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The dropsy also;and those that have an evil disposition in their bodies, by reasonof long sickness, evil diet, &c which the greeks call cachexia adecoction thereof made with wine, and drank, is very effectual againstlong lingering agues. And a dram of the seed in powder, drank in wine, before the fit of the ague, helps to drive it away the distilled waterof the herb and flowers if you can take them in time hath the likeproperties, and is especially good for hot stomachs, and in agues, either pestilential or of long continuance. For swoonings and passionsof the heart, for the heat and head-ache in children, and for the bloodand liver the said water, or the juice, or the bruised leaves appliedoutwardly, allay swellings, inflammations, st anthony fire, pushes, wheals, and pimples, especially used with a little vinegar. As also towash pestiferous sores the said water is very effectual for sore eyesthat are inflamed with redness, for nurses’ breasts that are pained bythe abundance of milk the wild succory, as it is more bitter, so it is more strengthening tothe stomach and liver stone-crop, prick-madam, or small-houseleek descript it grows with divers trailing branches upon the ground, set with thesis thick, flat, roundish, whitish green leaves, pointed atthe ends the flowers stand thesis of them together, essaywhat loosely the roots are small, and run creeping under ground place it grows upon the stone walls and mud walls, upon the tilesof houses and pent-houses, and amongst rubbish, and in other gravellyplaces time it flowers in june and july, and the leaves are green all thewinter government and virtues it is under the dominion of the moon, cold in quality, and essaything binding, and therefore very good tostay defluctions, especially such as fall upon the eyes it stopsbleeding, both inward and outward, helps cankers, and all frettingsores and ulcers. It abates the heat of choler, thereby preventingdiseases arising from choleric humours it expels poison much, resistspestilential fevers, being exceeding good also for tertian agues. Youmay drink the decoction of it, if you please, for all the foregoinginfirmities it is so harmless an herb, you can scarce use it amiss:being bruised and applied to the place, it helps the king evil, andany other knots or kernels in the flesh. As also the piles english tobacco descript this rises up with a round thick stalk, about two feethigh, whereon do grow thick, flat green leaves, nothing so large asthe other indian kind, essaywhat round pointed also, and nothing dentedabout the edges the stalk branches forth, and bears at the tops diversflowers set on great husks like the other, but nothing so large. Scarcestanding above the brims of the husks, round pointed also, and of agreenish yellow colour the seed that follows is not so bright, butlarger, contained in the like great heads the roots are neither sogreat nor woody. It perishes every year with the hard frosts in winter, but rises generally from its own sowing place this came from essay writings of brazil, as it is thought, and ismore familiar in our country than any of the other sorts.

Thoracic andabdominal organs normal 7 ibid - man, age 70 mark of cord around the neck, superficialin front, deep behind. Second cervical vertebra dislocated. Tongueslightly protruding.

