Photo Essay Topics

And is muchcommended to take away freckles, spots, sunburn, and morphew from theface, or other writings of the body the oil made of the flowers, as oilof roses is made, is profitably used to cool hot tumours, and to easethe pains, and help the sores lily of the valley called also conval lily, male lily, and lily photo essay topics confancy descript the root is small, and creeps far in the ground, as grassroots do the leaves are thesis, against which rises up a stalk halfa foot high, with thesis white flowers, like little bells with turnededges of a strong, though pleasing smell. The berries are red, notmuch unlike those of asparagus place they grow plentifully upon hampstead-heath, and thesis otherplaces in this nation time they flower in may, and the seed is ripe in september government and virtues it is under the dominion of mercury, andtherefore it strengthens the brain, recruits a weak memory, and makesit strong again. The distilled water dropped into the eyes, helpsinflammations there. As also that infirmity which they call a pin andweb the spirit of the flowers distilled in wine, restores lost speech, helps the palsy, and is excellently good in the apoplexy, comfortsthe heart and vital spirits gerrard saith, that the flowers beingclose stopped up in a glass, put into an ant-hill, and taken awayagain a month after, ye shall find a liquor in the glass, which, beingoutwardly applied, helps the gout white lilies it were in vain to describe a plant so commonly known in every onegarden. Therefore i shall not tell you what they are, but what they aregood for government and virtues they are under the dominion of the moon, and by antipathy to mars expel poison. They are excellently good inpestilential fevers, the roots being bruised and boiled in wine, andthe decoction drank. For it expels the venom to the exterior writings ofthe body.

Compt rend soc de biol , 71:189, 1911 photo essay topics 40 camus. Compt rend soc de biol , 1902, 54:442, 1902 41 fleig. Jour de physiol et de path gén 6:32, 50, 1904 42 wertheimer and lepage. Jour de physiol et de path gén 4:1061, 1070, 1902 43 stepp. Jour physiol 43:441, 1912 action -- secretin is an excitant not only of the pancreatic juicebut also of the liver and the intestinal mucosa the flow of bile ismarkedly accelerated henri and portier, 44 enriquez and hallion45, likewise that of succus entericus delezenne and frouin, 46 bottazziand gabrielli47, and intestinal peristalsis is stimulated enriquezand hallion, 48 falloise49 injections of secretin produce a markedvasodilatation, but the secretory effect is independent of the bloodpressure changes the pancreas is not readily fatigued by secretin bayliss and starling50 have obtained undiminished flow after eighthours of continuous injection our experience confirms this result also, equal doses of secretin give corresponding results at variousintervals moreover, anesthesia does not affect the flow secretinis unrecoverable from the glands even after two hours of continuousinjection 51 the juice obtained by secretin has been subject to thesisstudies 52 it is of high alkalinity about seventh normal, containsall the pancreatic ferments, and corresponds in all respects to thejuice obtained in digestion from permanent pancreatic fistulas 5344 henri and portier. Compt rend soc de biol 54:620, 1902 45 enriquez and hallion. Presse méd 1:105, 1903 46 delezenne and frouin. Compt rend soc de biol 56:319, 1904 47 bottazzi and gabrielli. Arch internat de physiol 111:156, 1905 48 enriquez and hallion. Bull gén de thér 162:202, 1911 49 falloise. Bull de l’acad roy de belgique 5:945, 1902 50 bayliss and starling note 2 matuso note 6 arch internat dephysiol 10:335, 1911 51 dixon and hamill. Jour physiol , 1909, xxxv, 314 52 bayliss and starling. Jour physiol , 1904, xxx, 61 bierry:compt rend soc de biol , 1907, lxii, 433 bierry and terroine:compt rend acad de sc , 1905, cxli, 146 lalou. Comp rend acad desc , 1910, xxix, 824 morel. Compt rend soc de biol , 1909, lxvii, 36 strassano and billoro.

