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Philosophy Of Nursing Essay


The race philosophy of nursing essay may be determined both by the color of the skinand by the shape of the head. The age may be approximated, though caremust be had in expressing an opinion, for the manner of living is wellknown to affect the appearance of age evidence of violence priorto death should be noted, and the presence or absence of fracturesascertained. Also observe the color of the hair and whether it be thinor abundant. The presence or absence of beard or mustache, and ifpresent the color. And the color of the eyes the arm - the following points should be determined. The color of theskin as indication of race. The probable sex from its shape and generalconformation. The probable age from its size and degree of development;marks of any kind, such as tattooing. And deformities, such as signs ofold or recent fracture, or dislocation.

If of choler, use the yellow. But ifphlegm or water, you will find the white best the cherry-tree i suppose there are few but know this tree, for its fruit sake. Andtherefore i shall spare writing a description thereof place for the place of its growth, it is afforded room in everyorchard government and virtues it is a tree of venus cherries, as theyare of different tastes, so they are of different qualities the sweetpass through the stomach and the belly more speedily, but are of littlenourishment. The tart or sour are more pleasing to an hot stomach, procure appetite to meat, to help and cut tough phlegm, and grosshumours. But when these are dried, they are more binding to the bellythan when they are fresh, being cooling in hot diseases, and welcome tothe stomach, and provokes urine the gum of the cherry-tree, desolvedin wine is good for a cold, cough, and hoarseness of the throat.

In california, montana, and nevada, to philosophy of nursing essay a licensed physician or surgeon. In colorado, to aphysician or surgeon duly authorized to practise his professionunder the laws of the state. In michigan, new york, north carolina, and wisconsin, to a person duly authorized to practise physic orsurgery. In minnesota, oregon, and washington, to a regular physicianor surgeon. In iowa and nebraska, to a practising physician orsurgeon. In the remaining states and territories, these statutes do notin terms distinguish between licensed and unlicensed practitioners 225in new york, by the amendment of 1893 to sec 836 of the code of civilprocedure it is provided that in an action for the recovery of damagesfor a personal injury the testimony of a physician or surgeon attachedto any hospital, dispensary, or other charitable institution, as toinformation which he acquired in attending a patient in a professionalcapacity in such institution, shall be taken before a referee itdoes not appear whether this amendment is intended to take away theprivilege, or merely to regulate the manner of taking such testimonywhen it is otherwise admissible 226iii the evidence - the character of the communications whichare privileged differs under the several statutes in arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indian territory, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin, they arecharacterized as information. In indiana, as matter committed. Iniowa and nebraska, as confidential communications. In kansas, ohio, oklahoma, and wyoming, as communications. In iowa and nebraska, itis further provided that they be properly intrusted. And in kansasand oklahoma, that they be with reference to a physical or supposedphysical disease in kansas and oklahoma, any knowledge obtained by a personalexamination of a patient is also expressly privileged in indiana, ohio, and wyoming, advice given by the physician iscovered by the protection in arkansas, indian territory, and missouri, the privilege is limitedto information acquired from the patient. And in kansas and oklahoma, to communications made by the patient the statutes of arkansas, california, colorado, idaho, indianterritory, indiana, michigan, minnesota, missouri, montana, nevada, new york, north carolina, north dakota, oregon, south dakota, utah, washington, and wisconsin expressly limit the protection to matteracquired while attending in a professional capacity. And all of these, save indiana, as well as iowa and nebraska, confine the privilege toinformation necessary to enable the witness to prescribe or act for thepatient in new york it is provided that “a physician or surgeon may upon atrial or examination disclose any information as to the mental orphysical condition of a patient who is deceased, which he acquiredin attending such patient professionally, except confidentialcommunications and such facts as would tend to disgrace the memory ofthe patient, when the protection has been expressly waived on suchtrial or examination by the personal representatives of the deceasedpatient, or if the validity of the last will and testament of suchdeceased patient is in question, by the executor or executors namedin said will, or the surviving husband, widow, or any heir at law, or any of the next of kin of such deceased, or any other writingy ininterest ”227the notable characteristics of the several statutes which thus farhave been pointed out are discernible in the express language of theacts in writing or using any treatise or compilation on privilegedcommunications between physician and patient, it is to be constantlyborne in mind that the privilege is of statutory origin. That thestatutes are often dissimilar. And that the value of a judicialinterpretation of one law in the construction of another varies withthe dissimilarity judicial interpretation of the statutes the judicial decisions which are discussed here are those that dealwith the privilege secured by the restrictive laws the analogy betweenthe privilege of a client with regard to his attorney disclosures, and that of a patient with regard to the testimony of his physician, isnot so complete as to make it essential to present here, for the sakeof their bearing upon the subject now under consideration, a study ofthe principles to be deduced from the numerous decisions with referenceto attorneys as witnesses the analogous paper of clergymen and priestsare also beyond the