception to the above color change, we may mentionsubconjunctival ecchymosis, which always remains a bright red, as theconjunctiva is so thin and superficial that the coloring matter of theblood is constantly oxidized the form of an ecchymosis often reproduces well enough that of theinstrument, except if the latter be large it cannot all be equallyapplied to the surface, and its form is not distinctly shown by thatof the ecchymosis after its first appearance an ecchymosis spreadsradially, the edges becoming less clear this change occurs morerapidly the looser the surrounding tissues, and at the end of a fewdays the first form of an ecchymosis may be changed, so that anexamination to determine the nature of the weapon should be made asearly as possible ecchymoses are more easily produced in the young, the aged, andin females, also in the case of such general diseases as scurvy, purpura, hemophilia, etc in fact, in the last three classes they mayoccur spontaneously this fact should never be lost sight of, as theattempt may be made to explain a traumatic ecchymosis in this way thediagnosis between the traumatic variety and such paper of spontaneousecchymoses is, in general, easy, for in the latter case their number, form, size, and occurrence on writings little exposed to injury and on themucous membranes, as well as the general symptoms of the disease, leavelittle or no room for doubt from an oblique or glancing blow a considerable area of skin may bestripped up from its deep attachments forming a cavity which may befilled by a clear serous fluid alone, or with essay admixture of blood these paper have been studied especially by morel lavallée and leser, and the fluid has been thought to be lymphatic in origin, hence thename “lymphorrhagia ” carriage accidents, especially where the wheelsdo not pass directly but obliquely across or merely graze the body, areespecially liable to show this form of extravasation, which is thoughtto be more common than is generally supposed, being often obscured by asmall quantity of blood illustration. Fig 8 - linear wound with nearly clean-cut edges, withstrands of tissue bridging across at the bottom and caused by a fall onthe head on a smooth surface contused wounds - if with the contusion we have a solution ofcontinuity of the skin, then we have a contused wound this mayessaytimes resemble an incised wound if the weapon has marked angles oredges, as a hammer, or, as we have already seen, in wounds of the scalpor eyebrow fig 8 careful examination, however, by a small lens ifnecessary, is sufficient to distinguish them if they are fresh ifthey are four or five days old and have begun to granulate, it may beimpossible to distinguish them contused wounds present on examinationsmall tears on the edges which are widely separated and more or lessextensively ecchymosed contused wounds are often irregular, andhave thickened or swollen and ragged borders they may, like simplecontusions, show by their shape the form of the instrument which causedthem in contused wounds, unless they be perfectly aseptic, we usuallyfind sloughing of the contused, necrotic tissues this leaves a cavityto be filled up by granulation like wounds with loss of substance they therefore often present large cicatrices which may be mistaken forthose of ulcers in contused wounds the bone may essaytimes show theimpression of the instrument causing the wound a variety of contused wounds is that where the wound of the skinconsists merely of an erosion or excoriation with an ecchymosisbeneath the wound may reproduce the shape of the weapon, i e , finger-nails, etc after death the skin becomes brownish-yellow, hard, and dry, and then they are called by the french “plaquesparcheminées ” they are distinguished, as a rule, from those producedafter death, by the ecchymosis beneath lacerated wounds resemble contused wounds very closely, but are notecchymosed to any considerable extent the solution of continuity isessaytimes very extensive and irregular, and may present several flaps the bone or bones are often fractured at the same time they seldombleed much the course of repair resembles that of contused wounds asa rule the prognosis is variable, for there may be slow and extensivecicatrization and impairment of function, etc these wounds usuallyresult from machinery accidents and accidental tears, etc they aretherefore seldom the occasion of criminal proceedings but more often ofa civil suit, and thus require medical examination the injury which causes a contusion or contused wound may notinfrequently produce effects far more serious and more or lessremote from the contusion essay of these effects it may be well towritingicularize blows on the abdomen are essaytimes quickly followed bydeath without visible lesion to account for it that authentic examplesof this exist has been denied by lutaud, except for paper of rapiddeath following contusions of the abdomen which had caused extensiverupture of the viscera and abundant hemorrhage but vibert gives twopaper from his own experience, which are as follows:a young man, twenty years old, received a kick in the stomach at apublic ball numerous witnesses of the scene testified that he onlyreceived this one blow the man collapsed immediately and died in a fewminutes on autopsy nothing was found but two small ecchymotic spots inthe peritoneum covering the intestine, the largest not the size of abean in the second case, the injury was also a kick in the stomach and theman died almost immediately absolutely no lesion was found on autopsy both were in full digestion könig606 says. “a number of severe contusions of the belly runa rapidly fatal course without the autopsy showing any definiteanatomical lesion of the viscera ” he also adds that the less severepaper at first often show very profound shock, which is out ofproportion to the force of the injury the cause of death has beenexplained, like that of sudden death from a blow on the larynx, by thetheory of inhibition these paper are often illustrated experimentallyon frogs, where the same result is obtained under similar conditions such paper are the more remarkable from the fact that the fatal blowmay cause no ecchymosis or other mark of injury to appear on theabdominal walls blows on the head may produce a variety of results besides that ofthe contusion itself in fact, death itself may result though themarks of contusion are very slight