In essay green on the upperside, and in others more brownish, dented about the edges, essaywhathairy, as the square stalk is also which rises up to be half a yardhigh essaytimes, with the leaves set by couples, from the middle almost, whereof photo essay topics upwards stand the flowers, together with thesis smaller andbrowner leaves than the rest, on the stalk below set at distance, andthe stalk bare between them. Among which flowers, are also small onesof a blueish and essaytimes of an ash colour, fashioned like the flowersof ground-ivy, after which come small, round blackish seeds the rootis composed of thesis strings, and spreads upon the ground the white flowered bugle differs not in form or greatness from theformer, saving that the leaves and stalks are always green, and neverbrown, like the other, and the flowers thereof are white place they grow in woods, copses, and fields, generally throughoutengland, but the white flowered bugle is not so plentiful as the former time they flower from may until july, and in the mean time perfecttheir seed the roots and leaves next thereunto upon the ground abidingall the winter government and virtues this herb belongs to dame venus. If thevirtues of it makes you fall in love with it as they will if you bewise keep a syrup of it to take inwardly, an ointment and plaister ofit to use outwardly, always by you the decoction of the leaves and flowers made in wine, and taken, dissolves the congealed blood in those that are bruised inwardly by afall, or otherwise is very effectual for any inward wounds, thrusts, or stabs in the body or bowels. And it is an especial help in allwound-drinks, and for those that are liver-grown as they call it it is wonderful in curing all manner of ulcers and sores, whether newand fresh, or old and inveterate. Yea, gangrenes and fistulas also, if the leaves bruised and applied, or their juice be used to wash andbathe the place. And the same made into a lotion, and essay honey andalum, cures all sores in the mouth and gums, be they ever so foul, orof long continuance. And works no less powerfully and effectually forsuch ulcers and sores as happen in the secret writings of men and women being also taken inwardly, or outwardly applied, it helps those thathave broken any bone, or have any member out of joint an ointment madewith the leaves of bugle, scabions and sanicle, bruised and boiled inhog grease, until the herbs be dry, and then strained forth into apot for such occasions as shall require. It is so singularly good forall sorts of hurts in the body, that none that know its usefulness willbe without it the truth is, i have known this herb cure essay diseases of saturn, ofwhich i thought good to quote one thesis times such as give themselvesmuch to drinking are troubled with strange fancies, strange sightsin the night time, and essay with voices, as also with the diseaseephialtes, or the mare i take the reason of this to be accordingto fernelius a melancholy vapour made thin by excessive drinkingstrong liquor, and, so flies up and disturbs the fancy, and breedsimaginations like itself, viz fearful and troubleessay those i haveknown cured by taking only two spoonfuls, of the syrup of this herbafter supper two hours, when you go to bed but whether this does itby sympathy, or antipathy, is essay doubt in astrology i know thereis great antipathy between saturn and venus in matter of procreation;yea, such a one, that the barrenness of saturn can be removed by nonebut venus!. nor the lust of venus be repelled by none but saturn. Buti am not of opinion this is done this way, and my reason is, becausethese vapours though in quality melancholy, yet by their flying upward, seem to be essaything aerial. Therefore i rather think it is done byantipathy. Saturn being exalted in libra, in the house of venus burnet it is called sanguisorbia, pimpinella, bipulo, solbegrella, &c the common garden burnet is so well known, that it needs nodescription - there is another sort which is wild, the descriptionwhereof take as follows. Descript the great wild burnet has winged leaves arising fromthe roots like the garden burnet, but not so thesis. Yet each of theseleaves are at the least twice as large as the other, and nicked in thesame manner about the edges, of a greyish colour on the under side;the stalks are greater, and rise higher, with thesis such leaves setthereon, and greater heads at the top, of a brownish colour, and out ofthem come small dark purple flowers, like the former, but greater theroot is black and long like the other, but greater also. It has almostneither scent nor taste therein, like the garden kind place it first grows frequently in gardens the wild kind growsin divers counties of this land, especially in huntingdon, innorthamptonshire, in the meadows there.

