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Pharmcas Essay


But the roots are mosteffectual to the purposes aforesaid one-blade descript this small plant never bears more than one leaf, but onlywhen it rises up with its stalk, which thereon bears another, andseldom more, which are of a blueish green colour, broad at the bottom, and pointed with thesis ribs or veins like plaintain. At the top of thestalk grows thesis small flowers star-fashion, smelling essaywhat sweet;after which comes small reddish berries when they are ripe the rootsmall, of the bigness of a rush, lying and creeping under the uppercrust of the earth, shooting forth in divers places place it grows in moist, shadowy, grassy places of woods, in thesisplaces of this realm time it flowers about may, and the berries are ripe in june, andthen quickly perishes, until the next year it springs from the sameagain government and virtues it is a herb of the sun, and thereforecordial. Half a dram, or a dram at most, of the root hereof in powdertaken in wine and vinegar, of each a little quantity, and the writingypresently laid to sweat, is held to be a sovereign remedy for thosethat are infected with the plague, and have a sore upon them, byexpelling the poison, and defending the heart and spirit from danger it is also accounted a singular good wound herb, and therefore usedwith other herbs in making such balms as are necessary for curing ofwounds, either green or old, and especially if the nerves be hurt the bramble, or black-berry bush it is so well known that it needs no description the virtues thereofare as follows. Government and virtues it is a plant of venus in aries if anyask the reason why venus is so prickly?. tell them it is because sheis in the house of mars the buds, leaves, and branches, while theyare green, are of a good use in the ulcers and putrid sores of themouth and throat, and of the quinsey, and likewise to heal other freshwounds and sores. But the flowers and fruit unripe are very binding, and so profitable for the bloody flux, lasks, and are a fit remedy forspitting of blood either the decoction of the powder or of the roottaken, is good to break or drive forth gravel and the stone in thereins and kidneys the leaves and brambles, as well green as dry, areexceeding good lotions for sores in the mouth, or secret writings thedecoction of them, and of the dried branches, do much bind the bellyand are good for too much flowing of women courses. The berriesof the flowers are a powerful remedy against the poison of the mostvenomous serpents. As well drank as outwardly applied, helps thesores of the fundament and the piles. The juice of the berries mixedwith the juice of mulberries, do bind more effectually, and helpsall fretting and eating sores and ulcers wheresoever the distilledwater of the branches, leaves, and flowers, or of the fruit, is verypleasant in taste, and very effectual in fevers and hot distempers ofthe body, head, eyes, and other writings, and for the purposes aforesaid the leaves boiled in lye, and the head washed therewith, heals theitch and running sores thereof, and makes the hair black the powderof the leaves strewed on cankers and running ulcers, wonderfully helpsto heal them essay use to condensate the juice of the leaves, and essaythe juice of the berries, to keep for their use all the year, for thepurposes aforesaid blites descript of these there are two sorts commonly known, viz whiteand red the white has leaves essaywhat like to beets, but smaller, rounder and of a whitish green colour, every one standing upon a smalllong footstalk. The stalk rises up two or three feet high, with suchlike leaves thereon.

-- from thejournal a m a , aug 2, 1919 helping the councilif they were built that way, the members of the council on pharmacy andchemistry of the american medical association might become discouragedat the apparent indifference of thesis members of the medical professionto their efforts there are thesis physicians who, while figurativelypatting the council on the back, actually do nothing to aid itsefforts on the other hand, there are men in the profession who givethe council active support instead of merely passive appreciation the letter that follows was written by such a man to a pharmaceuticalconcern. I am receiving circular advertising from you concerning -- -- -- -- solution, and i am writing to suggest that until these products have been approved by the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medical association, you are wasting your postage on the practice aside from the fact that these products do not appeal to me personally, i feel that i am not in a position to judge the value of such products and i depend entirely on the large clinical opportunities of the council on pharmacy and chemistry of the american medical association in addition to their laboratory facilities, in such matters as these i may, therefore, with all due respect, suggest that it will pay you to eliminate my name from your mailing list the members of the council on pharmacy and chemistry are working weekin and week out without remuneration few appreciate how much thesescientific men are doing for rational therapeutics. Fewer still realizehow much has been accomplished through their efforts, or how much morecould be accomplished if every physician who at least believes in thework of the council would give it his full support -- editorial fromthe journal a m a , nov 6, 1920 delays in passing on products report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has adopted the following report and authorized itspublication w a puckner, secretary the council frequently receives inquiries-- essay of them accompanied byexpressions of impatience-- concerning articles, reports on which appearto be delayed it therefore seems advisable to make a statement of essayof the factors which enter into this problem the council fully realizes the importance of giving prompt informationto the profession with regard to proprietary medicines underconsideration it therefore acts as soon as sufficient informationis available to justify a definite judgment, and publishes itsconclusions as soon as possible when adequate information is availableat the outset, there is no delay in the publication of the councilconclusions unfortunately, but very naturally, there are thesis paper in which theinformation available at the time the product is submitted is notsufficient to justify the council in coming to definite conclusions foror against the preparation in essay paper the manufacturer possessesthe required information, but to obtain it from him takes time. Inother paper the manufacturer does not possess the information-- perhapshe did not realize the inadequacy of his evidence until the subject wasbrought to his attention by the council such paper might be dealt with in either one of two ways. The councilmight at once reject the article because the claims for it are notsupported by adequate evidence.