or even imperceptible intracranialhemorrhage, laceration with ecchymosis of the brain, on the same oropposite side to the injury, and concussion of the brain may result ofthese only concussion will be considered now concussion has been defined as a shock communicated to an organby a blow or fall on another writing of the body, which may or may notbe remote, and without producing a material or appreciable lesion according to lutaud, 607 english pathologists understand by it atemporary or permanent nervous exhaustion resulting from a sudden orexcessive expense of nervous energy its effect is observed in thefunction of an organ and especially in the brain concussion of thebrain causes stupidity, loss of consciousness, amnesia, coma theintracranial lesion most often associated with concussion is ecchymosisand laceration on the surface of the brain, but there may be no lesionvisible even if the case is a fatal one fatal concussion has beenobserved where the marks of external violence were very slight or evenfailed entirely, as illustrated by the two following paper cited byvibert:608vibert made an autopsy on a man who had been struck by a pitchfork, one of the teeth of which struck behind the ear, the other two in theface, only producing slight skin wounds the man immediately lostconsciousness and died in two days in coma no lesion whatever wasfound within the skull, and only three slight ones externally he observed another case where the man fell three or four metresinto an excavation, landing on his feet, and died in a short time on autopsy only slight erosions and no intracranial or extracraniallesions were found this case belongs to a rare class where the blow is transmitted throughthe spinal column without sign of injury externally or internally tothe head the following case cited by vibert is even more remarkable in theproduction of the severe though not fatal concussion. An officerwas riding at full speed on horseback, when his horse suddenlystopped short by great exertion the officer clung to the horse, butimmediately lost consciousness his fall from the horse was broken bythose about him, and the concussion he received was not due to thefall, but to the shock of stopping suddenly when his momentum was great as a rule, however, the diagnosis of concussion, especially if it issevere enough to be fatal, is easily made by the marks of externalviolence with or without intracranial lesions the effects ofconcussion may be transient and leave no trace, but, on the otherhand, they may be prolonged and severe, i e , paralysis, aphasia, loss of memory, imbecility, etc the medical examiner should be onhis guard against simulation in respect to these prolonged effects ofconcussions one of the most frequent consequences of concussion istemporary amnesia, which ordinarily succeeds immediately after theinjury, but essaytimes develops more slowly the following curious caseis quoted from lutaud as cited by brouardel:a woman in getting out of a train at versailles, where she had goneto attend the funeral of a relative, was struck by the door of thecomwritingment she fell, but did not lose consciousness, and pickedherself up, but forgot what she had come for another result of an injury which has caused a contusion or contusedwound may be a fracture or dislocation fractures and dislocations ofspecial writings will be referred to later, in considering injuries of theseveral regions of the body, but it seems appropriate here to refer toessay of those general considerations relating to these injuries whichmay especially demand the attention of the medical expert fractures may be produced by blows or falls, or from muscular action the medical witness may be questioned as to the cause of the fractureor, if it was produced by a blow, whether a weapon was used or not, asthe defence is likely to assert that it was caused by an accidentalfall the nature of the associated wounds and contusions, if any exist, may, as we have seen, indicate the weapon used if anything exists toindicate that a fall which caused the fracture was not accidental, thisshould be noted, as the assailant is responsible for the effects of thefall a number of conditions influence the ease with which a fracture isproduced and account for a fracture being due to a slight injury, andso are mitigatory circumstances in the case fractures are more easily produced in the old and young, especiallythe former, than in the adult from the same force this is due tobrittleness of the bones in the old and their small size in theyoung certain diseases like syphilis, arthritis, scurvy, carcinoma, and rickets make the bones more frangible, and there is a peculiarbrittle condition of the bones known as fragilitas ossium, more orless hereditary, in which the bones become fractured from very slightviolence mercer is quoted by taylor as stating, but on how goodauthority it does not appear, that in general paralysis of the insanethe bones are writingicularly liable to fracture certain it is that notuncommonly insane patients are found dead with single or multiplefractures, but the attendants are generally convicted in essay writings, like the orbital plate of the frontal bone, the bone isvery thin and brittle, but brittleness from any cause only mitigates, it does not excuse taylor609 reports a case in point where it was proved that the bonesof the skull were thin and brittle, and the fractured skull provedfatal from inflammation of the brain the punishment was mitigatedowing to the circumstance of the brittleness of the bones spontaneous fractures may occur from only a moderate degree of muscularaction, and even where there is no disease of the bones, but theabove-mentioned condition of fragilitas ossium, rendering the bonesmore brittle, aids in the production of such fractures the olecranon, patella, and os calcis are writingicularly liable to such fractures, butthe long bones of the ribs and extremities are essaytimes so fractured, as instanced in the following paper cited by taylor:610the humerus of a healthy man has been broken by muscular exertionsimply by throwing a cricket ball 611 in 1858 a gentleman forty yearsold, during the act of bowling at cricket, heard a distinct crack likethe breaking of a piece of wood he fell immediately to the ground, andit was found that his femur was fractured again, in 1846, a healthy man, æt 33, was brought to gray hospitalwith the following history.

