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Found hanging death caused by shock and incipient asphyxia fromstrangulation and probably the wounds on head and limbs 71 maschka. “samm gericht gutacht , ” etc prag, leipzig, 1873, published a number of interesting paper, in each of which there was aquestion raised as to the cause of death 72 ibid , p 127 - man found dead had he been strangled or hung, orhad he died essay other way?. opinion, death from paralysis of the brain 73 ibid , p 133 - woman, age 42. Found hanging. A mark around herneck did she hang herself or die of other injuries?. opinion, died ofother injuries 74 rehm. Friedreich blätt , 1883, xxxiv , pp 322-362 - man, age73.

The physiological action of fumes of iodin, j pharmacol &exper therap 15 please do my homework for me. 1 march 1920 most important were the effects of iodin administered intratracheallyin the forms of fumes iodin given in this way seems to be rapidly andcompletely absorbed. But it was found that the administration of thefumes of iodin by inhalation through the respiratory passages, even insmall quantities, is fraught with great danger such administrationinduces dyspnea. And when it is given in large quantities, acute andfatal pulmonary edema ensues within twenty-four hours when respiratorydisorders are present at the time of administration, the fatal edemasupervenes very quickly thus far, no device designed to deliver fumescontrols the dosage it is interesting to consider, as do the authors, the fact that thefumes of iodin have the same effect as those of two other halogens, bromin and chlorin the results of these experiments with iodin fumeson the dog, as shown by necropsy findings, are practically identicalwith those reported by military surgeons as found in soldiers gassedwith chlorin during the war the results of these researches are additional evidence as tohow scientific research may confirm or deny conclusions based onempiric therapeutic observations the work may well serve as a modelfor similar experiments, now being made, on the therapeutic use, intravenously, of such substances as nonspecific proteins or organicpreparations of toxic drugs the patient should at least have thechance that is afford him by preliminary experiments, scientificallyperformed on animals in the research laboratory -- editorial from thejournal a m a , may 29, 1920 italian physico-chemical companythesis and various are the letters received by the journal asking forinformation about an alleged scientific organization in italy styledl’académie physico-chimique italienne this italian physico-chemicalacademy is operated from palermo, italy here is the scheme. Dr johndoe, an american physician receives an imposing-looking letter bearingthe palermo, sicily, postmark and addressed to “monsieur le docteurjohn doe, médecin ” on opening the letter “monsieur le docteur”finds that the “council” of l’académie physico-chimique italiennehas nominated him “honorary member of this academy” and furthermorehas bestowed on him “a first class medal for technical work andscientific merit ” all this, “in consideration of your thesis dignitiesand great learning ” dr doe is told that as soon as he will write anacceptance of this honor “in conformity with section 19 and 22 of theconstitution” he will be sent “the medal, diploma and all the otherdocuments relating to the title accorded ” the joker in the scheme liesin the necessity for dr john doe “conforming” with “section 19 and 22of the constitution ” here are the sections:illustration. Reduced photographic reproduction of the stock lettersent to american physicians by the italian physico-chemical academy the “joker” lies in the requirement around which we have drawn a line “sec 19 -- the entrance fee to cover office and postal expenses, including postage of diploma is 5 dollars, and is payable once at the admission to the academy by special bulletin filled up, stamped and signed ” “sec 22 -- those to whom medals are awarded and who wish to possess them must pay for their coinage 10 dollars as the academy does not, at present, possess the necessary funds for this purpose ”in short the whole thing means that if dr doe is willing to send $15in good american money he will receive in due time from the academy a“diploma” and a gilt not gold medal about four years ago when the “academy” seemed to be making awritingicularly heavy bid for american dollars the member of the journalstaff in charge of the propaganda dewritingment wrote to the “academy, ”on his personal stationery, asking about the cost of membership in the“academy” and asking also for a copy of the “prospectus ” and thatwas all in reply he received a letter stating that “in considerationof” his “thesis dignities and great learning” he had been nominated “anofficer of this academy” and had been awarded “la médaille de premièreclasse” for humanitarian work and scientific merit in order to obtainthese tokens of the “academy” regard it would be necessary to informthe “academy” of acceptance “in conformity with section 19 and 22 ”as the propaganda dewritingment did not consider the diploma and giltmedal worth $15 even as exhibit for its museum of fakes, the “form ofacceptance” was not filled in and returned “in accordance with section19 and 22 ”illustration. Photographic reproduction reduced of the “form ofacceptance” to “membership” in the “italian physico-chemical academy ”filling out this blank and sending it with $15 00 to the “academy”will bring the gilt medal and “diploma ”the leading spirits in the operation of this diploma and medal mill ared and g bandiera, who, so far as we can learn, are neither physiciansnor pharmacists nor have any scientific standing the “academy” hasbeen referred to at various times294 by the journal -- from thejournal a m a , feb 26, 1916 294 j a m a 48. 2196 june 29 1907.