“filudine restores the liver functions it is to the liver what digitalis is to the heart. It overcomes the insufficiency and stimulates the debilitated organ ” in malaria “it is the only true specific when associated with quinine ” “filudine is the ideal medication for tuberculosis, conforming as it does with the most recent researches in the therapeusis of this affection ” “we will not go as far as to say that opotherapy completely restores unhealthy livers, for although the lesions of the hepatic parenchyma may be obliterated by regeneration, the lesions of the connective tissues are permanent, and may be observed at the postmortem examination the new cells, however, do not present the same unhealthy conditions as those of the former diseased gland which they have replaced, and the liver can therefore function normally, so that the patient lives on. And he is satisfied with that ” “therefore, while regenerating the liver with filudine, we cleanse it and combat its congested state with urodonal we cause it to produce urea from the excess of uric acid which it contains ” “by the judicious and harmonious combination of the beneficial effects of filudine and urodonal, physicians not only possess the means of treating by rational methods cirrhosis of the liver in its various forms which is one of the most terrible diseases which can afflict anyone but what is still better, they can cure it ” “the liver of a person suffering from obesity being incapable of fulfilling its functions in regard to the fatty tissues, the rational and up-to-date method of treatment is therefore to restore to the system, in the form of filudine, the liver extracts which are lacking ”filudine is a mixture of semisecret composition the therapeuticclaims are manifestly unwarranted the name is not indicative of thecomposition, whatever that may be, and no rational excuse is offeredfor the combination of liver and spleen extracts with or without bileextracts with “thiomethylarsinate” or “thiocinnamate” of caffein the council therefore held filudine ineligible for new and nonofficialremedies -- from the journal a m a , sept 18, 1915 lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrymixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therapeutically irrational;the two substances are not indicated in the same conditions, nor canthey act together under physiologic conditions, such mixtures arechemically impossible. In a liquid medium the ingredients destroy eachother lactopeptin is manufactured by the new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y it is sold under the claim that it contains, pepsin, diastase, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid this productwas among the first proprietary preparations examined by the council onpharmacy and chemistry the report of the investigation was publishedin the journal, march 16, 1907, p 959 the preparation was found to bepractically inert-- “essentially a weak saccharated pepsin, ” devoid oftryptic activity six years later it was still widely advertised with the same irrationalclaims a referee a therefore examined lactopeptine powdered forthe council in 1913, and confirmed the previous findings the refereereport was published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months after this publication, the manufacturer protestedagainst the report, maintaining, contrary to the findings of thecouncil, that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity and contains“loosely combined” hydrochloric acid referee a therefore repeatedhis examination, and a second referee b, independently, examinedspecimens of lactopeptine powder purchased on the open market for thepurpose shortly before a few specimens examined by these two referees showed a slight trypticactivity. Most of them showed none the amount of hydrochloric acidpresent was insignificant the reports of the two referees were referred to the manufacturers, whoagain protested vehemently against these findings, this time on theground that the specimens were old the manufacturers also cited thework of three chemists to disprove the findings of the referees, anddemanded that the council reexamine lactopeptine, making use of freshspecimens the council refused for the following reasons:1 so long as the packages of lactopeptine are not dated, the activityof specimens known to be fresh is of no practical importance theactivity of the actual market supply is the only question of interestto the profession the only fair test is that made on specimensrepresentative of the product sold to the ultimate consumer 2 the evidence presented by the manufacturers did not warranta reexamination, since the work of two of the chemists citedsubstantially corroborates the results obtained by the councilreferees from the fresher specimens the figures for tryptic activityobtained by the third