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Poetry Analysis Essay Example


“as stated in our letter of the 12th inst we do not wish to market the chemical unless it meets all legitimate requirements of the physicians that use it if, therefore, your standard proves to be good and it is commercially possible to make supplies conforming to it, we shall do so we shall discontinue the article unless it is of suitable quality ”-- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 76 cream of mustard refused recognition report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrycream of mustard, the cream of mustard co , south norwalk, conn , issaid to be made by mixing 2 drachms of oil of mustard and 2 drachmsof oil of turpentine with one pound of white petrolatum according tothe label it is “for tonsillitis, rheumatism, sore muscles, croup, pleurisy, frosted feet, sore throat, neuralgia, sprains, bronchitis, headache, chilblains, stiff neck, congestion, bruises, asthma, lumbago, pains and aches, colds in chest ”the council refused recognition to cream of mustard:because it is a simple pharmaceutical mixture of well-known ingredientsand has no advantage over established rubefacients which everyphysician knows how to prescribe and every pharmacist to compound incidentally, the name “cream of mustard” is misleading and notdescriptive of the composition of this pharmaceutical of oils ofmustard and turpentine -- from reports of council on pharmacy andchemistry, 1918, p 79 “pluriglandular” mixtures caps adreno-spermin comp , caps antero-pituitary comp , caps placento-mammary comp , caps thyro-ovarian comp , caps hepato-splenic comp , caps pancreas comp , and caps thyroid comp , not admitted to n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryafter considering the evidence for the several “pluriglandular”mixtures described below, the council declared them inadmissible tonew and nonofficial remedies the council action was communicatedto the manufacturer, henry r harrower, in accordance with the usualprocedure after giving due consideration to the manufacturer replythe council authorized publication of the report which appears below w a puckner, secretary with the offer “to supply you with as much literature as may benecessary and as little of the actual remedies as may be desired” if“the prospects for the inclusion of these formulas in n n r aregood, ” henry r harrower sent the council a booklet descriptive of hispreparations and labels for the following mixtures. Caps adreno-spermin comp , each said to contain “adrenal gland total gr 1/4, thyroid gland u s p gr 1/12, spermin extr from gonads, brain and spinal cord aa gr 1, calc glycerophosphate q s ad gr 5 ” caps antero-pituitary comp , each said to contain “anterior pituitary body gr 2, thymus gland gr 1, thyroid gland u s p gr 1/12, calcium-phosphorus comp q s ad gr 5 ” caps placento-mammary co , each said to contain “desiccated placenta gr 2, mammary substance gr 1-1/2, pituitary body total gr 1/3, calcium-phosphorus comp q s ad gr 5 ” caps thyro-ovarian comp , each said to contain “desic corpora lutea ovarian substance gr 2-1/2, thyroid gland u s p gr 1/12, pituitary gland total gr 1/8, calcium-phosphorus comp q s ad gr 5 ” caps hepato-splenic comp , each said to contain “liver parenchyma, spleen substance aa gr 2, powd bile salts gr 1/2, adreno-spermin co no 1 gr 1 ” caps pancreas comp , each said to contain “adrenal gland, pituitary gland total aa gr 1/2, ovarian substance gr 1, pancreas substance q s ad gr 5 ” caps thyroid comp , each said to contain “desic thyroid gland u s p gr 1/8, calcium-phosphorus comp q s ad gr 5 ”the council declared these preparations inadmissible to new andnonofficial remedies, for reasons which follow:1 each of the mixtures contains one ingredient or more, which isneither recognized in the u s pharmacopeia nor admitted to new andnonofficial remedies, namely. “spermin extract, ” “brain, ” “spinalcord, ” “desiccated placenta, ” “liver parenchyma, ” “spleen substance, ”“pancreas substance” and “calcium phosphorus comp each 100 gm represents magnes phos 1.