Thosewho send in the postal card to “h l roberts” receive a form-letter, signed “h l roberts” in facsimile handwriting, stating thatinformation was enclosed “regarding the ogden methods” and statingthat dr ogden would be in indianapolis or cleveland or pittsburgh, asthe case might be, on a certain date and that the fee for the “clinic”would be $100 with this letter is an eight-page pamphlet entitled“essay facts concerning the ogden method of treating rectal diseases ”the first page is headed in black-faced type. “about referencesand endorsements ” it then states that the “usual references andendorsements are omitted from this booklet ” further. “as to dr willard e ogden. The professional and social standing of dr ogden is such that he does not need to offer any “as to ‘the ogden method’ and its value to you in your professional work. What others say or think has little if any weight you are your own man you do your own thinking you decide for yourself-- do you not?. ”illustration. Photographic reproduction greatly reduced of anadvertisement of the burleson concern with which ogden was connectedprevious to 1914, and which connection he is capitalizing in hispresent advertising the booklet gives an outline of the “course of instruction, ” which isalmost identical, word for word, with the outline given in the letteradvertising the mail-order course previously referred to the booklet further states that “the ogden method has entirelyeliminated the use of cautery, the ligature or any injections, in thetreatment of hemorrhoids, ” but that “the use of the electric currenthas proved to be the very correct method in such paper, as will bedemonstrated at the clinic ” the booklet reiterates the statement thatogden association with the burleson and burleson concern at grandrapids makes him “eminently well qualified to instruct members of themedical profession in this important branch of the medical science!. ”in addition to this booklet there is a four-page advertisingleaflet illustrating and describing the “ogden rectal cabinet” andalso the “ogden rectal table and stool ” there is also a littlepostcard-- addressed, of course, to “h l roberts”-- for the physicianto fill in stating that “you may enroll me as intending to attend dr ogden clinic in proctology, to be held at-- -- ” should the recipientnot fill in and mail this enrolment card he gets another form lettercalling attention to the fact that the enrolment card has not beenreceived and stating further that “available hotel facilities make itnecessary to limit our enrolment to twenty students ”careful search fails to disclose that dr willard ealon ogden has everdistinguished himself in the practice of the specialty in which he nowwishes to instruct physicians equally careful search fails to showthat dr ogden has ever published a paper either on any proctologicsubjects or on any other phase of medicine or surgery neither doesthere seem to be any evidence for the claim that dr ogden “has beenassociated with the leading proctologists of america ”-- from thejournal a m a , feb 4, 1922 “patents” patent laws and patent office practicethe inequity of our patent laws, or possibly it would be more correctto say, of the interpretation of our patent laws, has been commented onthesis times in the journal the journal also has had occasion to callattention to patents that have been issued for obviously unscientificand quackish devices and preparations the paper of the preposterousgas-pipe fake “oxydonor” and the creatinin mixture for the allegedconferring of immunity against diphtheria, pneumonia, scarlet fever, syphilis, tuberculosis, etc , are paper in point in a patent issued the early writing of this year for the “discovery” ofa method of flavoring epsom salt, the patent office has, in fatuity, piled pelion on ossa the “inventor” declares that his inventionrelates to a pharmaceutical preparation and a special method oftreatment of the medicinal agents whereby said agent will be renderedmuch more efficient in character he further avows that the “primeobject” of his “invention” is to “disguise the normal taste and imwritingan agreeable odor or smell to salts commonly employed as a cathartic ”parenthetically it may be said that probably not a day passes thatessay physician in the united states does not do substantially the samething when writing a prescription the “inventor” further claims thatthe object of his “invention” is to utilize the salts as a vehicleto carry an antiseptic and anesthetic agent whereby the salts whenadministered as a cathartic “will also act beneficially on the entiredigestive tract” and “whereby cramped and spasmodic conditions are atonce relieved with a resulting cure of flatulency, indigestion, sickand sour stomach, colic and the destruction of worms, etc ”such claims are so absurd that the only excuse for commenting onthem is the effect they have on the public mind the layman readingthe specifications of this patent would naturally conclude that aninvention of great importance had been made-- of such importance as towarrant the government in rewarding its inventor by granting him aseventeen-year monopoly on the sale of his invention the law requires that, to be patentable, inventions shall be new anduseful and shall show a higher degree of skill in their inception thanis naturally to be expected from those who are skilled in the arts towhich the inventions belong it has been decided again and again thatphysicians’ prescriptions are not patentable because it is assumedthat an educated