chemist cited by the manufacturers could not beaccepted by the council, since it was at variance with all other knownresults of investigations of lactopeptine 3 as stated at the outset, whatever the tryptic activity of themixture, it is therapeutically useless a demonstration of trypticactivity in a mixture containing both pepsin and pancreatin is ofmerely theoretical interest such activity, of course, cannot be expected, even on theoreticalgrounds, in liquid mixtures like elixir lactopeptine the council therefore again declared lactopeptine powder and tabletsand elixir lactopeptine ineligible for new and nonofficial remedies andauthorized publication of the following statement w a puckner, secretary the council reportlactopeptine powder new york pharmacal association, yonkers, n y was examined by the council in 1907 at that time it was claimed tocontain “ the five active agents of digestion-- pepsin, diastase veg ptyalin, pancreatin, lactic acid and hydrochloric acid-- combined in the proper proportion to insure the best results ”the examination showed that the preparation was essentially “a weaksaccharated pepsin, ” containing but small amounts of pepsin, nohydrochloric acid, or mere traces only, and no diastase or pancreatin the journal, march 16, 1907 in 1913, the product was reexamined, because the claims, as to bothcomposition and therapeutic value, were still being made sampleswere tested both of the american product, and of a british productfrom john morgan richards & sons, london the original findings wereconfirmed and the results were published in the journal, aug 2, 1913, p 358 nearly four months later november 24 the new yorkpharmacal association wrote to the council, objecting to the findingsand maintaining that lactopeptine possesses pancreatic activity andcontains “in loose chemical combination” hydrochloric acid inaccordance with the custom of the council, the work was sent back forreview to the referee a, whose conclusions were then tested by asecond referee b, a physiologic chemist, not a member of the council, selected because of his special knowledge of the subject in december, 1913, referee a made a large number of new tests todetermine proteolytic and amylolytic power his results show thatthe ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition in practical use the tests also show that the amount oflactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” or both present is too small tohave any appreciable physiologic activity and therefore to be of anytherapeutic value nine samples of lactopeptine purchased in the open market in december, 1913, and january, 1914, were examined by referee b early in 1914 hisstudies show absence of amylase in all samples. Presence of pepsin, giving weak reactions even when compared with those of old pepsinpreparations. Complete absence of trypsin in seven out of nine samples, tryptic reaction being obtained in two samples, in one of which thereaction, “slight at best and of no practical import, ” was obtainedonly after treatment for twelve hours or more the presence of tryptic activity in two out of the nine samples maybe due to the fresher condition of these specimens, as indicatedby the serial numbers the evidence shows that it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity it should be reaffirmed that mixtures combining peptic and pancreaticactivities are not feasible, because pepsin cannot act except in thepresence of acid, and pancreatin is destroyed by acid and by pepticactivity furthermore, in conditions in which pancreatin is calledfor, pepsin is not, and vice versa. Therefore the administration ofmixtures of pepsin and pancreatin would be unjustified, even if bothconstituents could be expected to exert activity the foregoing observations apply to lactopeptine in powder and tabletform while mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are unscientific andunjustified, theoretically the two substances may coexist in a solidpreparation, and the activity of such a preparation is consequently aproper subject of investigation theoretically as well as practically, however, pepsin and pancreatin cannot exist together in solution theclaims made for elixir lactopeptine and all other liquid preparationssold as mixtures of pepsin and pancreatin are therefore impossible the council has previously taken action the journal, feb 2, 1907, p 434 refusing to approve for inclusion with new and nonofficialremedies such preparations, calling the attention of the medicalprofession and of manufacturers to their worthlessness, and requestingthe american pharmaceutical association to instruct its committee onthe national formulary to omit from the next edition of that work aliquid preparation of pepsin and pancreatin recognized under the titleof “elixir digestivum compositum ”it is recommended that the council reaffirm this previous action, and that lactopeptine and elixir lactopeptine be declared ineligiblefor new and nonofficial remedies because of conflict with rule 10 “no article will be admitted which, because of its unscientificcomposition, is useless or inimical to the best interests of the publicor of the medical profession” manufacturers’ protest and council answerthe foregoing was submitted, together with the findings of the tworeferees, to the manufacturers they protested again, alleging that. Age of specimensfirst -- the specimens of lactopeptine examined by the second refereewere old the dates of manufacture corresponding to the several batchnumbers are supplied by the manufacturers as follows. 