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Philosophy Essay


It strengthens theheart and vitals. It is an admirable counter-poison, special good forsuch as have the plague, or are poisoned, or bitten by venomous beasts, and expels virulent humours from such as have the venereal disease if you desire to know more virtues of it, see the virtues of venicetreacle the dose is from a spoonful to an ounce aqua brioniæ composita or briony water compound college take of the juice of briony roots, four pounds, the leavesof rue and mugwort, of each two pounds, dryed savin three handfuls, featherfew, nep, pennyroyal, of each two handfuls, bazil, dittany, ofcrete, of each one handful and a half, orange pills four ounces, myrrhtwo ounces, castoreum one ounce, canary wine twelve pounds, digestthem four days in a convenient vessel, then still them in balneomariæ. About the middle of the distillation strain it out, and make anhysterical extraction of the residue culpeper a spoonful of it taken, eases the fits of the mother inwomen that have them. It potently expels the afterbirth, and clears thebody of what a midwife by heedlessness or accident hath left behind. Itcleanses the womb exceedingly, and for that i fancy it much, take notabove a tasterful at a time, and then in the morning fasting, for it isof a purging quality, and let pregnant women forbear it aqua imperialis or imperial water the college take of dried citron, and orange pills, nutmegs, cloves, cinnamon, of each two ounces, the roots of cypress, orris, florentine, calamus aromaticus, of each one ounce, zedoary galanga, ginger, of each half an ounce, the tops of lavender and rosemary, ofeach two handfuls, the leaves of bay, marjoram, bawm, mints, sage, thyme, of each one handful, the flowers of white and damask rosesfresh, of each half a handful, rose-water four pounds, white wine eightpounds, let all of them be bruised and infused twenty four hours, thendistil them according to art culpeper you must distil it in a bath, and not in sand. It comfortsand strengthens the heart against faintings and swoonings, and is heldto be a preservative against consumptions and apoplexies you may takehalf a spoonful at a time aqua mirabilis college take of cloves, galanga, cubebs, mace, cardamoms, nutmegs, ginger, of each one dram, juice of celandine half a pound, spirits ofwine one pound, white wine three pounds, infuse them twenty-four hours, and draw off two pounds with an alembick culpeper the simples also of this, regard the stomach, andtherefore the water heats cold stomachs, besides authors say itpreserves from apoplexies, and restores lost speech aqua protheriacalis college take of scordium, scabius, carduus, goat rue, of each twohandfuls, citron and orange pills, of each two ounces, the seeds ofcitrons, carduus, hartwort, treacle, mustard, of each one ounce, theflowers of marigolds and rosemary, of each one handful, cut them, andbruise them grossly, then infuse them in four pounds of white wine, andtwo pounds of carduus water, in a glass, close stopped, and set it inthe sun of bath for a fortnight, often shaking it, then distil it inbalneo mariæ let the two first pounds be kept by themselves for use, and the remainder of the distillation by itself.