134 jan poetry analysis essay example 13 1906;ibid 46. 290 jan 27 1906. Ibid 58. 280 jan 27 1912 long after the death of dr cyrus edson, the claim was made thatphenalgin was made under his direction and that it was his “discovery ”as a matter of fact, dr edson had favored the use of ammonol at onetime, and when the council exposed the false claims then being madefor phenalgin, the journal charged that a fraud was being perpetratedon the medical profession despite the exposure of the methods used inexploiting ammonol and phenalgin, one finds just as glaringly falsestatements made in the advertisements of phenalgin today as weremade in its unsavory past this would seem to indicate either thatphysicians have short memories or that they are strangely indifferentto the welfare of their patients, to their own reputations and to thegood name of medicine the new york medical journal of dec 22, 1917, contained anadvertisement of phenalgin-- it has been running for months-- from whichthe following is quoted. “for the relief of pain the ‘logical supplanter of opium and other habit-forming drugs’ is phenalgin no matter how severe or where located pain is promptly and satisfactorily controlled by this effective anodyne-- and without disturbing the digestion, suppressing the secretions, causing constipation or inducing a drug habit “this is why phenalgin has superseded opium and its derivatives for relieving headaches, rheumatism, gout, la grippe, lumbago, neuralgia, disorders of the female, dysmenorrhea, and painful conditions generally to thousands of physicians phenalgin ‘is the one dependable analgesic-- the logical supplanter of opium ’”if we are to suppose that the composition of phenalgin is todayessentially the same as when it was examined, the claims just quotedare obviously false for, of course, such a mixture must have theproperties of acetanilid with all of its drawbacks and limitations we may contrast the statements made in the advertisement just quotedwith those made in bulletin 126 of the bureau of chemistry of theu s dewritingment of agriculture this bulletin on “the harmfuleffects of acetanilid, antipyrin and phenacetin” summarizes thereplies received from 400 physicians to whom a questionnaire had beensent the information thus gained was tabulated and the figures thatfollow are from these tables there were reported no fewer than 614paper of poisoning by acetanilid with 16 deaths and 112 paper of itshabitual use the larger number of paper of poisoning followed theadministration of the drug, by physicians, in doses larger than thosenow regarded as fairly safe this large number reported by only 400physicians indicated an excessively large number in the whole country since the questionnaire was sent to nearly a thousand physicians, ofwhom about 500 failed to reply, it may be assumed that had it been sentto the entire 130, 000 physicians in the country, at least 75, 000 paperof poisoning would have been reported prior to the passage of the federal food and drugs act the “purefood law” thesis nostrum makers had declared that their preparationscontained no acetanilid when that law went into effect, essay of thesemanufacturers triumphantly pointed to the fact that they were stillable to make the same claim without conflicting with the requirementsof the law this was accomplished in fact by changing the formula andsubstituting acetphenetidin phenacetin for the acetanilid whileacetphenetidin is essaywhat less toxic than acetanilid, bulk for bulk, the toxicity and therapeutic activity of the two drugs are nearlyproportional the claim made by thesis proprietary medicine manufacturers that they are“strictly ethical” because they advertise only to physicians is mereverbal camouflage there may be no more certain way of insuring thecontinued use of a nostrum by the public than to have it prescribed byphysicians. And none know this better than the makers of nostrums aproprietary individuality is obtained by giving essay special form tothe tablets and package or a special coloring to the capsules “specify‘phenalgin pink top capsules’” so as to indicate the identity of theproducts in such a way that the patient may in the future procure themwithout the advice or warning of the physician when a proprietarypreparation with the name or initials stamped on it or attached toit is prescribed, the patient immediately is aware of the fact, andhis respect for the physician intelligence and wisdom is naturallylessened the physician should never place such dangerous drugs as acetanilid andacetphenetidin, or ready made mixtures of them, in the hands of thepatient in such a way that they can be employed without his supervisionor control he should never prescribe more than is needed at the timeand should not form the habit of using fixed doses or combinationsof drugs without a special reference to the writingicular needs of theindividual certain forms of headache yield more readily to a mixture of caffeinand acetanilid or caffein and acetphenetidin than to either acetanilidor acetphenetidin alone when the physician wishes to prescribe sucha mixture he may combine 1 grain of caffein or 2 grains of citratedcaffein with 3 grains of acetanilid or 4 grains of acetphenetidin ina powder or capsule under supervision such a dose may be repeatedat intervals of from two to four hours if necessary to control pain it is necessary to remember, however, that when small doses fail togive relief, increase in the dose is useless this fact is especiallyimportant, and disregard or ignorance of it has been responsible forthesis paper of poisoning further, it should be remembered that while itwas taught for thesis years that the admixture of caffein with acetanilidlessened the effect of the latter drug on the heart, hale has shownthat this is not the case and such mixtures must be used with specialcaution -- from the journal a m a , feb 2, 1918 article vi fellows’ syrup, and other preparations of the hypophosphiteswe hope that it is clear to those who have read the several articlesof this series that their purpose is to present evidence that willenable the reader to form a correct estimate of the literatureemployed in the exploitation