History

Persuasive Essay Structure


As also allother hot tumours and inflammations, or breakings-out, of heat, beingbathed often with persuasive essay structure wet cloths dipped therein. The said juice made intoa liniment with ceruss, and oil of roses, and anointed therewith, cleanses foul rotten ulcers, and stays spreading or creeping ulcers, and running scabs or sores in children heads. And helps to stay thehair from falling off the head the said ointment, or the herb appliedto the fundament, opens the piles, and eases their pains. And beingmixed with goats’ tallow, helps the gout the juice is very effectualto cleanse fistulas, and to heal them up safely.

Like most secret mixtures, itscomposition varies 2 a simple formula for a paraffin film, similar in chemicalcomposition but superior in physical properties to “ambrine, ” is thatdescribed as formula 21 the superiority is due to using a grade ofparaffin that is better adapted to the purpose the cost of materialsis about 10 cents a pound 3 the properties of the paraffin used for a surgical dressing areimportant a number of different grades have been examined, in order todetermine the ones that appear most promising paraffins nos 3, 4, 10, 11 and 25 are the best in the table, and surpass “ambrine” itself 4 it is exceedingly probable that further experience will show thatfor most purposes simple paraffin will serve just as well as themixtures-- if, indeed, not better addenda reprinted from the annual report of the chemical laboratory of theamerican medical association, vol 10 1917, p 32since the foregoing was published, two other products-- “cerelene” and“stanolind surgical wax”-- were submitted to the council on pharmacy andchemistry for investigation as to their acceptability for inclusion innew and nonofficial remedies in this connection the laboratory wasrequested to examine them “cerelene” is manufactured by the holliday laboratories, pittsburgh according to the manufacturers, “cerelene” is a compound composed of84 per cent paraffin, 15 per cent myricyl palmitate and 1 per cent elemi gum as ordinarily marketed, “cerelene” contains the followingmaterials. To the beeswax is added oil of eucalyptus, u s p , 2 percent , and betanaphthol, u s p , 0 25 per cent the manufacturerfurther states that the myricyl palmitate is a purified form ofbeeswax, free from all impurities, acids, etc , which is solelymanufactured by this company and for which patents are pending theproperties described for “cerelene” were as follows. When cold, cerelene is a solid wax-like cake of a fine yellow brown color on exposure to air for long periods, the amber color darkens to essay extent it is entirely free from solids, odorless and tasteless. Does not separate or change when melted repeatedly, and cannot in the melted state be separated by fractional crystallization it is entirely neutral to indicators being perfectly free from both acids and bases tests. Melting point, u s p method, 126 f density, u s p method, 0 907 iodin value, 0 5 saponification number, 0 9 “stanolind surgical wax” is manufactured by the standard oil company ofindiana in the submission of the product to the council on pharmacyand chemistry, it was stated that the product was a specially preparedparaffin “free from dirt or other deleterious matter it hasbeen steamed and resteamed to drive out any free oil and repeatedlyfiltered ”the examination of the foregoing products yielded the figures describedin table “b ”-- from the journal a m a , may 19, 1917 the stability of iodine ointments l e warren, ph c , b s in general, the literature on the keeping qualities of iodine ointment, and on the stability of iodine if mixed with ointment bases, isconfusing the recorded evidence is often contradictory the attentionof the writer was brought to this condition by studies of severalproprietary preparations, iodex, 184 iod-izd-oil, 185 iocamfen, andiocamfen ointment 186184 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 89 185 rep chem lab , a m a , 1915, 8, 106 186 rep chem lab , a m a , 1916, 9, 118 iodex was sold under the claim that it is “ an embodiment of vaporized iodine, in an organic base, reduced and standardized at 5 per cent by incorporation with a refined petroleum product ”the exact composition of iodex is a trade secret analysis showed thatit contains petrolatum-like substances and combined iodine, the latterprobably in combination with oleic acid tests for free iodine weremade in five specimens of iodex in one of these no free iodine waspresent. In the others the merest traces were found two years ago a preparation called “iod-izd-oil” was examined this wasclaimed to contain 2 per cent of free iodine in liquid petrolatum at the time of the examination the age of the preparation was notknown, but it had been obtained just prior to the analysis, and wasthought not to be very old the analysis showed that it contained butabout 0 43 per cent of iodine, all of which was in a free state thefact that all of the iodine present was in the free state appearedto indicate that iodine is relatively stable in liquid petrolatumsolutions iocamfen is a liquid composed of iodine, camphor and phenol it wasclaimed to contain 10 per cent of free iodine analysis showed thatit contained 9 3 per cent of total iodine of which 7 5 per cent was present in an uncombined state, 66 1 per cent of camphor and19 7 per cent of phenol after storing for several months a secondassay of iocamfen showed no appreciable loss in iodine content this would indicate that iodine is relatively stable in