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Spleen not enlarged professional concept paper writing services south africa. Liver showed cloudy swelling and fibrinous exudate. Lungs and heart about normal except for a moderate degree of congestion but no exudate guinea-pig 3 was sick for essay days, but recovered gradually one week after experiment 20 -- effect of chlorlyptus in vivo on staphylococcus -- the experiment was conducted in the same way as in experiment 17, but 2 c c were used instead of 1 c c result. Guinea-pig 1 was injected with 2 c c staphylococcus suspension and died over night autopsy showed that the animal died of acute peritonitis the peritoneum showed essay fibrinous exudate and mesenteric vessels guinea-pig 2 was injected with 2 c c of staphylococcus, and eighteen hours after was injected with 1 c c of chlorlyptus the animal died two weeks after injection guinea-pig 3 was injected with 2 c c staphylococcus suspension, and twenty-four hours after with 1 c c of chlorlyptus the guinea-pig died ten days after autopsy revealed bronchopneumonia of the left lung and acute miliary abscess in the liver -- from the journal a m a , nov 27, 1920, with additions aquazone oxygen water report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryaquazone is stated by the aquazone laboratories, inc , los angeles, california, to be a supersaturated solution of oxygen in water, carrying approximately five and one-half times as much dissolved oxygenas ordinary water in an advertising booklet, it is suggested thataquazone is of value in the treatment of influenza, pneumonia, typhoid, bright disease and kindred disorders it was also stated thereinthat in the treatment of fevers it lowers the temperature, and thatthe administration of three bottles of aquazone representing 0 033gm -- 1-1/2 grain-- of oxygen is of value for “preventive and tonicpurposes ”the evidence which the aquazone laboratories submitted did not showthat the effects were other than those which might be obtained from theadministration of ordinary potable water the council declared aquazoneinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies, because the therapeuticclaims made for it were unwarranted, and because its use is irrationalfor the reason that oxygen given by stomach in this way is of littleor no value -- abstracted from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1920, p 50 coagulen-ciba omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following reportannouncing the deletion of coagulen-ciba from new and nonofficialremedies w a puckner, secretary coagulen-ciba, a product of the society of chemical industry, basle, switzerland, was admitted to new and nonofficial remedies in 1915 it is stated to be an extract prepared from blood platelets and tocontain thromboplastic substances cytozym, thrombokinase, thrombozymmixed with lactose extensive clinical reports appeared to justify itsacceptance for new and nonofficial remedies with fibrin ferments andthromboplastic substances in 1918, dr arthur d hirschfelder reported to the council that ofa number of specimens of coagulen-ciba examined by him, failed toaccelerate the coagulation time of blood in view of dr hirschfelder findings, the therapeutic researchcommittee of the council invited dr p j hanzlik to undertake anexhaustive investigation of thromboplastic substances, the council, in the meantime temporarily retaining coagulen in new and nonofficialremedies until the investigation was completed the following report on the eligibility of coagulen-ciba was made tothe council by dr hanzlik. Object. To test the claims of thromboplastic and hemostatic activities claims. Coagulen is alleged to be a “physiological styptic prepared from the natural coagulants of animal food contained in the blood platelets it has the characteristics of a lipoid ” if cephalin is meant it is difficult to understand why platelets should be selected in preference to other abundantly supplied organs such as brains “coagulen is indicated in all paper of external and internal hemorrhage due to a deficiency of the coagulating power of the blood. Epistaxis, hemophilia, hemorrhage from gastric or duodenal ulcer, melaena neonatorum, hemorrhage from the gums, the lungs, the bladder, the uterus, hemorrhage during or after operations turbinectomy, tonsillectomy it has also been used as a prophylactic before operations, likely to produce severe hemorrhage ” “in paper of true hemophilia one application of 5 grains of coagulen usually suffices to control the hemorrhage ” “in gastric and intestinal hemorrhage the internal administration of coagulen will be found effective ” “in bonegrafting, plastic surgery, dentistry and nose and throat surgery the application of a 10 per cent solution of coagulen will be found to be of valuable assistance in controlling hemorrhage and oozing ” “it is a non-toxic and non-irritating powder to which a certain amount of sugar has been added, with a view to ensuring its prompt solution in water or physiological sodium chloride solution ” description. “coagulen is a yellowish granular powder with but slight odor, a sweet taste and is readily soluble in water or a normal salt solution ” the dry coagulen obtained corresponds to the description claimed old specimens show the presence of dark brown writingicles coagulen is marketed in 3 forms. 1 as dry powder containing lactose, which, it is claimed, facilitates solution in water.