“in the united statesdisinfectants are rated according to the hygienic laboratory phenolcoefficient ”119 those who are interested in the relative merits of therideal-walker, the lancet and the hygienic laboratory methods forthe valuation of disinfectants, should read the following. Methodof standardizing disinfectants with and without organic matter, j a m a , aug 24, 1912, p 667. Standardization of disinfectants, report of the council on pharmacy and chemistry, j a m a , april26, 1913, p 1316. Standardizing disinfectants, j a m a , sept 30, 1916, p 883 the council adopted the recommendation of the committee on pharmacologyto the effect that the claims made for trimethol are unsupported byacceptable evidence accordingly, trimethol and the pharmaceuticalpreparations said to contain it-- trimethol syrup, trimethol capsules, and trimethol tablets-- were held ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , aug 11, 1917 ferrivine, intramine and collosol iodine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrye fougera & co , inc , new york, acting as agent for the british drughouses, ltd , london, advertise “ferrivine, ” “intramine” and “collosoliodine” to the medical profession a circular entitled “ferrivine, thenew anti-syphilitic remedy” begins. “ferrivine is the name given to ferric tri-para-amino-benzene sulphonate this iron compound was first prepared by mr j e r mcdonagh, f r c s , by whom it has been both biologically and clinically tested it is slightly soluble in water, the solution having an acid reaction “indications “according to mr j e r mcdonagh researches, the phases of the leucocytozoon syphilids are killed by the lipoid-globulin molecules of the serum, which possess a stereochemical molecular configuration homologous to those of the lipoid-globulin molecules of the parasite the process is one of absorption, a chemico-physical reaction which is in writing dependent upon the supply of active oxygen active oxygen is formed directly by oxidation processes and the peroxide necessary for its formation directly by reducing processes oxidation is increased by metals and reduction by non-metals the non-metal which acts in the body as the normal reducing agent is sulphur, hence the discovery of intramine see separate pamphlet the metal which acts in the body as the normal oxidising agent, is iron, hence the discovery of ferrivine ”a circular, “intramine, a new non-toxic compound for the treatment ofprotozoal and chronic bacterial diseases, ” expounds mr mcdonaghideas of the treatment of syphilis with ferrivine and intramine bymeans of the oxidising action of ferrivine and the reducing action ofintramine and asserts. “as the ultimate administration of oxidising and reducing agents will benefit almost any infection, it may be said that intramine is indicated in all protozoal diseases, and in all chronic bacterial diseases, especially in tuberculosis, presumably in leprosy and possibly in malignant disease cancer?. to the administration of intramine there are no contraindications ”we are also told that. “intramine is useful injected into the urethra in paper of chronic urethritis and perifolliculitis invaluable as a local application to chronic ulcers ”the intramine circular includes a “scheme of treatment for syphilis”which advises, in addition to intramine, ferrivine or salvarsan, mercury and iodids, the use of another proprietary called “collosoliodine ” an inquiry addressed to fougera & co in regard to thecharacter and composition of this preparation, brought the reply thatthe firm had no knowledge of its identity this “scheme of treatment” is objectionable in that it advises the“stock” treatment of a disease which demands individualization andfurther in that whatever beneficial effects may result from the useof mercury and iodid is likely to be ascribed to the preparations“intramine, ” “ferrivine” and “collosol iodine ”the advertising for ferrivine and intramine sent out by fougera & co contains no experimental or clinical data on which an estimate of theirvalue may be based apparently in england, where these products wereoriginated, little has been published regarding them there is, however, one report which may be accepted as a carefullycontrolled clinical trial in the lancet june 17, 1916, p 1214l w harrison, d s o , m b , ch b glasg , and c h mills, m r c s , l r c p lond , report on “the effect of ferrivine and intramine onsyphilis ” after briefly reviewing the theories which form the basisof mcdonagh proposed treatment of syphilis with his discoveries“ferrivine” and “intramine” the authors point out. “ that mr mcdonagh biological