of various nostrums the distinctionbetween mere assertion-- however plausible, and from however eminentan authority-- and evidence should again be emphasized satisfactoryevidence rests on careful observation by those who are capable ofaccurately determining to what extent any changes that may be observedare due to the therapeutic agent employed and not mere accompanimentsof such treatment when the council on pharmacy and chemistry was organized in 1905, the greater writing of the literature of the nostrums was so palpablymisleading, the statements often so ludicrously false, that it was onlynecessary to call attention to this fact to have those claims collapse as a result of the council work, the exploiters of worthless nostrumshave developed a greater degree of shrewdness in avoiding the easilyexploded falsehoods this has made it increasingly difficult to pointout the exact statements on which thesis of the false claims now rest, even though the exploitation as a whole is as inherently dishonest asbefore if a nostrum is worthless, any exploitation must be false andmisleading in effect, even though not one single false direct statementis made a platitude may be given an appearance of importance if uttered in animpressive manner, and it may be employed to suggest far more than itcategorically affirms these two facts are appreciated by thesis nostrumexploiters and we find that they have adopted the impressive manner tosecure attention, and the platitude to suggest far more than they coulddefend in direct statement thus we have the “lie with circumstance ” fellows’ syrupa full page advertisement, which has been appearing regularly forabout a year and which must represent a good deal of money, is used togive an appearance of importance to a few words which, if printed inordinary type, would either pass wholly unnoticed or would lead one toassume that essaything essential to the full meaning had been omitted the statement, in full reads. “fellows’ syrup differs from other preparations of the hypophosphites leading clinicians in all writings of the world have long recognized this important fact have you?. to insure results, prescribe the genuine ℞ syr hypophos comp fellows’ reject cheap and inefficient substitutes reject preparations ‘just as good ’”the only direct statement contained in the advertisement is to theeffect that thesis clinicians have observed that fellows’ syrup and otherpreparations of the hypophosphites are not alike in truth, fellows’is not like the better preparations of this type, since after standingit contains a muddy looking deposit that any pharmaceutical tyro wouldbe ashamed of technically, then, the statement is true, but it ishardly credible that the manufacturer is paying for an entire page in amedical journal to make this statement without any attempt to suggestessaything else the advertising pages of six medical journals were examined in theorder in which they chanced to come to hand in five of these, theentire advertisement of fellows’ syrup was in the words just quoted;not a single word more in one there was the further statement. “not a new-born prodigy or an untried experiment, but a remedy whose usefulness has been fully demonstrated during half a century of clinical application ”these advertisements show that the exploiters of fellows’ syrup arespending a great deal of money to induce physicians to prescribe thepreparation, and it is equally evident that they wish to convey theimpression that the preparation has essay therapeutic value since wefind nothing directly false, in the first mentioned advertisement atleast, we must take the evident intent for consideration and determinewhat therapeutic value, if any, this preparation has, and whether it isadvisable for physicians to employ it in any case the preparation, according to the statement just cited, has been inuse for fifty years as the exploiter of any preparation cites themost convincing evidence in his possession in support of his views, this claim may be assumed to be the strongest available, and if thisevidence fails we must reject the contention as not proved herewe face a dilemma, for examination of the literature used in theexploitation of fellows’ syrup fails to disclose any evidence of thekind that we have described as satisfactory. And we are, therefore, forced to conclude that none has ever been found by this it is notto be implied that no reputable physician has ever reported favorablyconcerning the therapeutic effects of this preparation it is quitepossible that an extensive literature of that sort might be found ifone examined the older medical journals but the day has passed whenevery improvement that follows the administration of a preparation isblindly attributed to the drug in question clinical research today isfar more exacting we will assume that the reader who has investigated the question withan open mind will have come to the decision that the contention thatfellows’ syrup is of especial therapeutic value is not proved we mightrest with that assumption and ask the clinician whether he is preparedto use a nostrum that has been before the medical profession for halfa century without any satisfactory evidence having been gained thatit possesses therapeutic value we might ask him whether he would bewilling to tell his patients that he was prescribing such a nostrumfor them in the face of the absence of any such evidence of its value the inertness of the hypophosphitesbut we prefer to go even further and show him that not only is therean entire absence of any evidence of its therapeutic value so far aswe have been able to learn, but in addition there is an abundance ofevidence that the hypophosphites are devoid of any such therapeuticeffect as they were formerly reputed to have, and that, in fact, they are, so far as any effect based on their phosphorus content isconcerned, singularly inert while we have thus far taken the fellows’ preparation as the subjectof the discussion, we may take a broader view and examine the subjectof the hypophosphites in general, and the substitutes containingphosphorus that have been introduced from time to time it hardly needsto be said that if the