2275 powder september, 1908 2301 powder june, 1909 2312 powder december, 1909 2348 powder october, 1911 2352 powder december, 1911 2364 powder july, 1912 2374 powder march, 1913 2383 powder october, 1913 1638 tablets october, 1911the manufacturers assert that they do not understand how specimens ofthese ages could have been purchased on the open market in 1913 and1914, inasmuch as their agents are and long have been instructed totake up from the druggist all lots of lactopeptine which, as indicatedby the batch numbers, have attained “any appreciable age ” the age ofthe specimens, the manufacturers declare, deprives the table in thesecond referee report of “all significance or interest ”as previously stated, however, the specimens of lactopeptine examinedwere purchased on the open market in various localities in unbrokenpackages, in december, 1913, and january, 1914 they thus representstock used in filling physicians’ prescriptions or sold to thepublic neither the referees nor any one connected with the councilhad any means of knowing the age of the specimens until the dates ofmanufacture were furnished by the new york pharmacal association thefirst tests of the second referee were made in february, 1914, onspecimens 2374 and 2383, which were then, it would appear, about oneyear old and four months old, respectively the council has repeatedlyurged that pharmaceutical substances which are subject to deteriorationshould be dated by the manufacturer, and a similar suggestion hasbeen made by the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingment ofagriculture concerning mixtures containing enzymes notwithstandingthe instructions which the new york pharmacal association claims tohave given its agents, the market supply of lactopeptine in december, 1913, and january, 1914, was not composed of new stock, and untilthe manufacturers adopt the practice of dating packages, there canbe no assurance that it will be fresh in this connection, it is ofinterest to note that the bureau of chemistry of the u s dewritingmentof agriculture has issued a warning that it will judge such products bythe degree of their activity when they reach the consumer, i e , asthey are found on the market reports of other chemistssecond -- the new york pharmacal association cites the work of severalchemists, who have examined lactopeptine and report the presence oftryptic activity dr s r benedict in december, 1913, reported tothe council “distinct” tryptic activity digestion in twelve hours bylactopeptine of 4 2 times its weight of fibrin containing 50 per cent moisture in specimens examined by him these specimens were numbered2382, and were therefore probably manufactured in october, 1913;compare the dates furnished by the manufacturer for the specimens usedby the second referee no tests against other preparations possessingtryptic activity are reported, and dr benedict expressly disclaimsany opinion as to the therapeutic value of the preparation 27 dr p b hawk, whose report was submitted by the manufacturers, found inlactopeptine by fermi method one-fifth tryptic activity of that ofmerck pancreatin, and by grützner method an activity of 18 percent of the pancreatin a test for the production of tryptophan wasreported positive the new york pharmacal association also submitteda report from dr a w balch, who found pepsin, rennin, trypsin, steapsin, amylopsin and lactic acid present in lactopeptine. Alsoan amount of combined hydrochloric acid in 1 gm the equivalent of1 05 c c tenth normal solution or 0 00383 gm hydrochloric acid hereports digestion in twenty-four hours by lactopeptine of 25 times itsown weight of fibrin “an active extract of pancreas reacted exactlylike the lactopeptine solution ” the serial numbers of the specimenstested by hawk and balch are not given, but no doubt they were fresh 27 dr benedict personal communication to a member of the councilis as follows:“in the report of the council upon lactopeptine which you sent to me, i find the following statement. ‘careful examination failed to showthe presence of either diastase or pancreatin ’ in this connectioni will cite to you the