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It stays alsothe abundance of women courses. It is a singular good wound-herb forgreen wounds, to stay the bleeding, and quickly close together the lipsof the wound, if the herb be bruised, and the juice only applied it isoften used in gargles for sore mouths, as also for the secret writings the smoak hereof being bruised, drives away flies and gnats, which inthe night time molest people inhabiting near marshes, and in the fennycountries loosestrife, with spiked heads of flowers it is likewise called grass-polly descript this grows with thesis woody square stalks, full of joints, about three feet high at least. At every one whereof stand two longleaves, shorter, narrower, and a greener colour than the former, andessay brownish the stalks are branched into thesis long stems of spikedflowers half a foot long, growing in bundles one above another, outof small husks, very like the spiked heads of lavender, each of whichflowers have five round-pointed leaves of a purple violet colour, oressaywhat inclining to redness. In which husks stand small round headsafter the flowers are fallen, wherein is contained small seed theroot creeps under ground like unto the yellow, but is greater than it, and so are the heads of the leaves when they first appear out of theground, and more brown than the other place it grows usually by rivers, and ditch-sides in wet ground, asabout the ditches at and near lambeth, and in thesis places of this land time it flowers in the months of june and july government and virtues it is an herb of the moon, and under thesign cancer. Neither do i know a better preserver of the sight whenit is well, nor a better cure for sore eyes than eyebright, takeninwardly, and this used outwardly. It is cold in quality this herbis nothing inferior to the former, it having not only all the virtueswhich the former hath, but more peculiar virtues of its own, foundout by experience.

Withoutpressing to every pint of this decoction add one pound of sugar, andboil it over the fire till it come to a syrup, which you may know, ifyou now and then cool a little of it with a spoon. Scum it all thewhile it boils, and when it is sufficiently boiled, whilst it is hot, strain it again through a woollen cloth, but press it not thus youhave the syrup perfected 3dly, syrups made of juice, are usually made of such herbs as are fullof juice, and indeed they are better made into a syrup this way thanany other. The operation is thus. Having beaten the herb in a stonemortar, with a wooden pestle, press out the juice, and clarify it, asyou are taught before in the juices. Then let the juice boil away tillabout a quarter of it be consumed. To a pint of this add a pound ofsugar, and when it is boiled, strain it through a woollen cloth, as wetaught you before, and keep it for your use 3 if you make a syrup of roots that are any thing hard, as parsley, fennel, and grass roots, &c when you have bruised them, lay them insteep essay time in that water which you intend to boil them in hot, sowill the virtue the better come out 4 keep your syrups either in glasses or stone pots, and stop them notwith cork nor bladder, unless you would have the glass break, and thesyrup lost, only bind paper about the mouth 5 all syrups, if well made, continue a year with essay advantage. Yetsuch as are made by infusion, keep shortest chapter iii of juleps 1 juleps were first invented, as i suppose, in arabia. And my reasonis, because the word julep is an arabic word 2 it signifies only a pleasant potion, as is vulgarly used by such asare sick, and want help, or such as are in health, and want no moneyto quench thirst 3 now-a-day it is commonly used 1 to prepare the body for purgation 2 to open obstructions and the pores 3 to digest tough humours 4 to qualify hot distempers, &c 4 simple juleps, for i have nothing to say to compounds here arethus made. Take a pint of such distilled water, as conduces to the cureof your distemper, which this treatise will plentifully furnish youwith, to which add two ounces of syrup, conducing to the same effect. I shall give you rules for it in the next chapter mix them together, and drink a draught of it at your pleasure if you love tart things, add ten drops of oil of vitriol to your pint, and shake it together, and it will have a fine grateful taste 5 all juleps are made for present use. And therefore it is in vain tospeak of their duration chapter iv of decoctions 1 all the difference between decoctions, and syrups made by decoction, is this.