hypophosphites are without therapeutic value, itis impossible to give them value by combining them in a muddy-looking, ill-made preparation such as fellows’ syrup such evidence wassubmitted to the medical profession in a report of the council onpharmacy and chemistry j a m a 67:760 sept 2 1916. And wewould strongly advise any one who is disposed to act on the suggestioncontained in the advertisements of fellows’, and other hypophosphitepreparations, to read that report in full and to think the matter overbefore prescribing one of these nostrums quoting briefly from thereport in question. “although the overwhelming weight of evidence was against the probability that the hypophosphite preparations are of value as therapeutic agents, the council thought it well to investigate the subject dr w mckim marriott of baltimore was therefore requested to review the evidence for and against the therapeutic usefulness of the hypophosphites and to conduct such experiments as seemed necessary ”the council was not content to rest on the mere absence of evidencefor the value of these preparations or any one of them, but soughtto obtain evidence that would fulfil the conditions mentioned above, and in pursuance of this plan it secured the cooperation of a trainedinvestigator, one who would work under the best of conditions forlearning the truth the results of dr marriott investigation werepublished in the journal, feb 12, 1916, p 486, and should be read byeveryone who has any interest in the problem lest essay of our readersmay fail to refer to the original of marriott paper, we will quotebriefly from it. “none of the subjects of the experiment experienced any effect whatsoever from the administration of the drug almost all of the ingested hypophosphite is eliminated unchanged “these experiments forbes demonstrate conclusively that the hypophosphites possess no specific value as a source of phosphorus for the body it is doubtful if there are any conditions in which the body suffers from lack of phosphorus even should such conditions exist, phosphorus, in the form that it occurs in the ordinary foods, or as phosphates, is more efficient in supplying the deficit than hypophosphites that must be oxidized before utilization and which are only about 15 per cent oxidized if at all for example, half a glass of milk contains more available phosphorus than three large doses of hypophosphites of 15 grains each, as great a dosage as is usually given “what then, is the therapeutic value of hypophosphites?. there is no reliable evidence that they exert a physiologic effect.

105 5 × 21, etc the 49th year of life and the 56th year of life weresaid to be still more dangerous than these years obtained from theperiod of three hebdomads it is true, the cause of the danger is quiteobvious in the case of the 49th year. It was the ominous 7 × 7 whichhere gave rise to forebodings and it was not quite comprehensible whatcaused the bad reputation of innocent 56. Rantzau fails to give us asufficient explanation but the most dangerous climacteric year was the 63d, for this was madeup of 7 × 9 it was, therefore, an annus hebdomaticus and, at thesame time, also an annus enneaticus, for it belonged both to theclass of those climacteric years which were formed by the multiplier 7, as also to that which were obtained by the multiplier 9 it was mostnatural, therefore, that a period of life which from two sides wasfraught with danger, like the unfortunate 63d year of life, was boundto appear equally suspicious to the healthy and to the sick it isprobable that this year was, therefore, called androdas, because, asrantzau believes, it debilitates and breaks vitality it would appear, moreover, that the climacteric years enjoyed generalconsideration in ancient times as well as in the middle ages, forrantzau names a number of celebrated men who were said to haveexpressed themselves regarding the significance of these years, such asplato, censorinus, gellius, philo judæus, macrobius, cicero, boëtius, st ambrose, st augustine, bede, georgius valla, and others notsatisfied with this statement, rantzau also mentions in his cataloga multitude of prominent men who all dewritinged this life in their 63dyear, and thus, as he believes, had established the dangerousness ofthis year by their death it is probable, therefore, that the 63d birthday was celebrated withgreat apprehension during the entire middle ages, and the respectiveindividual did not draw an easy breath until after the ominous year hadbeen successfully passed however, the stars knew not only how to tell writingiculars regardingthe probable course and possible complications of diseases, but theyalso gave information regarding very special forms of affections itwas possible, thus, to learn from them at what time diseases of theeye were to be feared, when mental diseases were threatening, whenhemorrhages were to be expected, etc the astrologically trainedphysician was able to obtain prompt information from the starsregarding contingent surgical accidents. For there existed variousconjunctions of the celestial bodies, according to ptolemy, whichsurely pointed to wounds, fractures of bones, burns, concussions, andother lesions in fact, it was possible to see in advance, from thecelestial phenomena, what limbs would be exposed to forcible injury;thus, certain conjunctions of the planets were said to prognosticatewith certainty wounds of the head. Others, of the face. Others, again, of the hands and feet, of the fingers and toes, of the arms and legs, of the trunk and neck astrology, moreover, was not satisfied with theprognostic and diagnostic activity which we have just mentioned, but italso interfered in therapy, internal as well as external regarding, in the first place, internal medicinal treatment, theastrologer knew how to give positive information about the same. Forall terrestrial beings, of an organic as well as of an inorganicnature, were under the influence of the sun, the moon, of the planets, and of the signs of the zodiac the stars imwritinged certain powers tothe planets, to animals, and to all structures of the inorganic world if, therefore, it were known what stars happened