following experiment carried out by myself:a package containing a 1-ounce bottle of lactopeptine powder withseal unbroken was purchased in the open market and opened in thislaboratory the label bore the special number 6 2382 two hundredmilligrams of this product was dissolved in 50 c c of a 0 25 per cent solution of sodium carbonate in water this solution was divided intotwo portions of 25 c c each one of these portions was boiled at once, and after cooling was added to 1 gm of moist fibrin contained in aflask the other portion unboiled was also added to 1 gm of moistfibrin contained in a flask both flasks after addition of 5 c c of toluene to each were stoppered and placed in an incubator at 37degrees, and left there for twelve hours examination of the two flasksat the end of this period showed that the one to which the unboiledsolution of lactopeptine powder had been added contained much lesssolid protein than did the other although this fact was obvious tothe naked eye, the exact extent of digestion in the two flasks wasdetermined by heating both to boiling, acidifying with acetic acid, diluting to definite volume, filtering and determining the nitrogen inthe filtrate by kjeldahl method subtracting the trace of nitrogencontained in the filtrate of the control flask, the results showedthat 42 per cent of the original fibrin present had been dissolvedby the unboiled lactopeptine solution this can be ascribed only totryptic activity under the conditions of this experiment furthermore, this is not simply a ‘trace’ of activity, but is at least sufficientlymarked to warrant a statement that this sample showed a distincttryptic activity inasmuch as i have obtained exactly similar resultswith two other samples of lactopeptine powder these being the onlyones i have examined, i am inclined to question the correctness ofthe council statement regarding the absence of trypsin from thispreparation as noted above, a fresh preparation was used -- ed “may i again add that i am making no statement regarding therapeuticvalue of preparation, and that i have no opinion upon that matter oneway or the other?. my work was undertaken solely out of interest tosee whether trypsin could exist in the powder which gives a markedlyacid solution when dissolved in water the elixir lactopeptine couldtheoretically show no tryptic activity, nor have i found any trace ofsuch activity in one sample of the elixir examined “in making use of any of the contents of my letters kindly include thestatement that my work upon lactopeptine was done without remunerationof any kind, and was done only for the scientific interest attached tothe question ” conclusionsthe new york pharmacal association demanded that the referee reexaminelactopeptine, making use of fresh specimens the council held that thiswas unnecessary, for the following reasons:1 the previous finding of the council, that specimens of lactopeptinefound on the open market are essentially weak saccharated pepsins, isnot to be refuted by examination of fresh specimens even if it beassumed that all old specimens of lactopeptine have been withdrawnfrom the market since the last purchase of specimens for the use ofthe council referee, there can be no assurance that the stock willbe constantly kept fresh unless the manufacturers date their product, physicians cannot know that their prescriptions are filled with freshmaterial nor is it reasonable to ask that the council examine themarket supply of any given proprietary at a time selected by themanufacturers 2 without entering into all questions of detail in the analyses, the council is willing to accept the reports of drs benedict andhawk as representative of fresh lactopeptine powder it is thereforeunnecessary for the council to make further experiments along thisline the results of these two chemists in no wise contradict theconclusions of the council referees, being comparable with thoseobtained by the referee on the fresher specimens used by them theexperiments of drs hawk and benedict show a degree of trypticactivity which, though chemically not negligible, is quite withoutsignificance practically, even if it could be assumed that the trypsinin the fresh lactopeptine escaped destruction in the stomach thefigures for tryptic activity given by dr benedict do not differmaterially from those of the first referee those of professorhawk show a tryptic activity of from 18 to 20 per cent of that ofcommercial pancreatin-- and commercial pancreatins ordinarily are oflow tryptic activity, if not inert see long and muhleman. Arch int med , february, 1914, p 314 the reports of these chemistspresent no reason for changing the conclusion that “it is a commercialimpossibility to market mixtures of pepsin, pancreatin and lactic acidso that they can display any material tryptic activity ”the results which dr balch obtained