John bohlander, a m , m d , is said to be thediscoverer they consist of “b iodine, ” “b oleum iodine, ” and “b aqua iodine ” b iodine and b oleum iodine were submitted to thecouncil in a circular submitted by the b iodine chemical company, b iodine issaid to be “nitrogen hydrate of iodin ” it is claimed that “coming incontact with water, h₂o, a chemical change takes place forming hydrooxid of iodin, the nitrogen of the nitrogen hydrate of iodin escaping, the balance taking up one of oxygen of the water its companion, theh₂, escaping at the same time with the nitrogen then combining with theremainder of the water to form the solution of hydrogen oxid of iodin;so you can readily see that you really have a pure water of iodin, nothing but the h, the o and the i ”-- from the journal a m a , feb 1, 1919 b iodineaccording to the circular, b iodine is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether also it. “has odor, taste, melting and boiling point, same as regular iodin, has a great affinity for water and will respond to all the tests of iodin appears in a bluish black granulated mass or powder when heated in vaporating dish will throw off large purple volumes of iodin leaving a slight white crystalline precipitate, which on continuous heating will entirely disappear with careful manipulation you can get prismatic needle point like crystals, looking like spores of glass, these dissolving in water will yield pure iodin coloring the water iodin “pharmacologic, therapeutical and physiological action. Same as iodin, being of a colloidal nature has the advantage of being more readily absorbed and taken up by all cellular structure, thus getting a perfect cellular medication of iodin ”a sample of b iodine, marked “nitrogen hydrate of iodin” was submittedby the manufacturers and this sample was examined b iodine was found to be a granular powder, almost black with a purplecast it has an odor of iodin and dissolves in water readily it isalso quite soluble in alcohol, but not entirely soluble in chloroformand ether ether quickly dissolves iodin from b iodine, leaving aresidue of a white granular substance chloroform acts the same asether except that the iodin is dissolved out with essay difficulty onheating b iodine, vapors of iodin escape if the heating is done ona water bath, a residue of a white granular substance, subsequentlyidentified as ammonium iodid, remains if heated in a bunsen flame, noresidue remains these tests all indicate that iodin is held in theform of a simple mixture ammonia. B iodine when mixed with an excess of sodium hydroxid andwarmed, evolves ammonia iodine. 0 1567 gm b iodine dissolved in water required 5 88 c c tenth-normal sodium thiosulphate solution indicating 48 28 per cent iodin 0 3721 gm b iodine required 14 18 c c tenth-normal sodiumthiosulphate solution indicating 48 37 per cent iodin the average is48 33 per cent iodin ammonium iodide. 0 3453 gm of the residue after heating b iodine ona water bath until all iodin had volatilized was dissolved in water, acidulated with phosphoric acid, and hydrogen dioxid solution added the liberated iodin was extracted with chloroform and titrated withtenth-normal sodium thiosulphate 23 78 c c were required indicating0 3447 gm , or 99 83 per cent , ammonium iodid a mixture of 5 gm iodin and 5 gm ammonium iodid has the properties ofb iodine mentioned above the conclusion is that b iodine is essentially a mixture of iodin andammonium iodid in equal writings, the two substances being finely powderedand intimately mixed b oleum iodinethe following regarding b oleum iodine is quoted from the circularsubmitted. “b oleum iodine.

In the herbs of mars, let mars be inthe mid heaven, for in those houses they delight. Let the moon apply tothem by good aspect, and let her not be in the houses of her enemies;if you cannot well stay till she apply to them, let her apply to aplanet of the same triplicity. If you cannot wait that time neither, let her be with a fixed star of their nature 6 having well dried them, put them up in brown paper, sewing the paperup like a sack, and press them not too hard together, and keep them ina dry place near the fire 7 as for the duration of dried herbs, a just time cannot be given, letauthors prate their pleasure. For, 1st such as grow upon dry grounds will keep better than such as growon moist 2dly, such herbs as are full of juice, will not keep so long as such asare drier 3dly such herbs as are well dried, will keep longer than such as areslack dried yet you may know when they are corrupted, by their loss ofcolour, or smell, or both. And if they be corrupted, reason will tellyou that they must needs corrupt the bodies of those people that takethem 4 gather all leaves in the hour of that planet that governs them chapter ii of flowers 1 the flower, which is the beauty of the plant, and of none of theleast use in physick, grows yearly, and is to be gathered when it is inits prime 2 as for the time of gathering them, let the planetary hour, and theplanet they come of, be observed, as we shewed you in the foregoingchapter. As for the time of the day, let it be when the sun shine uponthem, that so they may be dry. For, if you gather either flowers orherbs when they are wet or dewy, they will not keep 3 dry them well in the sun, and keep them in papers near the fire, asi shewed you in the foregoing chapter 4 so long as they retain the colour and smell, they are good. Eitherof them being gone, so is the virtue also chapter iii of seeds 1 the seed is that writing of the plant which is endowed with a vitalfaculty to bring forth its like, and it contains potentially the wholeplant in it 2 as for place, let them be gathered from the place where they delightto grow 3 let them be full ripe when they are gathered.