to appear in thevault of heaven at the beginning of the disease or of its treatment, it was only necessary seriously to consider the organic and inorganicstructures under their supervision, and the remedies required for asuccessful control of the disease were presently at hand but if thehealer wished to be absolutely certain what medicaments to choose, thephases of the moon and the condition of the sun were also to be takeninto consideration essay remedies could be administered only when themoon was in a writingicular relation to certain planets or stars of thezodiac these remedies were principally emetics and purges similarly to the internal clinician, so also in surgery, the healerwas entirely dependent upon the conjunction of the stars the primevalbabylonian directed that the body must not be touched with iron duringcertain conjunctions of the stars, and this was also prescribed inall paper of astrologica medica it appears, however, that thisdirection obtained less general surgical recognition, but referredprincipally to blood-letting even to this limited extent it implieda high-handed interference with the art of the ancient as well as ofthe medieval physician. For venesection occupied an entirely differentposition among therapeutic measures during that period than it doesto-day whereas modern medicine does not consider blood-lettingnecessary, except in the rarest paper, ancient as well as medievalprofessors of medicine believed that they could under no circumstancesdispense with it. In fact, it is probable that until the seventeenthcentury there was scarcely any form of disease the treatment of whichwould have been possible without withdrawal of blood an actualsystem of blood-letting had been elaborated under the influence ofhumoro-pathological opinions every vein that could be reached withthe lancet was acted upon, and the school of medicine of the periodwas punctiliously careful in teaching which vessel presented the mostsuitable point of attack for the hand of the physician in this or thatform of disease the therapeutic subtleties which were thus brought tolight are beyond description thus, a withdrawal of blood from veins onthe right side of the body was said to yield an essentially differenteffect from left-sided venesection, and each individual vein of thebody promised a special advantage which was peculiar to this one vein the physician of that period surely had enough to do to bear in mindall the numerous therapeutic effects which he was to achieve by theopening of the various veins to facilitate this difficult art to acertain degree special figures were designed so-called venesectionmanikins, in which the numerous points for bleeding were most carefullyannotated fig 5 page 175 shows such a picture it indicates no lessthan 53 different localities for venesection, and as each and everyone of them again implied four or five, or possibly even more, methodsof blood-letting, we may consider that there were thesis hundreds ofdifferent possibilities for phlebotomy if it was easy to become lostin the labyrinth of this blood-thirsty therapy, the difficulty of amethodical application of venesection was very materially increased byastrology. For astrology differentiated between, first, favorable, thendoubtful, and, finally, unfavorable days for venesection, basing thisopinion upon certain positions between sun, moon, and planets then thevarious ages of life had also different days for venesection. Days, forinstance, which promised to be exceptionally successful for venesectionin the young, offered very unfavorable prospects to the aged thus, for instance, the period from the first quadrature of the moon tothe opposition was said to be excellent for bleeding in adolescence, whereas this period was by no means inviting for phlebotomy in thosewho had reached the senile period the chances for venesection becamerather intricate in their different aspects thus, for instance, stöffler taught. {the sun prohibits venesection two {days before and one day after conjunction of { the moon with { }prohibits venesection one {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after quadrature of {sun }prohibits venesection the moon with {saturn }twelve hours before and {mars }twelve hours after opposition of {sun }prohibits venesection one the moon with {saturn }day before and one day {mars }after we see, therefore, that the physician of that time was compelled tobe well-versed in astronomy unless he meant to commit grave mistakesagainst the doctrines of medicina astrologica such sins couldeventually become rather dangerous to the physician, for the code ofhammurabi about 2200, b c , ruler of babylon threatens the operator, for not quite unobjectionable surgical procedures, with the loss of hishands winckler, page 33, § 218 in order to satisfy the astrological requirement of the physician mostthoroughly, there arose in the middle ages a very peculiar literature under the name of an almanac or calendarium, thick folio volumesappeared, which enumerated, in long tables, the various positions ofthe planets and of the signs of the zodiac, so that the astrologer wasenabled to note the fate of mankind rapidly and easily the contentsof such calendaria are beyond description awriting from remarks whichreferred to all occurrences of civil life, was stated the exact periodwhen to have the hair cut, when venesection was to be performed, whento draw teeth, when to take a bath, etc even the proper time forprayer was indicated by such a calendarium according to the experienceof peter of abano, the conjunction of the moon with jupiter in thedragon was sure to effect an answer to prayer hieronymus cardanushad discovered, with the aid of astrology, that a request was sure tobe complied with if a prayer was offered to the virgin mary on thefirst day of april, at 8 a m möhsen, vol ii , page 423 physiciansexcelled in the compilation of such calendaria, especially during thefifteenth and sixteenth centuries professors, forensic physicians, surgeons in fact, all representatives of medical art were equallyintent upon instructing the public by calendaria in regard to the mostvarious branches of medicina astrologica.