physician will utilize his knowledge of pharmacy indevising proper compounds of medicines to meet the indications ofdisease when a physician prescribes a dose of epsom salt to be takenin one of the official aromatic waters, he does not produce or create anew invention by so doing of course, in one sense every prescriptionis an invention-- an invention to meet the conditions presented by thepatient-- but such inventions are not patentable, because they representthe ordinary skill of a physician in carrying on his vocation if the patent office goes on granting patents for such “inventions” asflavored epsom salt, and it should be found financially profitable tosecure such patents and place the products on the market, it will onlybe a matter of time before the materia medica will be so restrictedthat a physician will be unable to write a prescription withoutinfringing on essaybody patent the splendid conception of the framers of our constitution in providinga plan for promoting progress in science and useful arts by grantingto inventors for a limited time the exclusive use of their inventions, in exchange for the publication of full knowledge thereof, is beingdebased no branch of our government is of greater importance to theprogress of the country than the patent office, provided that office isintelligently administered when the patent office is used, however, for an extention of the nostrum business, founded on the abuse ofpatent and trade-mark laws, it becomes a menace to the public health the objects of the patent law are being defeated by the practices ofthe patent office -- editorial from the journal a m a , june 23, 1917 our archaic patent lawsin this issue we publish two reports of the council on pharmacy andchemistry which illustrate the weaknesses of the present working of theunited states patent laws in the first report the council presentsan investigation of a recently granted patent, and shows that thepatent was issued on the mere claims of the applicant and without thepresentation of any evidence for such claims the second report-- “needfor patent law revision”-- is an appeal to the patent office for amore enlightened administration of the patent law, and it presents afew illustrations of the unfair protection which has been granted bythe patent office the protest of the council appears at an opportunetime in science299 the “patent office society, ” an associationof employees of the u s patent office, announces that a committeehas been created on request of the national research council to makea study of the u s patent office and its service to science andarts it states that this committee will meet in washington shortlyto consider the adequacy of the present patent office equipment andthe simplification of procedure as well as responsiveness to presentnational and international requirements the committee also hopesto coordinate, in the interest of an improved public service, theendeavors of the various national societies, manufacturing interests, patent bar associations and all others aiming at genuine patent reform unquestionably, there is a growing conviction that in the case ofmedicines the monopoly given by the patent laws, if granted at all, should be granted with greater consideration of the public welfare too often the united states patent law has been used to obtain anunfair monopoly on a medicament or to abet quackery there is noquestion that one of two things is needed. Either a radical changein the patent law itself or the application of more brains in itsadministration -- editorial from the journal a m a , jan 12, 1918 299 dec 28, 1917, p 629 patents perpetuated by trade namesthe patent on aspirin300 acetylsalicylic acid, controlled bythe bayer company, american representative of the farbenfabriken ofelberfeld company, will expire next year 1917 the journal haspreviously stated that the grant of this patent was regrettable andworked injustice to american citizens it is unnecessary again to gointo the grounds for this statement. Neither in the farbenfabrikenhome country, gerthesis, nor in any other country except in the unitedstates, has a patent been granted for this product owing to theirmonopoly, the manufacturers have been able to exact a much higherprice for acetylsalicylic acid, or aspirin, in this country, thanelsewhere naturally, the bayer company, the american agents, view withdisfavor the prospect of being compelled to share this rich field withcompetitors the foregoing furnishes the answer to inquiries which havereached us from all over the country with regard to the campaign ofpublicity which the bayer company has inaugurated in the lay press apresumably authentic and apparently candid exposition of the methodsused and the motives behind the aspirin advertising is furnished inprinters’ ink:301300 granted feb 27, 1900 301 printers’ ink, june 29, 1916, p 189. July 13, 1916, p 100 “the manufacturers of aspirin are about to launch an extensive advertising campaign to clinch the market as far as possible before the expiration of their patent rights next year the purpose of the campaign is to identify the product with the trademark of the bayer company and to this extent hamper competition after the expiration of the patent ”the business of the bayer company, the article goes on to say, has beenhurt by the sale of worthless or even harmful imitations put on themarket by irresponsible and unauthorized persons when the present warstopped importations from gerthesis “the public knew aspirin, but did not know who