scope of this treatment rules of construction - the restrictions are in derogation of thecommon law228 and in accordance with the rule of interpretationordinarily adopted should be strictly construed, 229 but the courtshave generally looked at the policy of the enactments, and haveconstrued them so as to preserve inviolably the confidence existingbetween physician and patient, without narrowing their effect to astrict interpretation of their language in indiana, under a former law which protected matters confided, itwas said that the statute should be given a broader scope than theword confided in a strict sense imports, so as to cover matterslearned by observation and examination 230 but, though the statutein terms absolutely prohibits a disclosure, it has been said, inindiana, that it gives no right to the physician to refuse to testifywhere the patient waives the privilege, 231 and that it createsno absolute incompetency, because to hold otherwise would result inobstructing justice without subserving the purpose of the statute 232in missouri, there is a dictum that the privilege should be carefullylimited to what the statute requires, not so much because it is inderogation of the common law as because it is in exclusion of the bestevidence, on the ground of privilege;233 but in this very case, thereal question was whether the word oral should be construed intothe statute so as to exclude from its protection information acquiredby inspection and observation, and it was held that no such narrowinterpretation was proper in a later case the narrowing dicta ofthe foregoing opinion were disapproved, 234 and subsequently thedisposition to make a liberal construction was shown by the highestcourt of the state, although a general rule of interpretation was notannounced 235 in new york, the rule that a statute in derogationof the common law is strictly construed does not apply to the codeof civil procedure 236 but before the enactment of this statutoryrule237 there was a tendency to interpret liberally the lawprohibiting disclosures 238 in arkansas the tendency seems to be toconstrue the law strictly 239 the spirit of interpretation will bemore fully illustrated in the discussion of writingicular paper whichfollows in new york it was claimed that the protection afforded by the statuteis nullified by the provision for the examination of a writingy beforetrial, 240 but it was held that the statutes are consistent and thephysician cannot be made to disclose, though his patient may be 241classes of actions criminal actions and evidence of crime in civil actions - thestatutes confining the restriction to civil actions have been citedabove 242 in iowa, in an action for breach of promise to marry, it was said that the privilege does not extend to the protection ofadvice for the commission of a crime 243 in new york the rule wasat first embodied in the revised statutes of the state, 244 butupon the adoption of the code of civil procedure it was includedtherein, 245 and subsequently the provision of the revised statuteswas repealed 246 in that state by law the rules of evidence in civilpaper are applicable also to criminal paper, except as otherwiseexpressly provided;247 and the statutes provide no different rule incriminal actions as to this class of evidence notwithstanding thisfact, however, it has been said by the court of appeals, in a casewhere there was an attempt to screen a murderer by insisting thathis victim physician was not a competent witness as to informationacquired by him while attending his patient, 248 that the designof the law was to enable the patient to make known his condition tohis physician without the danger of disclosing what would annoy hisfeelings, damage his character, or impair his standing while living, or disgrace his memory when dead, but that it was not intended toprotect a murderer rather than to shield his victim. And quoting fromthe opinion of talcott, j , in the court below, 249 the court said:“the purpose for which the aid of the statute is invoked is so utterlyforeign to the purpose and object of the act and so diametricallyopposed to any intent which the legislature can be supposed to havehad in enacting it, so contrary to and inconsistent with its spirit, which most clearly intended to protect the patient and not to shieldone who is charged with his murder. That in such a case the statute isnot to be so construed as to be used as a weapon of defence to a writingyso charged instead of a protection to his victim ” accordingly it washeld that the evidence was not to be excluded under the statute butthe rule is still applicable to criminal actions in a later case, where the accused was indicted for abortion, the same court held, thatwhere the patient was living and the disclosure tended to convict hertoo of crime or to cast discredit and disgrace upon her, the evidenceof her physician as to information acquired by him in attendanceupon her was inadmissible in the trial of the man charged with thecrime 250 in a still later case, 251 the general term of the supremecourt held, where the accused was on trial for murder and he hadconfided to a physician what he had done, that the physician could notdisclose the confidence the rule deducible from these decisions seemsto be that in new york the privilege extends to criminal actions, eventhough they be trials for murder, and even though the person accusedbe the patient, but that the statute will be applied only for theprotection of the patient, and where it is apparent that no injury canpossibly be done to the patient or his memory by the admission of theevidence, and the interests of justice demand the disclosure, for thepunishment of a person for an injury done to the patient involving aviolation of the criminal law, and the patient is not alive to waivethe privilege, that the disclosure is not forbidden in new york efforts have been made to exclude from the operation ofthe statute other classes of actions, to which it has been urged thatthe reasons for the enactment do not apply, or in which the mischiefalleged to be wrought by its enforcement has been suggested as groundfor believing that the legislature could not have intended to includethem of these, actions for divorce on the ground of adultery are oneclass.