in a test for tryptic activityshow a marked discrepancy with those obtained by drs hawk andbenedict, not to mention the council referees, and also with thefact that only about 11 per cent of “pancreatin” is claimed in thepublished formula of lactopeptine the council is unable to accept dr balch result for trypsin or rennin as reliable his other results arewithout significance and call for no special comment 3 even if tryptic activity were conceded to lactopeptine, thepreparation, like all preparations containing pepsin and pancreatin, would still be, as previously stated, therapeutically irrational the council approved the report report of referee ain view of the manufacturer reiteration of the claims forlactopeptine powder, i have carried out further experiments todetermine its proteolytic and amylolytic power for the proteolytic test i used fresh, well washed fibrin and examinedsamples of lactopeptine powder numbered as follows:no 1 a writing of the english product examined and reported on lastspring no 2 -- a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail drug store indecember, 1913 no 3 a fresh bottle obtained at a chicago retail store in december, 1913 portions of 1 gm each of these samples were mixed with 5 gm fibrin, 100 mg of sodium carbonate and 50 c c of water in flasks a littletoluene was added to each flask, which was then closed with a tuftof cotton and the mixtures were incubated at 40 degrees throughtwenty-four hours at the end of that time there was no marked changein the quantity of the fibrin remaining in each flask, the larger writingby far being undigested as a control i used the sample of an active commercial trypsin, ofwhich i added 500 mg to the same quantity of water, fibrin and sodiumcarbonate this was digested in the same bath at the same time thedigestion was practically completed in less than ten minutes, onlyminute flakes of the fibrin remaining it is evident that the digestive power of the lactopeptine must beextremely low, and only a small fraction of that exhibited by acommercially good trypsin in an experiment with the english sample carried out through nineteenhours as above, using 2 gm of fibrin and 100 mg of ferment, it wasfound by nitrogen tests on the filtrate that about 12 2 per cent of the protein had been brought into solution, an amount which ispractically without importance in a digestion of such duration to test the starch digestive power i have made a large number ofexperiments in a series just completed i mixed 1 gm portions ofsamples 1 and 2 with water to make 100 c c volumes before makingup to the final volumes 0 5 c c of normal sodium hydroxid wasadded to neutralize the slight acidity of the ferment as shown byphenolphthalein of these mixtures 4, 6, 8 and 10 c c portions were mixed with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste and incubated at 40 degrees to find thecolorless end-point in the starch digestion, by the iodin test at the end of twenty-two hours the iodin reaction was as strong as atthe beginning, indicating no appreciable starch digestion to the flasks in which no digestion had taken place under theseconditions, 5 mg of a pancreas ferment was added this gave an almostimmediate conversion to the colorless end-point this ferment was asample of holadin which had been in the laboratory about a year the5 mg completed the reaction to the colorless end-point in less thanten minutes in a similar test i used 2 gm of lactopeptine no 3, made up to100 c c with 1 2 c c of normal alkali ten and 15 c c portions wereincubated with 50 c c of 1 per cent starch paste through twenty hoursat 40 degrees with no apparent result the holadin then added, 5 mg being used, completed the conversion in less than ten minutes this shows that the medium was a proper one for the test and that thelactopeptine must be extremely weak no sugar tests were made becausethe lactopeptine contains milk sugar to the extent of about 60 per cent similar results for both protein and starch digestives have beenobtained in a large number of experiments these here quoted showthat the ferment activity of the preparation is so low as to merit norecognition practically the digestion of a few milligrams of fibrin orstarch after thesis hours of contact, while being perhaps scientificallypossible, is of no value when we come to a consideration of the use ofsuch bodies as digestive ferments in medicine the amount of lactic acid or “loosely combined hcl” present inlactopeptine is very small, since the total acid which may be titratedby sodium hydroxid and phenolphthalein is measured by 0 5 c c ofthe normal hydroxid for 1 gm of the lactopeptine powder, in themean in different samples examined the range was found to be from0 41 c c to 0 6 c c tests with methyl orange, methyl red and otherindicators showed that the free acidity is but trifling.