made it italics ours when the bayer company, inc , took over the manufacture of aspirin in this country, the first steps were taken to identify the product with the firm who made it of course, there are good reasons why the makers were loth to advertise the product or to exploit their trademark as every one knows, the advertising of a medical proposition is an extremely ticklish subject it is easy to make a misstep aspirin is one of those proprietary drugs that are extensively prescribed by physicians if anything were done that might possibly associate this drug with the patent medicines that are in disfavor with the profession, the valuable influence and cooperation of thousands of doctors might be lost it is believed that this knotty phase of the question is being answered in the present advertising since nothing is mentioned about ‘medicine, ’ ‘cures’ or ‘ailments, ’ it is anticipated that there will be but little objection to the copy all that the advertising attempts to do is to link up the name ‘bayer’ with aspirin the nearest the copy gets to medical talk is in this sentence in very small type at the bottom of the advertisement, ‘the trademark “aspirin” reg u s patent office is a guarantee that the monoacetic acid ester of salicylic acid in these tablets is of the reliable bayer manufacture ’”from this it appears that, not content with seventeen years ofmonopoly, the aspirin people are attempting to retain a hold onthe market in perpetuo by associating the name of the companywith the trade name “aspirin ” there can be no better time than thepresent, therefore, for the medical profession to substitute, forthe nondescriptive name “aspirin, ” the descriptive and correct nameacetylsalicylic acid -- editorial from the journal a m a , aug 12, 1916 patenting therapeutic agentsin the past, therapeutic agents and apparatus have been controlledby patents and trademarks for profit if there have been exceptions, they have been rare the principles of medical ethics of the americanmedical association contain this statement. “it is unprofessionalto receive remuneration from patents for surgical instruments ormedicines ” this does not mean that the patenting is wrong in itself;there are occasions when it is wise, if not necessary, to obtain apatent in the interest of the public, and, in the case of surgicalinstruments and medicines, of the medical profession in certaininstances it is absolutely necessary that the article produced shallmaintain a definite standard of quality and purity-- and, it may beadded, shall be sold at a reasonable price enterprising pharmaceuticalmanufacturers have usually been ready to appropriate the results ofscientific research by investigators or therapeutic measures suggestedby practicing physicians not infrequently, in such instances, thedesire for financial gain has caused the marketing of such productswith extravagant, if not false, claims as to their value yet thepatent laws may be used so as to protect and benefit the public and themedical profession in research laboratories, work is being carried onresulting in the production of new therapeutic agents it is importantthat these agents shall be so controlled that they may be madeavailable without subordination to commercial interests it has becomepractically necessary, therefore, for research workers to protecttheir products in the interest of the public welfare and scientificmedicine it has not been an easy matter to decide how best to bringabout the desired results this question has been before the board oftrustees of the american medical association. And, in 1914, the houseof delegates passed a resolution authorizing the board to accept at itsdiscretion patents for medical and surgical instruments and appliances;as trustees, for the benefit of the profession and the public, provided that neither the association nor the patentee should receiveremuneration from these patents the rockefeller institute for medicalresearch has solved the problem in a similar manner in connection withthe report of the discovery of several new arsenic compounds, jacobsand heidelberger, 302 working in the rockefeller institute, say:302 jacobs, w a , and heidelberger, m. Aromatic arsenic compounds, ii, the amides and alkyl amides of n-- arylglycine arsonic acids, j am chem soc 41:1587 oct 1919 it may be appropriate to mention here that this substance and related compounds, described in the present and following papers of the series, are covered by u s patents nos 1280119-27 patents have also been applied for in foreign countries all discoveries made at the rockefeller institute are made freely available to the public, in accordance with the philanthropic purposes of the institution in order to insure purity of product and protection against exploitation, it has been deemed necessary in certain instances to protect the discoveries by patents it is the purpose of the institute to permit any drugs which may prove of practical therapeutic value to be manufactured under license by suitable chemical firms and under conditions of production which will insure the biological qualities of the drugs and their marketing at reasonable prices other than through the issuance of license, the rockefeller institute does not writingicipate in any way in the commercial preparation or sale of the manufactured chemicals. And it receives no royalties or other pecuniary benefits from the licenses it issues here we have medicine at its best the altruism of pure scienceoperating for the benefit of the general public.