And virtute electionis 510 the office of coronerwas brought to america by the colonists along with the institutions ofthe common law, and may be said to exist in the several states with allthe common-law incidents, except so far as they may have been modifiedby statute the present defined powers of coroners in great britain andthe united states, unless modified by british statutes and americanacts, are derived from the english stat de officio coronatoris, 4edward i , s 2 coroners virtute officii and virtute cartæ sivecommissionis are unknown to our institutions here the office ofcoroner may be classed under the head of coroners virtute electionis generally speaking the coroner is a county officer coroner duties both judicial and ministerial by the common law his powers and duties are both judicial andministerial in his ministerial capacity he is merely a substitute forthe sheriff, as when the sheriff is a writingy 511 his powers and dutiesthereunder it is not the present purpose to state and define hisjudicial authority relates to inquiries into paper of sudden death, bya jury of inquest, super visum corporis, or, as it is more commonlydefined, an inquisition, with the assistance of a jury, over the bodyof any person who may have come to a sudden or violent death, or whomay have died in prison 512 it is not necessary that the death shouldbe both violent and sudden, and that both these circumstances mustconcur to give the coroner jurisdiction it is sufficient to give thecoroner jurisdiction if the death occurs from any violence done toa person by another, although such violence may not have terminatedthe life of a writingy suddenly, and it is still the duty of the coronerto hold an inquest 513 indeed the presumption is that he has actedin good faith and on sufficient cause 514 and so when severalpersons have been suddenly killed by the same violent cause, undercircumstances proper to be inquired of by a coroner inquest, it isproper and necessary for the coroner, acting in good faith, to hold aseparate inquest over each body 515 a coroner inquest is a judicialinvestigation the coroner cannot delegate his authority to any one neither can he appoint a deputy under the common law he must act inperson as any other judicial officer. And it may safely be said that acoroner has no power to appoint a deputy coroner, except where specialprovision is made therefor by statute 516 in england, a coronercourt is a court of record, and it has accordingly been held thattrespass cannot be maintained for turning a person out of a room wherethe coroner is about to take an inquisition 517 but in this country, it may safely be said that a coroner court is not one of record, but of inferior jurisdiction 518 the performance of the functionsof a coroner are judicial in their character. So judicial that he isprotected under the principles which protect judicial officers fromresponsibility in a civil action brought by a private person hisproceedings amount to entries concerning matters of public interest, made under the sanction of an official oath, and in compliance orpresumed compliance of the law 519of his authority to hold an inquest - his authority to hold aninquest is not confined to the body of a person who may have diedwithin his territorial jurisdiction, but extends to all bodiesbrought within his jurisdiction, no matter where death may have takenplace 520 so in any case where, after burial, an inquest becomesnecessary to determine the manner of the death of a person who, dyingin one, is buried in another county, the coroner of the latter countyis the proper officer to hold the inquest 521 a coroner cannot holda second inquest while the first is existing as we have seen, inholding an inquest the coroner performs a judicial duty, and he isfunctus officio as soon as the verdict has been returned he can holdno second inquest in the same case unless the first has been quashedby a court of competent jurisdiction, and a new inquiry ordered hecannot set aside or quash his own inquest if he were allowed to holdtwo inquests, not only might the greatest inconvenience arise from theinconsistent findings of the respective juries, but such a practicewould be liable to great abuse, and as the object of the proceeding ismerely preliminary, the main purpose being to ascertain whether it isprobable that a crime has been committed, and to examine the facts andcircumstances and preserve the evidence, all the ends of this inquiryare answered by one inquisition, super visum corporis we believe noreported case is to be found in this country where a second inquisitionhas been held, the first remaining undischarged, nor is any suchpractice known to or recognized by our laws 522the inquest must be held upon view of the body the coroner can in no case hold an inquest except upon view of thebody this is jurisdictional and cannot be waived by any one he isnot bound to hold an inquest before burial of the body takes place when it has been buried, and he believes an inquest necessary, heis vested with authority to have the body disinterred and hold hisinquest, and if necessary direct a post-mortem examination to bemade, but after having done so, he must cause it to be reburied 523deep interests are involved in the proper