discoveries have not been publicly confirmed by any biologist of standing ”while. “ eminent chemists have confessed themselves unable to understand his chemistry ”the authors explain. “recognizing that this might prejudice our practical tests of intramine and ferrivine, we have taken writingicular care to guard against their influence, cross-checking our observations and submitting them to others for confirmation or otherwise ”harrison and mills chose for a test three ordinary paper of secondarysyphilis, paper with well marked lesions, the clinical progress ofwhich could easily be watched and from which it was easy to obtainspecimens for microscopic examination after a detailed account ofthe three paper-- which records grave conditions resulting from thetreatment and which shows the inefficiency of the drugs-- they write. “from the above account it will be seen that the local and general reactions which follow the injection of these preparations are by no means pleasant in the case of intramine the pain is undiluted torture and lasts so for two or three days one of us had previously treated four paper with intramine and the same local reaction occurred in these in two of them abscesses have burst outwardly, one of which is still discharging necrotic débris, ten weeks after the injection, and will take thesis more weeks to close in those paper where no abscess has yet burst it is easy to feel by the gap in the muscles that considerable necrosis has occurred none of these effects can be ascribed to sepsis, as most rigid aseptic precautions were taken further, writingicular care was taken to make the injections strictly intramuscular the constitutional symptoms which follow immediately upon the injection of ferrivine are distinctly alarming, and such as would cause one to hesitate before injecting this remedy into any but robust patients ”harrison and mills estimate the therapeutic effects of these drugs thus. “1 that ferrivine entirely failed to cause s pallida to disappear from the lesions of three well-marked paper of secondary syphilis “2 after the failure of ferrivine to cause the disappearance of spirochaeta pallida from a mucous patch a single dose of 0 3 gm salvarsan effected this in 18 hours, and the patch, which had hitherto been uninfluenced, had healed within 48 hours “3 clinically we were unable to detect any influence of either or both these compounds on syphilitic lesions, although each of them was of the variety which heals in a week or ten days under salvarsan treatment “4 further syphilitic lesions appeared immediately after the treatment in one of the two paper treated with both ferrivine and intramine a mucous patch appeared on one tonsil as well as further syphilitic papules from which spirochetes were obtained the other case developed nephritis, with albumin and epithelial casts.

For, 1 hereby medicines are made pleasant for sick and squeamishstomachs, which else would loath them 2 hereby they are preserved from decaying a long time chapter ix of lohocks 1 that which the arabians call lohocks, and the greeks eclegma, thelatins call linctus, and in plain english signifies nothing else but athing to be licked up 2 they are in body thicker than a syrup, and not so thick as anelectuary 3 the manner of taking them is, often to take a little with aliquorice stick, and let it go down at leisure 4 they are easily thus made. Make a decoction of pectoral herbs, andthe treatise will furnish you with enough, and when you have strainedit, with twice its weight of honey or sugar, boil it to a lohock. Ifyou are molested with much phlegm, honey is better than sugar. And ifyou add a little vinegar to it, you will do well. If not, i hold sugarto be better than honey 5 it is kept in pots, and may be kept a year and longer 6 it is excellent for roughness of the wind-pipe, inflammations andulcers of the lungs, difficulty of breathing, asthmas, coughs, anddistillation of humours chapter x of ointments 1 various are the ways of making ointments, which authors have leftto posterity, which i shall omit, and quote one which is easiest tobe made, and therefore most beneficial to people that are ignorant inphysic, for whose sake i write this it is thus done:bruise those herbs, flowers, or roots, you will make an ointment of, and to two handfuls of your bruised herbs add a pound of hog greasedried, or cleansed from the skins, beat them very well together in astone mortar with a wooden pestle, then put it into a stone pot, theherb and grease i mean, not the mortar, cover it with a paper and setit either in the sun, or essay other warm place. Three, four, or