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Attempts to give to them arational experimental basis have failed, but essay clinical observersreport distinctly beneficial results in the milder forms of thediseases, and in obscure nervous disorders which are supposedlyconnected with thyroid hypersecretion from the administration ofthe milk from thyroidectomized goats and also from the use of theproprietary blood preparations listed below the value of thesepreparations is very doubtful the reported improvements may only bepsychical or due to associated measures, as is often seen in thisdisease other measures of treatment should not be neglected improvement is said to occur in two or three weeks and to be indicatedby an amelioration of the nervous symptoms, tremor, palpitation, insomnia and excitability the administration must be long continued oral and hypodermicadministration are said to be equally effective, but the former isusually preferred these preparations are not known to be toxic, evenwhen very large doses are used -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 50 photo essay topics cephaelin and syrup cephaelin-lilly omitted from n n r and syrup emetic-lilly not accepted report of council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report, whichexplains the omission of cephaelin and syrup cephaelin-lilly from newand nonofficial remedies and the non-acceptance of syrup emetic-lilly w a puckner, secretary new and nonofficial remedies, 1918, describes cephaelin an alkaloidobtained from ipecacuanha root and lists syrup cephaelin-lilly containing 0 088 gm cephaelin hydrochlorid per 100 cc as apharmaceutical preparation of it the period of acceptance for syrup cephaelin-lilly having expired, eli lilly & company were asked to send the current advertising andlabels so that the council might determine if the acceptance of thispreparation might be continued in reply the firm wrote. “we have changed the name syrup cephaeline to syrup emetic but the product remains the same as before we have no circulars describing syrup emetic and can only send copies of the label ”the new name “syrup emetic” conflicts with the rules of the councilin that it does not indicate the potent ingredient of this simplepharmaceutical preparation and in that it is therapeuticallysuggestive emetics are powerful agents, and physicians should be givenevery opportunity of knowing what they prescribe for the purpose the name being in conflict with rule 8, the council voted to omit syrupcephaelin-lilly and not to accept syrup emetic-lilly as the cephaelin syrup was the only preparation of cephaelin admittedto new and nonofficial remedies, and as the alkaloid appears to have noimportant therapeutic field, the council directed that the descriptionof cephaelin also be omitted -- from reports of council on pharmacyand chemistry, 1918, p 52 colalin omitted from n n r report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new and nonofficialremedies of colalin has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary colalin is a bile salt preparation claimed to consist essentially ofhyoglycocholic and hyotaurocholic acids it is manufactured by rufuscrowell and company, essayrville, mass , and marketed by schieffelin andcompany, new york an examination of the current advertising by the referee of the councilin charge of bile salt preparations having revealed that claims weremade for colalin which were not in harmony with the known action ofbile preparations, schieffelin and company were informed that in theopinion of the referee the colalin circular matter required radicalrevision in this communication the referee objections to the claimswere set forth in detail no reply to this letter was received, and hence a copy of the letterwas sent to schieffelin and company and also to rufus crowell andcompany with the explanation that unless the statements in the colalinadvertising which the referee had questioned were substantiated bysatisfactory evidence, were suitably revised, or else the advertisingmatter withdrawn pending revision, the referee would be obligedto recommend to the council that colalin be omitted from new andnonofficial remedies in reply, schieffelin and company wrote that they were not “engagedactively in the introduction of colalin, ” and agreed to the omission ofcolalin from n n r in view of the failure to substantiate the claims objected to or anagreement to discontinue them, the council directed that colalin andcolalin tablets be omitted from new and nonofficial remedies forconflict with rule 6 unwarranted therapeutic claims the following are the claims which the referee questioned. “colalin embodies the physiological function of the bile in the intestinal canal and also possesses properties of its own which are intimately connected with the function of the liver ”the quotation implies that colalin has properties essentially differentfrom those of bile salts, a claim which requires substantiation “in the liver its action seems to be that of a general stimulant of all the hepatic functions ”this is a claim which requires substantiation “by the introduction of colalin it has therefore become possible to actually utilize the bile for therapeutic purposes ”this is an unwarranted claim, for bile was used therapeutically beforecolalin was introduced “as gall-stones are chiefly composed of cholesterin, experiments were made to determine whether colalin would dissolve these concretions outside of the body these were completely successful and were then followed by an extensive series of clinical investigations on persons suffering with cholelithiasis, which demonstrated that by the administration of colalin in thesis instances gall-stones were evacuated by the natural passages and their further formation prevented without resort to surgical