Ifvenice treacle be given with it, it is profitable in pestilentialfevers, distil it in may endive and succory water are excellent against heat in the stomach;if you take an ounce of either for their operation is the samemorning and evening, four days one after another, they cool the liver, and cleanse the blood. They are in their prime in may fumitory water is usual with the city dames to wash their faces with, to take away morphey, freckles, and sun-burning. Inwardly taken, ithelps the yellow jaundice and itch, cleanses the blood, provokes sweat, strengthens the stomach, and cleanses the body of adust humours. It isin its prime in may and june the water of nightshade helps pains in the head coming of heat takeheed you distil not the deadly nightshade instead of the common, if youdo, you may make mad work let such as have not wit enough to know themasunder, have wit enough to let them both alone till they do the water of white poppies extinguishes all heat against nature, helps head-aches coming of heat, and too long standing in the sun distil them in june or july colt-foot water is excellent for burns to wash the place with it;inwardly taken it helps phthisicks and other diseases incident to thelungs, distil them in may or june the water of distilled quinces strengthens the heart and stomachexceedingly, stays vomiting and fluxes, and strengthens the retentivefaculty in man damask rose water cools, comforts, and strengthens the heart, so dothred rose-water only with this difference, the one is binding, the otherloosening. If your body be costive, use damask rose water, because itis loosening. If loose, use red, because it is binding white rose water is generally known to be excellent against hotrheums, and inflammations in the eyes, and for this it is better thanthe former the water of red poppy flowers, called by thesis corn-roses, becausethey grow so frequently amongst corn, cools the blood and spiritsover-heated by drinking or labour, and is therefore excellent insurfets green walnuts gathered about the latter end of june or july, and bruised, and so stilled, strengthen the heart, and resist thepestilence plantain water helps the headache. Being dropped into the ear ithelps the tooth-ache, helps the phthisicks, dropsy and fluxes, and isan admirable remedy for ulcers in the reins and bladder, to be used ascommon drink. The herb is in its prime in may strawberry water cools, quenches thirst, clarifies the blood, breaksthe stone, helps all inward inflammations, especially those in thereins, bladder and passages of the urine. It strengthens the liver andhelps the yellow jaundice the distilled water of dog grass, or couch grass, as essay call it, cleanses the reins gallantly, and provokes urine, opens obstructions ofthe liver and spleen, and kills worms black cherry water provokes urine, helps the dropsy it is usuallygiven in diseases of the brain, as convulsions, falling-sickness, palsyand apoplexy betony is in its prime in may, the distilled water thereof is verygood for such as are pained in their heads, it prevails against thedropsy and all sorts of fevers. It succours the liver and spleen, and helps want of digestion and evil disposition of the body thencearising. It hastens travail in women with child, and is excellentagainst the bitings of venomous beasts distil sage whilst the flowers be on it, the water strengthens thebrain, provokes the menses, helps nature much in all its actions marjoram is in its prime in june, distilled water is excellent forsuch whose brains are too cold, it provokes urine, heats the womb, provokes the menses, strengthens the memory and helps the judgment, causes an able brain distil camomel water about the beginning of june it eases thecholick and pains in the belly. It breaks the stone in the reins andbladder, provokes the menses, expels the dead child, and takes awaypains in the head fennel water strengthens the heart and brain. Dilates the breast, thecough, provokes the menses, encreases milk in nurses, and if you washyour eyes with it, it clears the sight the hooves of the fore feet of a cow dried and taken any away, encrease milk in nurses, the smoke of them drives away mice mizaldus calaminth water heats and cleanses the womb, provokes the menses, andeases the pains of the head, distil it in may the distilled water of rosemary flowers, helps such as are troubledwith the yellow jaundice, asthmas, it cleanses the blood, helpsconcoction, strengthens the brain and body exceedingly water of the flowers of lilies of the valley, strengthens the brainand all the senses the water of cowslip flowers helps the palsey. Takes away pains inthe head, the vertigo and megrim, and is exceeding good for pregnantwomen the eyes being washed every morning with eyebright water, moststrangely clears and strengthens the sight maidenhair distilled in may, the water cleanses both liver and lungs, clarifies the blood, and breaks the stone hyssop water cleanses the lungs of flegm, helps coughs and asthmas, distil it in august the water of hore-hound, helps the cough and straitness of thebreast.