fivedays, that it may melt. Then take it out and boil it a little. Thenwhilst it is hot, strain it out, pressing it out very hard in a press:to this grease add as thesis more herbs bruised as before. Let them standin like manner as long, then boil them as you did the former. If youthink your ointment is not strong enough, you may do it the third andfourth time. Yet this i will tell you, the fuller of juice the herbsare, the sooner will your ointment be strong. The last time you boilit, boil it so long till your herbs be crisp, and the juice consumed, then strain it pressing it hard in a press, and to every pound ofointment add two ounces of turpentine, and as much wax, because greaseis offensive to wounds, as well as oil 2 ointments are vulgarly known to be kept in pots, and will last abovea year, essay above two years chapter xi of plaisters 1 the greeks made their plaisters of divers simples, and put metalsinto the most of them, if not all. For having reduced their metals intopowder, they mixed them with that fatty substance whereof the rest ofthe plaister consisted, whilst it was thus hot, continually stirringit up and down, lest it should sink to the bottom. So they continuallystirred it till it was stiff.

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It helps to distractattention from the fact that he does not tell what the preparationdoes contain!. In the old-time medical journal advertisements, one reads, “salhepatica is the most powerful solvent of uric acid known ” the sameadvertisement as it appeared in those days in the journal showsthat claim toned down to, “sal hepatica is a powerful solvent ofuric acid ” in those easy going days, the bristol-myers companydeclared that “diabetes is treated with decided advantage by meansof sal hepatica it possesses the property of arresting thesecretion of sugar in the liver ” in the old days, too, sal hepaticawas recommended in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver, brightdisease, gravel, phthisis, etc the present advertising circular recommends sal hepatica as aneliminant, laxative or cathartic in gout, autointoxication, “biliousattacks, ” rheumatism, acute indigestion, catarrhal conditions ofthe stomach, pyorrhea, headache, dizziness, heart burn, “summercomplaints, ” “derangements of the stomach and liver, ” skin diseases, colic, alcoholic excesses, and as a “preventive of seasickness ”in 1914 the council on pharmacy and chemistry published256 a reporton sal hepatica declaring it secret in composition and sold underexaggerated and unwarranted claims 256 j a m a , feb 7, 1914, p 472 in view of the inquiries which the journal continues to receive itseemed worth while to make a chemical examination of the present-dayproduct accordingly specimens were purchased and analyzed in thea m a chemical laboratory the report that follows was submitted bythe chemists:“sal hepatica is a white, granular, odorless powder it effervesces onthe addition of water in which it eventually dissolves the aqueoussolution, after boiling to remove carbon dioxid, has an acid reactionto litmus “since a great thesis medicinal substances are sold in effervescent form, and since practically no information is given by the manufacturerconcerning the composition of sal hepatica, it became necessary totest for a considerable number of therapeutic agents the absence ofacetanilid, acetphenetidin, alkaloids, ammonium salts, benzoates, caffein, citrates, heavy metals, hexamethylenamin, magnesium, potassium, salicylates and sugars was demonstrated by appropriatetests the presence of a carbonate probably in the form of abicarbonate, a phosphate, a sulphate, a chlorid, tartaric acid, sodiumand traces of lithium was shown by qualitative tests “quantitative analysis indicated that the composition of the specimensexamined was essentially as follows. Sodium phosphate, anhydrous 4 4 per cent sodium sulphate, anhydrous 26 5 per cent sodium tartrate, anhydrous 12 7 per cent sodium bicarbonate 19 5 per cent tartaric acid, free 20 8 per cent sodium chlorid 8 9 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 7 2 per cent “from the results of the analysis, it appears probable that thecomposition of the mixture before ‘granulation’ was approximately asfollows. Sodium phosphate 4 per cent sodium sulphate 25 per cent sodium bicarbonate 30 per cent tartaric acid 30 per cent sodium chlorid 8 per cent lithium phosphate trace water of hydration by difference 3 per cent “sal hepatica, therefore, is essentially an effervescing mixture ofdried sodium sulphate glauber salt and sodium tartrate with alittle dried sodium phosphate and table salt