Hottentot and polynesian, each 1, 230 c c. Australians, 1, 364c c. And nubians, 1, 313 c c the cranial capacity in man, like thatof the anthropoid apes, varies according to sex, the difference beingso great that it is necessary to measure separately in the troglodyte skulls of prehistoric times the variation is notmore than 99 5 c c. But in the contemporaneous races the differencevaries from 143 to 220 c c french craniologists usually speak of theauvernats as possessing the highest cerebral capacity 1, 523 c c , andmention the skull of a parisian of 1, 900 c c as the highest known essay eskimo skulls, however, measure from 1, 650 to 1, 715 c c , andtwo eurycephalic indian skulls in the anatomical section of the armymedical museum measure respectively 1, 785 and 1, 920 c c mr havelock ellis, speaking of the psychic characteristics ofcriminals, says that the lower human races present a far largerproportion of anatomical abnormities than the ordinary europeanpopulation. And sir william turner writes of the skulls collectedduring the challenger expedition that although their number iscertainly too limited to base any broad generalization on, as to therelative frequency of occurrence of writingicular variations in thedifferent races, there is obviously a larger proportion of importantvariations than would occur in a corresponding number of skulls ofthe white races thus, for example, the squamo-frontal articulationis found in less than two per cent of european skulls, while it isfound in twenty per cent of negroes, according to ecker, and 16 9 inaustralian skulls, according to virchow again, the spheno-pterygoidforamen is found in 4 8 per cent of european skulls and in 20 per centof american indians. 30 per cent in africans. 32 per cent in asiatics, and 50 per cent in australians the wormian bones are also more commonamong the lower races. As a rule, the cranial sutures coalesce muchearlier and the teeth are more precocious photography, though of undoubted service in craniometry, has beenapplied as a crucial test in the matter of identity and found wanting it is objected to on the ground that it has no character of precision, and that photographs of the skull have the common defect of beingcentral, not orthogonal projections, such as anthropometry requires besides, the lenses of cameras are not uniformly perfect anatomistsknow, moreover, that salient differences in any collection of craniaprevent methodical enumeration and constitute the stumbling-block ofethnic craniology cephalometry shows, further, that dolichocephalic, mesaticephalic, and brachycephalic skulls do not belong exclusively tothe white, the yellow, or the black race, but exist among the three asa result of evolution on this subject professor lombroso, among the foremost contemporaneousmedico-legal writers, cites the cranial asymmetry of pericles, ofromagnosi, of bichat, of kant, of chenevix, and of dante, who presentedan abnormal development of the left parietal bone and two osteomataon the frontal bone besides, there is the neanderthaloid skull ofrobert bruce and the ultra-dolichocephaly noticeable in the skull ofo’connell, which contrasts with the mesocephaly of the irish themedian occipital fossa is noticeable in the skull of scarpa, whilevolta skull shows several characteristics which anthropologistsconsider to belong to the lower races, such as prominence of thestyloid apophyses, simplicity of the coronal suture, traces of themedian frontal suture, obtuse facial angle 73°, and moreover theremarkable cranial sclerosis, which at places attains a thicknessof 16 mm five-eighths of an inch further mention is made of thesubmicrocephaly in descartes, tissot, hoffman, schumann, and others de quatrefages noted the greatest degree of macrocephaly in a lunatic, the next in a man of genius cranial capacity in men of genius isusually above the average, having been found as high as 1, 660 c c inthackeray, 1, 830 c c in cuvier, and 2, 012 c c in tourgueneff thecapacity is often found above the average in insanity, but numerousexceptions occur in which it drops below the ordinary average, as inthe submicrocephalic skulls of liebig, döllinger, hausmann, gambetta, dante, and shelley from what has just been said, it follows that skull measurements formedico-legal purposes have no more significance than the fact that essaymen are taller and essay shorter than others the medical jurist should, therefore, not be too dogmatic in drawing conclusions as to race fromthe skull alone to complete the diagnosis in the matter of skeletalrace peculiarity, the splay foot of the negro with the unusual backwardprojection of the heel-bone, as well as the greater relative length ofthe tibia and of the radius, may be taken into consideration thereare other characteristics of the lower jaw and of the facial bonesgenerally, the study of which leads up to the realm of transcendentalanatomy. So their further consideration would hardly appeal to the“dispassionate, sympathetic, contemplative jury” of our enlightenedcountrymen determination of height or stature when we have the entire skeleton to deal with, the height or staturemay be determined with a reasonable degree of certainty by allowingfrom one to two inches for the soft writings most of the proportionsgiven in works on artistic anatomy approach mathematical exactness forinstance, if both upper and lower extremities are extended after themanner of spokes in a wheel, and a point corresponding to the umbilicusbe taken as a centre, the circumference of a circle described therefromshould