Cords, ropes, thread, thongs, lassos, flexible twigs, bamboos, photo essay ideas leather straps, girdles, turbans, fishing-nets, collars, cravats and other forms of neckwear, bonnet strings, handkerchiefs, sheets, etc women have even strangledthemselves with their own hair case 34 stones, sticks, coal, andother hard substances have essaytimes been inserted in the ligature toincrease the pressure paper 36, 38, 42, 43, 44 drunken and otherwisehelpless persons have been strangled by falling forward with the neckagainst a firm substance strangulation symptoms and treatment the symptoms and post-mortem appearances in strangulation will vary, according as the deprivation of air is sudden or gradual, writingialor complete. And whether there is coincident pressure on the greatarteries, veins, and nerves of the neck the deprivation of air disposes to asphyxia. Pressure on the greatarteries by cutting off the supply of arterial blood to the braindisposes to anæmia of the brain and syncope. Pressure on the greatveins, by preventing the return of blood to the heart, to congestion ofthe brain and coma. Pressure on the great nerves, the pneumogastrics, to syncope statistics of hanging show that in about seventy per centof paper death is by a mixture of asphyxia and coma while it isprobable that the proportion is less in strangulation, yet it is alsoprobable that a mixed result frequently occurs asphyxia is from α priv and σφίξις, pulse absence of pulse apnœa from α priv and πνέω, i breathe absence of breathing syncope, συνκοπή, a faint. Suspended animation from sudden failure ofheart coma, κῶμα, deep sleep richardson729 makes the followingdistinction between asphyxia and apnœa.

6 for $5 and 12 for $10, and acircular sent to a physician contained this typewritten note. “fees -- while the physician fee is not regulated by this company, the physicians who use hemo-therapin get $5 00 and $10 00 for each treatment ”-- from the journal a m a , jan 5, 1918 venosal report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe following report on venosal has been adopted by the council, andits publication authorized w a puckner, secretary “venosal” is one of the products of the intravenous products company, denver, colo its composition has been variously, and obscurely, described. “venosal is a sterile solution representing 1 gm 15 4 gr of salicylates in combination, together with colchicum ” “this is a product for intravenous use the composition of which is sodium salicylate, 15 4 grs 1 gm , iron salicylate a minute quantity and the equivalent of approximately 2 grs dried colchicum root ”none of these “formulas” gives the quantity of the product containingthe 1 gm of salicylate, etc , but presumably it refers to the contentsof 1 ampule or 20 c c this inference is in accord with the analysisof the product made in the chemical laboratory of the american medicalassociation the analysis also brought out the fact that the amount ofiron in a given ampule was 0 0008 gm about 1/80 grain this trace ofiron in the presence of salicylate gives the product a purple color venosal is recommended for the treatment of “rheumatism, ” meaning, thecontext would indicate, infectious rheumatic fever as colchicum hasno special action on this disease and as there is no apparent reasonfor the employment of the trace of iron present, these additions infixed proportions are unscientific, if not absurd according to theadvertising matter. “venosal eliminates unpleasant digestive disturbances which frequently forbid the use of salicylates by mouth and, in addition, insures their full therapeutic value ”the statement is misleading, as the paper in which the oraladministration of the salicylates is contraindicated are not “frequent”but exceptional and there is no evidence to justify the implicationthat the “full therapeutic value” of salicylates cannot readily beattained by their oral use still more astonishing is the followingclaim. “venosal is a combination carrying the true salicylates sodii in doses much larger than given by mouth with this preparation given intravenously, there is no nausea or disagreeable digestive after-effects, tinnitus aurium, or the accumulating effects of the drug. Yet the specific action of the salicylates seems to be increased thesis-fold, according to reports received ”what are the facts?. by mouth sodium salicylate is given in doses offrom 3 to 15 gm in a day. Whereas venosal is advised as 1 gm , infrom one to three day intervals. As a matter of elementary arithmeticit is plain that these doses of venosal are smaller instead of being“much larger ” the absence of digestive ill effects, tinnitus, etc , is explained by the small dosage that the specific action of thesalicylates should be increased by intravenous administration issurprising when it is remembered that the drug is absorbed rapidlyand completely from the intestines. In fact, the quoted statement isincredible the company further alleges that, on the basis of “clinical reports”it has received, it does not “hesitate to recommend this product forroutine use in all streptococcic infections ” such a therapeuticsuggestion is, to put it conservatively, gross exaggeration the whole question of the justification of using salicylatesintravenously is open to grave doubt since it is possible to obtainthe salicylate effects promptly and certainly by oral administration, the inherent dangers of intravenous medication render its routineemployment unwarranted a further objection to venosal, especially atthis time when economy is a national policy, is the unnecessarily highexpense of venosal itself and of its administration the referee recommends that venosal be declared ineligible to new