In fact, as we note fromtablet 94, the astrologists of this period did not hesitate to intrudeinto the most intimate occurrences of married life it is quite obviousthat, under such circumstances, the babylonian physician was compelledto consider very carefully the utterances of the astrologists incarrying on his practise it may be possible that we shall obtain stillfurther information regarding the quality of sidereal therapy from thenumerously discovered cuneiform tablets we know positively that aphysician was forbidden to perform any surgical operations on certaindays of each month thus, for instance, the 7th, 14th, 19th, 21st, and28th of the month schall-elul were unfavorable days for such operations oefele these directions were especially stringent in regard tovenesection, to which act we shall again refer in greater detail when civilization, later on, continued to thrive upon the shores ofthe nile, astrology still found a fertile soil there, and it appearsthat here also the name ἰατρομαθηματικοί has originated, which, subsequently, was a favorite designation of adherents to the siderealart of healing the astrological prognoses made by the professionalastrologist, petosiris, for the king nechepso of sais are well known however, it appears, according to the latest investigations comparethe excellent work of sudhoff, page 4, etc , that these prognoses havenothing at all to do with that king nechepso who reigned in the seventhcentury, b c it seems more probable that essay cunning alexandrianastrologist of the second century, b c , fraudulently used the nameof the king as a cover for his work but however this may be, theseprognoses of petosiris have considerable value, in that they give us aninsight into the manufacture of such medical prophesies the object of these prognoses was primarily to discover the terminationof a disease, whether the patient would die or recover, either soonor only after the lapse of a certain time for instance, after sevendays this was all that petosiris undertook to predict all detailsregarding treatment, complications, and diagnosis of a case are stillentirely wanting petosiris, in making such a prognosis, by no meansrelied solely upon the conjunction of certain celestial bodies, but heemployed a rather intricate method, in which mystic numbers, onomancy, and astrology were important elements to prognosticate medicallyaccording to this system a circle of numerals was required in the firstplace there existed two different kinds of such circles one simple, the other more complicated berthelot has furnished us with examples ofboth as used by petosiris illustration. Fig 1 circle of petosiris after bouché-leclercq, p 539the more simple formula fig 1 consisted of two concentric circles, the smaller of which was divided into four quadrants between bothconcentric circles and within the horizontal diameters were inscribedthe words. Μέον ζωή. To the right of this. Ἡ μικρὰ ζωή. To the leftof the vertical line. Ἡ μεναλη ζωή under the vertical line wasinscribed. Μέσος θάνατος. To the right of this. Μικρὸς θάνατος;and to the left of the vertical line. Ὁ μένας θάνατος only wordswhich point to the longer or shorter duration of life, or to thedeath-struggle, were therefore employed the four quadrants of theenclosed circle, as well as the vertical diameter, contained thenumerals from 1 to 29 in a mystical order, representing the duration ofthe moon phases the above fig 1 shows us this astrological circleof petosiris the second essentially more complicated formula consists of threeconcentric circles various words are inscribed between the first andsecond circles, as in fig 1 between the second and third circles, andin the verticals, the numerals from 1 to 30 are disposed in a mysticalarrangement furthermore, these circles are not, as in fig 1, dividedinto four quadrants, but into eight equal sections at these pointsin which the radii forming the sectors intersect the periphery of theoutermost of the three concentric circles, arched enclosures are raisedwhich also contain various words illustration. Fig 2 circle of petosiris after bouché-leclercq, p 540when it was sought, by means of the above-described figures, todetermine the medical future or the life and death of an individual, this could be accomplished with the aid of the diagram represented infig 1 in such a manner that the duration of the disease in days, thenumerical value of the name of the patient, and the phases of the moonwere added, and the sum divided by 29 the result thus obtained wasinterpreted by referring to the diagram if this figure happened to be, for instance, in the right upper quadrant, the patient, altho he wouldrecover from his illness, would live only for a very short period;if this number was found in the vertical line, below the horizontaldiameter, the patient was destined to die after a short struggle much more intricate was