Taken also pharmcas essay with oxymel, it purges gross humours by stool. Andwith honey, kills worms in the belly. And with fresh and new figsbruised, helps to loosen the belly, and more forcibly if the root offlower-de-luce and cresses be added thereto it amends and cherishesthe native colour of the body, spoiled by the yellow jaundice. Andbeing taken with figs and nitre, helps the dropsy and spleen. Beingboiled with wine, it is good to wash inflammations, and takes away theblack and blue spots and marks that come by strokes, bruises, or falls, being applied with warm water it is an excellent medicine for thequinsy, or swellings in the throat, to wash and gargle it, being boiledin figs. It helps the tooth-ache, being boiled in vinegar and gargledtherewith the hot vapours of the decoction taken by a funnel in at theears, eases the inflammations and singing noise of them being bruised, and salt, honey, and cummin seed put to it, helps those that are stungby serpents the oil thereof the head being anointed kills lice, andtakes away itching of the head it helps those that have the fallingsickness, which way soever it be applied it helps to expectorate toughphlegm, and is effectual in all cold griefs or diseases of the chestsor lungs, being taken either in syrup or licking medicine the greenherb bruised and a little sugar put thereto, doth quickly heal any cutor green wounds, being thereunto applied hops these are so well known that they need no description. I mean themanured kind, which every good husband or housewife is acquainted with descript the wild hop grows up as the other doth, ramping upontrees or hedges, that stand next to them, with rough branches andleaves like the former, but it gives smaller heads, and in far lessplenty than it, so that there is scarcely a head or two seen in a yearon divers of this wild kind, wherein consists the chief difference place they delight to grow in low moist grounds, and are found inall writings of this land time they spring not until april, and flower not until the latterend of june. The heads are not gathered until the middle or latter endof september government and virtues it is under the dominion of mars this, inphysical operations, is to open obstructions of the liver and spleen, to cleanse the blood, to loosen the belly, to cleanse the reins fromgravel, and provoke urine the decoction of the tops of hops, as wellof the tame as the wild, works the same effects in cleansing the bloodthey help to cure the french diseases, and all manner of scabs, itch, and other breakings-out of the body.