intervention ”this is misleading in that the context shows that “without surgicalintervention” is meant to imply a connection between the experimentsshowing the solvent power of colalin and the passage of concretions “ colalin not only acts as a solvent of cholesterin calculi, but prevents their further formation by removing the causes upon which their development depends ”this conveys the impression that such solvent action is exerted inthe body, that is, that such concretions in the gallbladder may bedissolved and evacuated by the use of colalin for this claim there isno evidence “to understand the value of colalin in intestinal disorders it is necessary to bear in mind the important functions of the bile in the intestinal canal, namely, its writingicipation in the digestion of fats, its antitoxic action, and its influence upon the peristalsis ” “ through its antiseptic influence inhibits the production of toxins in the intestines ”the referee believes that there is no satisfactory evidence that bileor bile salts can inhibit the production of toxins in that writing of theintestine-- the colon-- in which they are commonly produced -- fromreports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 52 foral report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on foral, a depilatory preparation, has beenauthorized for publication by the council w a puckner, secretary foral is sold by the foral products company, pittsburgh, pa , as an“antiseptic depilatory” with the special claim for its use for theremoval of hair prior to surgical operation or the dressing of wounds in addition to claims made for its hair dissolving action, it isasserted that, in removing the hair from an open wound, foral acts as“an antiseptic, which guarantees against any infection ” it is alsoclaimed that, though hair will return after its use, “by proper useit will diminish the growth of hair and cause the hair to grow muchslower, and unlike the razor, the hair will not return coarser andthicker ”we are informed by the foral products company that their preparation isused in thesis hospitals and that “ one and all are well pleased and agreat satisfaction to do away with the old style razor ”foral is stated to be made according to the following formula. To manufacture seventy-five pounds of foral starch 35 pounds barium-sulphide 20 pounds zinc-oxide 10 pounds calcium-carbonated-precip 10 pounds potassium-permanganate 10 grams menthol-crystallized 10 grams carbolic-acid 1/2 ounce lilac or citronel oil 3 ounces the four above chemicals are going to a heating process before mixing or sifting in consideration of the preceding, the council declared foralinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with itsrules, thus:1 foral is an unessential and irrational modification of anestablished article while its manufacturer states that foral has been on the market foreighteen years, the following depilatory formula appears in a bookpublished thirty-five years ago a practical treatise on diseases ofthe skin, louis a duhring, ed 3, 1883 and is to be found in mostbooks on dermatology. Barium sulphid 2 drams zinc oxid 3 drams starch 3 dramspermanganates and sulphids mutually destroy each other, and thereforethe addition of the small amount of potassium permanganate cannotserve any useful purpose the amounts of phenol, menthol and “lilac orcitronel oil” are too small to exercise any effect other than that ofa flavor and must be considered unessential additions 2 foral is a pharmaceutical mixture marketed under a non-informingname whereas it is in the interest of rational medicine that physiciansshould know the composition of the preparations which they use, thename of this pharmaceutical mixture fails to indicate that it containsthe well-known and by no means always harmless barium sulphid 3 foral is sold under exaggerated and unwarranted claims in view of the small amount of phenol present and the method of usingthe preparation, the claim that the use of foral which, when operatingon open wounds, “guarantees against any infection, ” is evidentlyunwarranted there is no evidence for the claim that the use of depilatories suchas foral retards the growth of hair or renders hair less coarse onthe contrary, the commonly prevailing opinion is that depilation, likeshaving, makes the hair coarser to determine if “one and all” of those who had used foral were stillusing the preparation, four of the testimonials, appearing in anadvertising pamphlet, were investigated the pharmacist of thehospital from which the first of these testimonials was stated to haveemanated replied that the person whose name appeared in connection withit had left the hospital about ten years ago and that no depilatorypreparation has been used in this hospital for essay time so far ashe knew, depilatories were not now in use in the surgical wards ofthe hospital in regard to the second testimonial, the pharmacist ofthis hospital wrote that the hospital had not bought the preparation, but that essay of it had been obtained for an elderly deaconness, who had personal use for a depilatory the physician signing thethird testimonial replied that the preparation was effectual for theremoval of hair from the scalp, but that “ we have gotten out ofthe habit of using it ” in the case of the fourth testimonial, itsasserted author wrote “ if it is applied in too large a quantityor too concentrated, or permitted to remain on too long, it willvesicate it was for this reason chiefly that i discontinued its use it is a very bad smelling mixture and patients complain of it verybitterly ”-- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 55 granular effervescent bromide and acetanilid compound-mulford report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report explaining the omission from new andnonofficial remedies