discharge of the duties ofcoroners. The character, liberty, and perhaps the life of a citizenaccused of crime on the one hand, and on the other the aiding of publicjustice in establishing the guilt and securing the punishment of theactual criminal thesis of the questions which fall within the scopeof a coroner inquisition are of an intricate and most perplexingcharacter, a correct solution of which can only be arrived at by mindsthe best instructed and habituated to their investigation in thesispaper essay of these questions can be satisfactorily settled by theevidence of persons having cognizance more or less direct of the facts;in others, however, they can only be solved by the facts deduced frompathological anatomy, and other circumstances connected with the deadbody, the cause of the extinction of life in which is the subject ofthe inquest in massachusetts office of coroner abolished - indeed, inmassachusetts the office of coroner was abolished in 1877, and thegovernor was invested with power, and it is his duty, to appoint, byand with the advice and consent of the council, able and discreet men, learned in the science of medicine, to be medical examiners, whoseduties are to make examinations as provided in the statute upon theview of the dead bodies of such persons only as are supposed to havecome to their death by violence 524coroner may employ professional skill - a thorough examination aidedby professional skill is in general absolutely necessary to the properadministration of justice it would no doubt be strange if a coronerhad no authority to pledge the responsibility of the county for thecompensation of all auxiliary services which are necessary to theproper execution of his office, and which he can by no other meanscommand.

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So we both lay down on the bunk with our clothes on and listened to rose on the bridge, ringing the telegraph and working his engines in a vain attempt to get his vessel off the beach as i lay there philosophy of nursing essay thinking, i could not but pity rose, realising how he must have felt just imagine what his feelings must have been on realising that after spending fifteen months on a raiding and mine laying cruise, and always evading his enemies, he had run his vessel aground almost at the gates of gerthesis, and in place of receiving the iron cross first class, there was the possibility of his facing court martial on his arrival home, provided of course he was lucky enough to escape internment thinking this i fell asleep and at 6:30 a m of february 25th shall i ever forget the date?. i was awakened by one of the german seamen named "hans" knocking at my door and saying. "kapitaine, kapitaine, wake up and get ready to go ashore in the boats " i'll bet we broke all speed records getting on deck rose asked me to get into the life-saving boat first, as the danish crew could not speak english, and then i could help the balance as they came down the ladder i got juanita firmly on my back and climbed down into the boat there was a large sea running and as the igotz mendi was stationary on the bottom and the life-boat was riding on the seas, one moment it would be even with my feet and in another would be fifteen feet below the idea was to jump at that instant the boat was even with me this was easy enough with myself and wife, who understood such things and had had previous experience, but to the balance of the passengers it was hard to make them let go at the right time. They all having a tendency to hang on until the boat had started to go down again then, if they should let go, the drop was so great that the men in the life-boat could not hold them when they tried to catch them in essay paper it was necessary absolutely to tear the passengers off the ladder by main force however, we finally got all the women, children and men into the boat and we started for the beach when we got into the breakers and the seas washed clean over us, thesis thought it would be a case of swim or drown, not reckoning on the kind of life-boat we were in or on the class of men that manned it i have seen various life-crews at drill and i spent a season on the beach at cape nome, where everything is surf work, but these old danes, averaging fifty years of age and the living caricatures of that great soap advertisement, "life buoy soap, " familiar to all the reading public, were in a class by themselves on entering the breakers, they dropped a kedge anchor with a long line on it, and literally slacked the boat through a gigantic comber, one of those curling ones, just commencing to break, would rush upon us. Up would go the stern of the boat and just at the instant that i would expect her to go end for end, the old "sinbad" tending the anchor line would check her and in another instant we would rush for the beach, just as the kanakas ride the surf on a board at honolulu when we finally grounded the men from the beach ran out and seized the women, the balance then ran the boat higher up the beach the natives must have thought that we were a bunch of raving maniacs, the way we carried on, getting our feet on good "terra firma" again we danced, we shouted, and cheered, and made damn fools of ourselves generally.