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Occasionally empty essaytimes subpericardialecchymoses are found, usually along the coronary vessels the blood inthe heart may be writingly coagulated if the agony has been prolonged andthere has been a writingial access of air, which is gradually diminished mackenzie912 found the right cavities full and the left empty innine out of thirteen paper johnson913 as a result of experimenton animals claims that when access of air is prevented there is arise in pressure in the arteries, the right side of the heart fills, the pulmonary capillaries become empty, and therefore the left sideof the heart becomes empty as a result of further experiments914he verified his former conclusion, and added that in the last stageof asphyxia there is increased pressure on the pulmonary artery andlessened pressure in the systemic vessels he thinks915 that whenboth sides of the heart contain blood, there is paralysis of vaso-motornerves and the arteries the trachea is usually bright red and often contains bloody froth thelarynx or trachea as well as pharynx or œsophagus may contain a foreignbody if the latter has been removed the resulting irritation may beseen the lungs are essaytimes congested, at others normal. Color red orpale essaytimes one lung only is affected they may be emphysematous mackenzie found them congested in all of thirteen paper examined byhim the lungs of young persons may be found comparatively small, almost bloodless, and emphysematous tardieu, albi, and others believedthat the punctiform subpleural ecchymoses indicated suffocation, andwere due to small hemorrhages from engorged vessels which rupturedin the efforts at expiration these spots are usually round, dark, from the size of a pin-head to a small lentil, and well defined they are not like the petechiæ in the lungs and heart after purpura, cholera, eruptive fevers, etc , nor like the hemorrhages under thescalp after tedious labor, all of which are variable in size thesepunctiform spots are usually seen at the root, base, and lower marginof the lungs hofmann states “lehrbuch” that they are found in theposterior writing of the lungs and in the fissures between the lobes theyare indisputably frequent after death from suffocation, and if wellmarked either in adults or infants that have breathed, they indicatesuffocation, unless essay other cause of death is clear simon, ogston, and tidy, however, have shown that they are essaytimes absent in fatalsuffocation, and are essaytimes present in the absence of suffocation, as after hanging and drowning. In fœtuses before labor has begun;often in still-births, although essay of these are probably due tosuffocation from inhaling fluid or from pressure also in death fromscarlet fever, heart disease, apoplexy, pneumonia, and pulmonary œdema grosclaude916 quotes from pinard, who declares that these ecchymosesare found in fœtuses which die from arrest of circulation grosclaudehimself made a large number of experiments on animals by drowning, hanging, and strangling, and fracturing the skull the ecchymoses werefound in nearly all the paper the ecchymoses are writingly the result of venous stasis, which overcomesthe resistance of essay capillaries. And the latter rupture, writingly fromthe aspirating action of the thoracic wall, the lung being unable tofill itself with air, but mainly917 from vaso-motor contraction andlateral pressure at the maximum of the asphyxia, the time of tetanicexpiration if the asphyxia is interrupted before this stage, thespots do not appear similar ecchymoses may be found under the scalp, in the tympanum, retina, nose, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, thymus, pericardium, in the parietal pleura, along the intercostal vessels, rarely the peritoneum, in the stomach, and essaytimes the intestines;and in other writings of the body, especially the face, base of neck, andfront of chest. In convulsive affections, as eclampsia and epilepsy, and in the convulsions of strychnia and prussic acid poisoning theremay be suffusion and congestion of the lungs though not the punctatedspots mackenzie, in thirteen paper of suffocation from various causes, failedto find the tardieu spots either externally or internally briand andchaudé918 state that they are less constant and characteristic inthose who have been buried in pulverulent substances ogston919 holds that in infants that are smothered the ecchymosesare found in greater number in the thymus gland. While in adults dyingfrom other forms of asphyxia they were found only once in that gland the spots are found in clusters in infants that are smothered, butonly single and scattered in adults who die from drowning, hanging ordisease they were wanting in the lungs of but one infant they may be recognized as long as the lung tissue is unchanged theapoplectic spots in the lungs seen in strangulation are not found insuffocation tardieu920 from experiments on animals and examination of twenty-three new-born infants who showed traces of violence around the mouth, found the lungs rather pale and anæmic, subpleural ecchymoses well marked all the deaths were rapid in paper of compression of chest and abdomen921 the congestion of the lungs was extensive, and pulmonary apoplexy frequent. More so than in other forms of suffocation he gave strychnia to animals which died in convulsions, and found very irregular and writingial congestions, generally not marked because death was so prompt.