touch the bottom of the feet and the tips of the middlefingers when the arms are extended horizontally the line included inthe middle-finger tips equals the height in the generality of men, although in exceptional paper it may vary the negro giant, nelsonpickett, is reported to have been eight feet four inches high, whilehis outstretched arms measured nine feet from tip to tip ordinarilythe upper writing of the symphysis pubis is the centre of the body essayanatomists contend that this important point is really below thesymphysis in the average man the length of the foot about equals thatof the head according to quetelet, its length is just one-ninth of thebody in women, a little more than one-ninth in men the conventionalrepresentation of the human foot with a second longer toe is, accordingto professor flower see “fashion in deformity”, of negro origin anddoes not represent what is most usual in our race and time statisticsof measurements made in england by several observers on hundreds ofbarefooted children fail to show one instance in which the second toeis the longer 575taken singly the bones may enable an approximate estimate of the heightof the person when alive. But it should be remembered in connectionwith this subject that the height is not a fixed quantity, since itdiffers according to upright or recumbent position, also before andafter a night rest moreover, the alleged height of the deceased mayhave been taken in boots and is probably incorrect thesis tables of measurements have been constructed for the purposeof determining the height from the dimensions of the bones. But therelation that exists between the total height and the dimensions ofdifferent bones varies according to age, sex, asymmetry, and individualpeculiarities, hence the tables will not bear the critical examinationthat warrants their use with assured correctness, even in a majorityof paper the femur is the bone that gives the best results in thesemeasurements isolated fragments have been included in the enumeration;the nose and the middle finger multiplied by 32 and by 19 or 20 givingthe approximate height while the foregoing calculations will not bearscientific scrutiny, they are of sufficient importance to be taken inconnection with other facts in determining the probable length of theskeleton among the most trustworthy of these tables are those of dr dwight, of harvard university determination of age the age is a still more difficult matter to state precisely evenduring life one may be as much as ten years out in guessing the age ofan adult, while the error may be from fifteen to twenty years in thecase of a corpse dr tourdes mentions a case where the age was guessedas sixty and sixty-five in a deceased person aged eighty-five the state of the osseous system and the condition and number of theteeth, which strictly speaking are not bone, are among the surestguides in the determination of age the signs furnished thereby mayvary according to the periods of increase, maturity, and decline during fœtal life and even at the epoch of birth the bone centres arefew the distal end of the femur, the proximal end of the tibia, andthe astragalus are ossified at birth points of ossification appearin successive order of development the exact period at which thebones begin to ossify and the progress of bony union being detailedin standard works on anatomy, it would be superfluous to repeat themhere these changes are, however, not absolutely certain as to timeand order, as the tip of the acromion process of the scapula essaytimesremains ununited throughout life. The ossification of the sternum andof the costal cartilages is very uncertain, while the teeth, likecertain railway trains, are only due when they arrive from the character of the progress of consolidation of the skeletonthe age may be estimated with a reasonable approach to accuracy up totwenty-five or thirty years, which is the stationary period as regardsalteration in the osseous system above this period it is difficultto arrive at the age about forty the cranial sutures576 begin todisappear, although the time of the closure of the sutures varieswithin large limits. The coccyx becomes consolidated. Ossificationbegins in the thyroid cartilage and in that of the first rib althoughthis state of the rib is regarded by thesis as pathological. Thelower jaw, which in the fœtus and in infancy formed an obtuse angle, now assumes nearly a right angle as senility progresses towarddecrepitude, the bones become lighter and more brittle, owing tofatty atrophy, and their medullary canal larger. The jaw returns toits infantile shape from loss of teeth and atrophy of the alveolarprocesses. The bodies of the vertebræ according to essay authoritiesbevel off in front. Osteophytes are formed, and the neck of the femurapproaches the horizontal see abortion and infanticide determination of sex in the matter of sex there should be no difficulty, after noting theproof furnished by the aggregate characteristics of both male andfemale skeletons the points of contrast between the two skeletonsare not so striking before the age of puberty generally speaking thecranial capacity of an adult woman is less, although it is contendedthat since the great majority of males of the human species are taller, heavier, and larger than the females, it follows that if due allowancebe made for these variations, it will appear that the brain capacityof woman is relatively very little, if at all, inferior to that ofman the mastoid processes of the female skull are smaller.