andnonofficial remedies because of conflicts with rule 1 indefinitechemical composition, rule 6 therapeutic exaggerations and rule10 unscientific composition -- from the journal a m a , jan 5, 1918 secretin-beveridge and the u s patent law report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrytwo years ago the council published reports on two proprietarypreparations said to contain secretin, namely, “secretogen, ” soldby the g w carnrick company the journal a m a , may 1, 1915, p 1518, and “duodenin, ” sold by armour and company the journala m a , aug 14, 1915, p 639 these reports explained that therewas no evidence to indicate that an insufficient amount of secretin wasthe cause of gastro-intestinal diseases, and further that there wasno evidence that secretin in any form was physiologically active whenadministered by the mouth subsequently, a j carlson and his co-workers, at the request ofthe council, studied the question of the stability of secretin anddemonstrated the journal a m a , jan 15, 1916, pp 178 and 208that commercial secretin preparations contained no secretin and, further, that secretin given both by the mouth and even in enormousdoses directly into the intestine is entirely inactive shortly after the publication of professor carlson work the attentionof the council was called to a u s patent issued, may 2, 1916, to james wallace beveridge, “means for and method of stabilizingsecretin ” in this patent beveridge claimed to have invented “theprocess of producing secretin in stable form as a commercial articlefor therapeutic use ” that is, a process for preparing preparationswhich would contain secretin when they reach the consumer and in a formresisting destruction in its passage through the stomach in view of the demonstrated instability of secretin, the councilasked professor carlson to investigate the validity of the claims ofthe beveridge patent the study on “the question of the stability ofsecretin, ” by a j carlson, a e kanter and i tumpowski, whichappears below, shows that the beveridge patent furnishes no process forthe manufacture of commercially stable secretin preparations, nor anymeans for preventing the destruction of secretin by the gastric juicewhen administered orally it further demonstrates that the preparationmade by beveridge was devoid of secretin the council adopted the report of carlson and his co-workers, anddeclared secretin-beveridge inadmissible to new and nonofficialremedies the council directed that the report of carlson and his collaboratorsbe sent to the commissioner of patents with a protest against thegranting of patents without competent and thorough investigation of theclaims advanced therein w a puckner, secretary the question of the stability of secretin a j carlson, a e kanter and i tumpowski from the hull physiological laboratory of the university of chicagoin a letters patent, filed may 6, 1914, the patent granted may 2, 1916, james w beveridge, m d , makes certain claims concerning the stabilityand physiologic activity of secretin prepared according to the methodpatented by him in brief, dr beveridge claims that secretin prepared by digestingintestinal mucosa with a weak acid at a temperature slightly belowboiling, and mixed with 0 2 per cent to 2 per cent blood serum, albumin or peptone 1 remains active for at least six months, 2stimulates the pancreas when given by mouth, and 3 “may be injectedintravenously in man, if desired ” the only thing in the letters patentin support of these claims is the statement. “i have found out byactual tests that the preparation maintains its stability for five orsix months ”here are the claims in detail. “for the source of secretin i preferably use that writing of the alimentary tract of any lower animal-- such as a hog or sheep-- including the gastric pylorus, the duodenum and the jejunum this writing is split open and washed with a normal saline solution to clean the mucosa or mucous membrane of any detritus which may be present the mucosa with the epithelial cells is then removed or separated from the muscular wall by scraping with a blunt knife or in any other suitable way the scrapings or cuttings, which contain the secretin, are then macerated or broken up ” “the macerated mass is placed in a suitable vessel and subjected to the action of an acid solution until digested the time for the digestion of the mass will, of course, depend upon the strength and temperature of the acid solution employed the stronger the solution and the higher the temperature, the shorter the time necessary for complete digestion this period may vary from several minutes to several hours in my experiments i found that the best results were obtained with hydrochloric acid solution of one-tenth to five-tenths of one per cent in strength, although as high as eight-tenths per cent might be used the mixture is brought to a temperature of approximately 210 f , and it may even for a few moments exceed that temperature, but it should be kept below the boiling point, for excessive heat injures or breaks down the secretin molecule and impairs or destroys its activity although i prefer to use hydrochloric acid, i would have it understood that other acids-- both organic or inorganic-- may be employed, provided that the percentage of acidity is regulated to prevent a chemical change in the secretin, and further provided, of course, that the acid has no injurious effect on the human system ” “after the mass has been digested in the heated solution, the decoction is decanted, and after being allowed to cool is passed through a suitable filter until the filtrate is clear i found that by filtering the decoction from four to six times through a carbon filter, i