added it is similar tothe effervescent artificial carlsbad salt described in the nationalformulary “in 1909 the druggists circular published the following analysis ofsal hepatica. Sodium phosphate 29 80 writings sodium sulphate glauber salt 26 27 writings sodium bicarbonate baking soda 18 00 writings sodium chlorid salt 13 05 writings lithium phosphate 0 04 writings citric and tartaric acids to make 100 12 84 writings“a comparison of the recent analysis with the earlier one would seem toindicate that considerable changes have been made in the formula sincethe first examination the proportions of sodium phosphate have beengreatly reduced, while the sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid havebeen increased and the citric acid entirely eliminated ”sal hepatica, then, is a simple effervescent saline laxative, essentially secret in composition and sold under claims that would belaughed at were the full formula of the product a matter of publicknowledge -- from the journal a m a , oct 29, 1921 salicon“salicon” is marketed by the k a hughes company, boston, as “animproved aspirin ” in a circular sent out to the public a little over ayear ago the following claims were made for it. “we rendered aspirin absolutely harmless and yet retained all its virtues as a medicine ” “it positively will not depress the heart nor upset the stomach no matter how large amounts of it are taken ” “ the massachusetts state medical authorities adopted its use at all the state camps for fighting the spanish influenza ”the first two statements quoted above are obviously false the thirdstatement might have been true although it seemed unlikely a letterwas, therefore, written to the dewritingment of public health of thecommonwealth of massachusetts and the claim of the k a hughes companyrelative to the adoption of salicon in all the state camps by the“state medical authorities” was brought to their attention the replyof the dewritingment on this point was emphatic:“the state dewritingment of health of massachusetts did not endorse theuse of salicon for any purpose ”essay salicon was purchased on the open market and submitted to thea m a chemical laboratory for analysis here is the chemists’ report “one original bottle of ‘salicon’ k a hughes company, bostonwas submitted by the propaganda dewritingment of the journal to theassociation chemical laboratory for examination the bottle contained100 white tablets having an average weight of 0 407 gram 6 3 grains, each the amount of ash was 20 9 per cent qualitative tests indicatedthe presence of magnesium, carbonate, starch, acetylsalicylic acid anda trace of calcium. A very small amount of a petrolatum-like substancewas present alkaloids and drugs used for a laxative effect were notfound the amount of acetylsalicylic acid extracted by chloroform was50 7 per cent the amount of magnesium present as magnesium oxid was14 3 per cent the amount of magnesium oxid derived from magnesiumcarbonate u s p is variable. But calculating on the lowest limit, 14 3 per cent of magnesium oxid is equivalent to at least 35 5 percent of magnesium carbonate this figure agreed closely with thatobtained from the u s p , method of assay the acetylsalicylic acidwas not combined with the magnesium from the above, it may be statedthat each tablet consisted essentially of a mixture of 3 2 grains ofacetylsalicylic acid aspirin, 2 2 grains of magnesium carbonate andessay starch although labeled 5 grains, each tablet did not contain 5grains of the most active ingredient, acetylsalicylic acid ”the same old story an ordinary mixture of well known drugs put on themarket as a new discovery and foisted on the public under false andmisleading claims -- correspondence in the journal a m a , feb 5, 1921 so-called secretin preparationsin china the administration of powdered tiger-bone is-- or was-- afavorite form of treatment in paper of supposed cardiac weakness thetheory is, presumably, that the cardiac strength of the tiger wouldbe a good thing for the patient to acquire since thesis patients haverecovered after taking tiger-bone, and no one has proved that theymight not have died had they failed to take it, “clinical experience”stands back of the treatment. And where is the skeptic so rash asto challenge that?. the chinese physician believes in his tiger-bonetherapy, and, with the best interests of his patient at heart, insistson obtaining absolutely true and authentic tiger-bone not satisfiedwith the assertions of the dealers, the conscientious chinese physiciansubjects his tiger-bone to a kind of physiologic standardization heoffers the bone in question to a dog!.