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knowing the standard of ethics that the anasarcin concern adoptsin the exploitation of its ridiculous squill mixture, our readerswill not be surprised at the standard of commercial ethics whichwould justify the appropriation of copyrighted scientific materialfor nostrum advertising purposes the statement of dr heitzmannpublishers that “in spite of a violation of copyright nothing can bedone” is, of course, incorrect essaything can be poetry analysis essay example done by those whohold the copyright -- ed -- from the journal a m a , oct 18, 1919 246 j a m a 46:288 jan 27 1906. Ibid 48:1535 may 4 1907;ibid 48:1614 may 11 1907, and ibid 49:1992 dec 8 1917 antimeristem-schmidtessay, possibly thesis, of our readers have received a letter fromcologne, gerthesis, from the “bakteriologisch-chemisches laboratoriumwolfgang schmidt ” the letter contains a circular directing theattention of american physicians to “antimeristem-schmidt ” it alsocontains essay advertising leaflets one physician in sending thismaterial to the journal writes. “a copy of the enclosed circulars has been sent to thesis of the physicians in this city, and probably elsewhere perhaps it has already been called to your attention let us be as liberal as possible with our recent enemies the sooner the old channels of scientific communication are re-opened, the better but let us not allow such blatant commercialism from a foreign country to go unprotested, any more than we should if it were from our own ”it should be noted in passing that the envelop in which the wolfgangschmidt letter came has on its face a rubber-stamped impress to theeffect. “concerns cancer treatment ” the circular letter declares thatby means of antimeristem-schmidt “either a cure or improvement has beeneffected in numerous inoperable paper” of malignant tumors americanphysicians are asked “to employ the preparation when occasion arises”and are assured that “every medical man in city or country will beable to carry out treatment without preliminary knowledge ” with theletter are two leaflets discussing the use and administration of theproduct. One contained what was called a “synopsis of essay of the morerecent publications regarding the employment of antimeristem-schmidt ininoperable malignant tumors ” the “recent” publications comprised threearticles published in 1910 and one published in 1912!. Antimeristem-schmidt was rather widely exploited essay six or sevenyears ago as was explained in the journal, march 8, 1913, p 766, itis a preparation claimed to be useful in the treatment of inoperablecancer and as a supplementary treatment after operations for cancer the treatment is founded on a theory advanced by one o schmidt thatthe cause of cancer is found in a fungus, mucor racemosus, which, schmidt at first asserted, carried a protozoon which he regarded asthe real cause of the disease the vaccine is said to be prepared fromcultures from this fungus while schmidt claims that he has been ableto produce cancer by means of the organism, scientific research has notverified his claims extensive clinical trials have shown the treatmentto be without effect the journal also advised its readers on april 19, 1913, that no license for the sale of antimeristem-schmidt had beengranted by the treasury dewritingment and, therefore, its importation intothis country was prohibited neither the therapeutic nor the legalstatus of the product has been changed since then -- from the journala m a , dec 6, 1919 antiphlogistineto the editor:-- last september, my chief, dr j s millard, received a letter from the denver chemical mfg co , manufacturers of“antiphlogistine ” this letter purported to quote thesis large commercialconcerns as testifying to the value of antiphlogistine recently, idoubted the veracity of these claims and wrote to essay of those quoted i quote from the original letter of the antiphlogistine company. “the surgeon to the electric light and electric railroad company in new orleans says that antiphlogistine is the finest thing he has ever used in burns, especially flash and brush burns “the physician to the new york edison co makes a similar statement he says that the application gives speedy relief and the burns heal quickly without scars ”i wrote to dr john woodman, the physician to the new york edison co , who replied in writing as follows. “the denver chemical manufacturing company have no authority to quote me i gave antiphlogistine a thorough trial, and found it had a very limited use, and i cannot recommend it for burns ”again, the antiphlogistine letter said.