obtained a clear colorless filtrate this is a solution of secretin and the acid which was used, and the clearness of the solution shows that it is practically free from albumoses, gelatin and other impurities such as cell tissues, etc present in the raw material under treatment ” “to the solution of pure and active secretin prepared as above explained, there is added a suitable quantity of blood serum-- say from one-fifth to two per cent or any equivalent medium-- such as albumin solution or a peptone solution-- which will aid and sustain the activating power of secretin as provided by the blood that is to say, any medium having the same power, similar quality or chemical composition that the blood-stream possesses in combining with secretin to stimulate the pancreas the addition of such a medium to the active secretin solution increases the potency of the secretin and its degree of stability by preventing oxidation or deterioration thereof if this strengthening or fortifying medium, as it may be properly termed, is alkaline, it performs the additional function of lowering the acidity of the secretin filtrate it is preferable that the final product be just faintly acid if desired, the final product may be made into an elixir by the addition of aromatics ” “any desired strength of secretin solution may be obtained according to the quantity of acid solution in my experiments i used from ten to fourteen duodena to a pint of acid solution ” “the solution of secretin prepared as above described is characterized by its ability to resist oxidation or deterioration for a sufficient period of time to render the solution available as a commercial article, and is furthermore characterized by freedom from poisonous and irritable chemical substances, whereby the secretin is chemically adapted to the human system to stimulate the pancreas to increased secretion ” “as previously stated, the secretin prepared according to my method may be administered orally to produce the desired physiological action of course, if desired, the secretin might be injected intravenously, but this more or less dangerous procedure is not at all necessary, and i merely mention it here to point out that when i refer to the oral administration of my new secretin preparation, i do not mean to exclude its administration by injection ” “as to the commercial stability of the secretin prepared according to my method, i may say that i have found by actual tests that the preparation maintains its stability for as long a period as five or six months when i refer to my product as being “commercially stable, ” i mean that it resists oxidation or deterioration for a sufficient period to render the same available as a commercial article this period may vary from several weeks to several months, depending upon certain commercial factors well understood by the manufacturer so, roughly speaking, i should say that secretin is commercially stable when it retains its activity from one to six months i do not wish to be understood, however, as limiting myself to these exact figures ”that active secretin may be extracted from macerated intestinal mucosaby weak acids below the temperature of boiling is well known in fact, weak acids at body temperature in contact with the duodenal mucosa leadto the formation of secretin the claims that secretin given by mouthreaches the blood and acts on the pancreas has been made for otherpreparations of secretin it has also been shown that these claims areerroneous 122 thus it would appear that the only novel element indr beveridge patented secretin is the addition of serum, solubleproteins or peptones what reason is there for believing that thiswill render the secretin stable for months, and physiologically activewhen taken by mouth?. we do not believe dr beveridge ever injected hissecretin-- protein mixture-- intravenously in man or animals not underanesthesia, otherwise he would not have stated.

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The leaves are hot, dry, and binding, they areprofitable against the biting of mad dogs. Both taken inwardly boiledand applied to the place. Besides they are good to cure horses of thebots calamintha, montana, palustris mountain and water calamint. Forthe water calamint. See mints, than which it is accounted stronger mountain calamint, is hot and dry in the third degree, provokes urineand the menses, hastens the birth in women, brings away the placenta, helps cramps, convulsions, difficulty of breathing, kills worms, helpsthe dropsy. Outwardly used, it helps such as hold their necks on oneside. Half a dram is enough at one time galen, dioscorides, apuleius calendula, &c marigolds the leaves are hot in the second degree, and essaything moist, loosen the belly. The juice held in the mouth, helps the toothache, and takes away any inflammation or hot swellingbeing bathed with it, mixed with a little vinegar callitricum maiden-hair see adianthum caprisolium honey-suckles. The leaves are hot, and therefore naughtfor inflammations of the mouth and throat, for which the ignorantpeople oftentime give them. And galen was true in this, let modernwriters write their pleasure if you chew but a leaf of it in yourmouth, experience will tell you that it is likelier to cause, thanto cure a sore throat, they provoke urine, and purge by urine, bringspeedy delivery to women in travail, yet procure barrenness and hinderconception, outwardly they dry up foul ulcers, and cleanse the facefrom morphew, sun-burning and freckles carduncellus, &c groundsell cold and moist according to tragus, helps the cholic, and gripings in the belly, helps such as cannot makewater, cleanses the reins, purges choler and sharp humours.