of granular effervescent bromide and acetanilidcompound-mulford has been authorized for publication w a puckner, secretary the council holds that complex mixtures of remedial agents are fromevery point of view inimical to therapeutic progress and thereforeto the public welfare they are especially objectionable because itis impossible accurately to determine the effects which follow thesimultaneous administration of a number of drugs having dissimilaractions, and because the practice of prescribing such mixtures tends todiscourage careful consideration of the special needs of the individualpatients without which there can be no drug therapy on the contrary, with the use of such mixtures, therapeutic treatment becomes haphazardand mere guesswork the council, appreciating that long established customs cannot bechanged at once, has applied rule 10, concerning the recognition ofmixtures, with the greatest leniency compatible with consistency whenthere has been a reasonable doubt concerning the value of a mixture, ithas frequently directed that rule 10 should not apply, pending furtherclinical trial of such mixture in no instance has subsequent experience shown that a strictinterpretation of the rule would have worked hardship or injustice the council feels that there is no longer warrant for the admission ofcomplex mixtures to new and nonofficial remedies, or for the retentionof any that have been admitted, unless definite evidence of thetherapeutic value of such combinations is available in accordance withthis decision, several mixtures now described in new and nonofficialremedies will be omitted at the expiration of the three year period forwhich articles are accepted granular effervescent bromide and acetanilid compound-mulford islisted in the appendix to new and nonofficial remedies each 100 gm of the mixture contains sodium bromide, 5 gm , and acetanilid, 1 5 gm according to the label, an amount containing acetanilid, 6 5 grains, and sodium bromide, 22 grains, is to be taken at a dose, to be repeatedin half an hour if necessary for “children, ” half this dose isadvised the council has considered the available evidence for mixtures of thissort, and has reached the conclusion that they are inimical to rationalmedicine and the public, and therefore in conflict with rule 10 itholds that the use of mixtures of acetanilid and sodium bromide infixed proportion is irrational and prone to induce their indiscriminateuse by the public despite the perfectly frank declaration of thecomposition of this mixture that is made by the mulford company, the“directions” will be followed blindly and the preparation will be givento “children” and “repeated in half an hour, if necessary” in paper inwhich it would be held unwarranted to administer a dose of 3 grains ofacetanilid to a child the period of acceptance having expired for granular effervescentbromide and acetanilid compound-mulford, the council directed itsomission from new and nonofficial remedies for conflict with rule10 -- from reports of council on pharmacy and chemistry, 1918, p 58 holadin and bile salt mixturesholadin and bile salts-fairchild. Capsules of bile salts, succinate ofsoda and phenolphthalein-fairchild. Capsules of holadin, bile salts andphenolphthalein-fairchild. Capsules of holadin, succinate of soda andbile salts-fairchild report of the council on pharmacy and chemistryto explain the omission from new and nonofficial remedies of certainmixtures, the council has authorized publication of the matter whichappears below w a puckner, secretary the council holds that complex mixtures of remedial agents are fromevery point of view inimical to therapeutic progress and thereforeto the public welfare they are especially objectionable because itis impossible accurately to determine the effects which follow thesimultaneous administration of a number of drugs having dissimilaractions, and because the practice of prescribing such mixtures tendsto discourage careful consideration of the special needs of individualpatients without which there can be no rational drug therapy on thecontrary, with the use of such mixtures, therapeutic treatment becomeshaphazard and mere guesswork the council, appreciating that long established customs cannot bechanged at once, has applied rule 10 concerning the recognition ofmixtures with the greatest leniency compatible with consistency whenthere has been a reasonable doubt concerning the value of a mixture ithas frequently directed that rule 10 should not apply, pending furtherclinical trial of such mixture in no instance has subsequent experience shown that a strictinterpretation of the rule would have worked hardship or injustice thecouncil feels that there is no longer any warrant for the admission ofcomplex mixtures to new and nonofficial remedies or for the retentionof any that have been admitted unless definite evidence of thetherapeutic value of such combinations is available in accordance withthis decision, several mixtures now described in new and nonofficialremedies will be omitted as soon as the three year period for whicharticles are accepted has expired the following preparations are included in new and nonofficialremedies, 1918:holadin and bile salts-fairchild -- a mixture of holadin, 5 writings, withbile salts-fairchild, 1 writing, put up in 3 grain capsules capsules of bile salts, succinate of soda and phenolphthalein -- eachcapsule contains bile salts-fairchild, 0 065 gm 1 grain. Sodiumsuccinate exsiccated, 0 2 gm 3 grains, and phenolphthalein, 0 03 gm 1/2 grain capsules of holadin, bile salts and phenolphthalein -- each capsulecontains holadin, 0 13 gm 2 grains. Bile salts-fairchild, 0 03 gm 1/2 grain, and phenolphthalein, 0 065 gm 1 grain capsules of holadin, succinate of soda and bile salts -- each capsulecontains holadin, 0 20 gm 3 grains.