the use of the astrological apparatusillustrated in fig 2 here the number of the moon day, and thenumerical values of the name of the patient were not added, but eachof these figures was separately looked for in the diagram if the moonfigure was found in the lower, the figure for the name in the upper, ends of the verticals i e , where δυσις ὑπόγειος, setting, andἀνατολὴ ὑπέργειος, rising, stand the individual concerned, altho indanger, finally recovered if, on the other hand, the moon figure wasdiscovered in the upper, and the figure for the name in the lower, endsof the verticals, nothing but evil was in store for the questioner, butthe misfortune appeared under the guise of fortune if both numbers, however, were at the upper ends of the verticals, the prospects werefavorable, but bad if both figures occurred below the horizontal line a method which is similar to the simple apparatus of petosiris isrevealed to us in the so-called οφαῖρα δημοκρίτου it is contained inthe papyrus magica musei lugdunensis batavia, published by dietrich fig 3 shows the illustration belonging to this method, and alsothe greek directions for use, as given in the papyrus it will benoticed that in the method of democritus recourse is made to a tableof numerals divided by a cross-line into the upper and larger, and alower and smaller, section the upper writing contains in three verticalcolumns 18, in the lower, 12 figures to use the table, the day whenthe disease began, the numerical value of the name, and the days of themoon were added, and the sum thus obtained divided by 30 this quotientwas then looked for in the table of numbers if it was found above thecross-line, the patient recovered.

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And the color of the eyes the arm - the following points philosophy essay should be determined. The color of theskin as indication of race. The probable sex from its shape and generalconformation. The probable age from its size and degree of development;marks of any kind, such as tattooing. And deformities, such as signs ofold or recent fracture, or dislocation. And supernumerary fingers the leg - the examination of the leg should be conducted in much thesame manner as that of the arm the trunk - an examination of the trunk will reveal the race, sex, and probable age, and may give evidence as regards the manner in whichthe deceased came to his or her death any marks or deformities shouldbe recorded, and in all paper the viscera should be examined medico-legal reports 568after making a medico-legal autopsy, it will be necessary for themedical examiner to draw up a report of his findings, and theconclusions based thereon the report should be clear and concise, andthe language such as a coroner jury can understand technical termsshould be avoided, and when their employment is necessary they shouldbe explained in the margin or in parentheses the report should be drawn up in essaywhat the following manner:1 when and under what circumstances the body was first seen. Statinghour of day, day of week and month 2 when deceased was last seen living, or known to be alive 3 any circumstances that would lead to a suspicion of suicide ormurder 4 time after death at which the examination was made, if it can beascertained 5 the external appearance of the body. Whether the surface is livid orpallid 6 state of countenance 7 any marks of violence on the person, disarrangement of the dress, blood-stains, etc 8 presence or absence of warmth in the legs, abdomen, arms, armpits, or mouth 9 presence or absence of rigor mortis to give any value to this point it is necessary for the witness toobserve the nature of the substance upon which the body is lying;whether the body be clothed or naked, young or old, fat or emaciated these conditions materially influence the rapidity of cooling and theonset of rigor mortis 10 upon first opening the body the color of the muscles should benoted carbon monoxide poisoning causes them to be of a cherry-redcolor 11 the condition of the blood and its color 12 the state of the abdominal viscera, describing each one inthe order in which it is removed see p 370 if the stomach andintestines are inflamed the seat of the inflammation should be exactlyspecified. Also all evidences of softening, ulceration, effusion ofblood, corrosion, or perforation the presence of hardened fæces in therectum will bear evidence that no purging occurred immediately beforedeath 13 the state of the heart and lungs for special consideration of thelungs in paper of suspected infanticide, see vol ii. And of personsdrowned, see vol i , p 805 et seq 14 the state of the brain and spinal cord after a thorough consideration of the results of the examination, conclusions must be drawn from this examination. Never from thestatements of others the conclusions commonly relate to whetherdeath was due to natural or unnatural causes.