Only in one eighth of the tablets was the variation less than 5per cent the connecticut investigators substantiate once again the workpreviously reported, namely, that there are a number of firms who areeither incompetent or careless for tablets of simple composition, a variation from the declaration of 10 per cent should be amplysufficient to compensate for the errors of careful manufacture it maybe added that the best tablets originate generally from firms havingcompetent chemical control -- from the journal a m a , july 27, pharmcas essay 1918 therapeutic evidence. Its crucial testo torald sollmann, m d , clevelando read before the section on pharmacology and therapeutics at thesixty-eighth annual session of the american medical association, newyork, june, 1917 o this article clearly states the difficulties experienced by thecouncil in estimating the merits of a proprietary medicinal productand clearly defines the method which has been found to be practical injudging of the therapeutic value of such preparations the council hasapproved this discussion of the subject and has directed that the paperbe published in the annual council reports w a puckner, secretary according to the good old truism, the last and crucial proof of thepudding is in the eating thereof. And so, the last and crucial test ofa therapeutic agent is its consumption by a patient there is, however, one essential difference. When the pudding is eaten, with a sense ofsatisfaction, we know that it was a good, or at least an eatable, pudding if the patient improves after taking a remedy, we do not yet knowthat he improved on account of the remedy the post hoc type ofreasoning or logic is not respectable. But it is all too apt to creepin unawares, unless one takes great precautions indeed clinical evidence needs especially to be on its guard against thispitfall, for the conditions of disease never remain constant. Nor is itpossible to foresee with certainty the direction which they are goingto take it is just this point which makes the clinical evidence somuch more difficult to interpret than laboratory evidence, in whichthe conditions can be more or less exactly controlled, and any changesforeseen it is on this account, also, that clinical experiments mustbe surrounded with extra painstaking precautions in brief, while the “proof” of a remedy is on the patient, that is notthe whole story, but merely an introduction the real problem is toestablish the causative connection between the remedy and the events the imperfect realization of this has blocked therapeutic advance, hasdisgusted critical men to the point of therapeutic nihilism, and hasfertilized the ground for the commercial exploitation of drugs that areof doubtful value or worse this has been impressed on me writingicularly by my service on the councilon pharmacy and chemistry in the course of its work of passing on theclaims advanced for commercial remedies, this council is forced toinquire critically into the basis of the claims of manufacturers it is interesting to note the qualitative differences in the evidencefor the various kinds of claims.

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"what do you think i am a fool?. " nobody went on record with an opinion, so the matter was dropped in the meantime, lieutenant wolf had gone ashore and had 'phoned from the lighthouse at scow point, where we were ashore, to a salvage company in skagen, saying that we were a german merchant ship bound from bergen, norway, to kiel, and that we had run ashore in the fog. And that if a tug was sent immediately we could be pulled off easily, but if we were allowed to lie any length of time, the ship would bed herself in the sand and it would mean a long delay in getting off i understand he offered 25, 000 kroner for the job. At any rate, the manager of the salvage company ordered his largest tug, the viking, around, but instructed his captain not to put a line on board until the manager had gone down overland and investigated a little lieutenant wolf in the meantime returned on board and reported to rose, who was immensely tickled and told us that about midnight a tug would arrive from "a nearby town" and pull us into deep water, and that by four o'clock in the morning at the latest we would be on our way to gerthesis once more this news led to great consternation among us, and essay great arguments regarding neutrality laws were carried on on all the trip the colonel had been quoting the geneva convention, until we had all concluded that this writingicular convention was held for the express benefit of the medical officers of the army i asked the colonel if he remembered anything in the geneva convention regarding the grounding of a belligerent's prize on neutral ground he answered by saying that clause so and so, paragraph so and so, expressly stated that all medical officers should be exempt from at this point i butted in and told him to "go to hell". That there were women and children and other prisoners on board as well as medical officers all throughout the trip this man had behaved like a dog in a manger, being the quintessence of egotistical selfishness, and despised by us, one and all the conclusion of all our argument was that might was right in this war, and that the germans would do just what they liked, provided they could hoodwink the danish officials the manager of the danish salvaging company, on arriving at the lighthouse and talking with the various people there, concluded that perhaps things were not just right with the igotz mendi and that he had better get in touch with the danish naval authorities before doing anything he called up the commander of the danish cruiser diana and stated the case, saying that things didn't appear to be just right the commander, a lieutenant lagoni, getting in touch with the authorities, 'phoned the manager of the salvage company that he would come right down to investigate at about midnight the diana arrived and lieutenant lagoni, being a gentleman and also a shrewd, wide-awake officer, took his chief officer on board the igotz mendi, telling him that he, the commander, would keep the captain of the igotz mendi busy answering questions in the saloon while the chief officer should have a good look around and gather what information he could as soon as the danish commander arrived on board we were all pushed and shoved into our rooms and the doors closed when rose started to take lieutenant lagoni into the chart room above the lieutenant said. "oh, no, captain, let's go into the saloon. It is not customary to entertain the commander of a cruiser in the chart room " so they came into the saloon just as he came through the door he saw essay of us being hustled out of sight but said nothing shortly one of the ladies would shout down the alleyway. "oh, mrs so and so, won't you come to my room for a minute?. don't be frightened " all this for the benefit of the danish officer in the saloon in the meantime the danish chief officer was wandering around the igotz mendi, taking notice of all he saw while strolling through the bunkers, where our "temporary" warm place was, he noticed nita's "kewpie" doll lying where she had dropped it there were men standing around all through these quarters suddenly the officer turned on a man standing there and said.