presenceof phenol and camphor, although immediately after mixing there isessay loss of free iodine the iocamfen ointment was supposed tocontain 50 per cent of iocamfen equivalent to 5 per cent of freeiodine in a lard-wax-cacaobutter base the analysis showed that theointment contained but 0 4 per cent of free iodine, the balancebeing in combination from the results of the examination, and fromcorrespondence with the manufacturers schering and glatz, it becameevident that the only plausible explanation for the loss of free iodinein the preparation of iocamfen ointment from iocamfen lay in thecombination of the free iodine with the ingredients of the ointmentbase it seems likely that the free iodine originally present iniocamfen for the most writing had gradually gone into combination with thefatty substances after the ointment had been prepared the literature was then examined to determine the consensus of opinionconcerning the stability of iodine in iodine ointment in the olderliterature the belief that iodine ointment is unstable appears to bequite general such statements as the following are typical. The ointment should be prepared only when wanted for use, for it undergoes change if kept, losing its deep, orange-brown color, and becoming pale upon its surface 187 187 u s disp , ed 19, p 1315 it is better to prepare it only as it is required for use 188 188 am disp , ed 2, p 2022 this ointment must not be dispensed unless it has recently been prepared 189 189 u s pharmacopeia, ix, p 481 in 1909 lythgoe, 190 of the massachusetts board of health laboratory, reported an examination of four samples of iodine ointment three werefound to be pure, the fourth was low in iodine experiments showedthat iodine ointment deteriorates rapidly. Consequently, no furthercollections of samples were made 190 rep mass bd health, 1909, 41, 477 in 1912 pullen191 reported that he had prepared two specimens ofiodine ointment according to the british pharmacopeia, one beingfrom new lard and the other from a specimen of lard at least 2 yearsold assays for free iodine were carried out immediately after thepreparations were made, and at intervals afterward up to four months the following values were found:191 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 sample i sample ii ointment from ointment from new lard, old lard, per cent per cent iodine introduced 4 0 4 0 iodine found immediately after making 3 95 3 38 iodine found after twenty-four hours 3 30 3 15 iodine found on the third day 3 18 2 62 iodine found on the seventh day 3 15 2 46 iodine found on the fourteenth day 3 00 2 45 iodine found after one month 3 00 2 39 iodine found after two months 2 90 2 31 iodine found after four months 2 92 2 26pullen found that the loss in free iodine could be accounted for by theiodine which had gone into combination with the fats of the ointmentbase pullen also found that if the potassium iodide and glycerin wereomitted in the preparation of the ointment, the loss in free iodinewas very rapid, the preparation containing practically no free iodine only 1/20 after a few hours he concludes that the use of potassiumiodide and glycerin is necessary for the preservation of the ointment he obtained specimens of iodine ointment in drug stores, and assayedthem for free iodine it is to be presumed that the ages of the severalspecimens were not known the results are found in the following table. Specimen no 1 2 74 per cent specimen no 2 2 85 per cent specimen no 3 2 62 per cent specimen no 4 2 48 per cent specimen no 5 2 53 per cent specimen no 6 2 79 per cent fried192 prepared iodine ointment according to the u s p viiiformula, and assayed it at intervals his results are tabulatedherewith:192 pharm jour , 1912, 89, 610 per cent iodine introduced 4 00 iodine found immediately after making 3 89 iodine found one hour after making 3 51 iodine found one day after making 3 48 iodine found five days after making 3 06 iodine found ten days after making 2 84 iodine found thirty days after making 2 81 iodine found ninety days after making 2 81 iodine found eight months after making 2 81iodine ointment has been official in the u s pharmacopeia since 1870 briefly, the method now used for making the preparation is as follows. Four gm of iodine, 4 gm of potassium iodide and 12 gm of glycerin are weighed into a tared mortar and the mixture triturated until the iodine and potassium iodide are dissolved and a dark, reddish-brown, syrupy liquid is produced eighty gm of benzoinated lard are then added in small portions and with trituration after each addition the mass is then triturated until of uniform consistence 193193 the time required to complete the process after the initialportion of lard has been added should be about twenty minutes paraffins and paraffin preparations-- table a key. A. Formula b. Substance c. Melting point, u s p d.

Such as cool, either coolthe blood or choler waters cooling the blood lettice, purslain, water lilies, violets, sorrel endive, succory, fumitory waters cooling and repressing choleric humours, or vapours in the head nightshade, lettice, water lilies, plantain, poppies, viz theflowers both of white black and red poppies, black cheries the breast and lungs violets, poppies all three sorts, colt-foot in the heart sorrel, quinces, water lilies, roses, violets, green orunripe walnuts in the stomach quinces, roses, violets, nightshade, houseleeks, orsengreen, lettice, purslain in the liver endive, succory, nightshade, purslain, water lilies in the reins and bladder endive, succory, winter cherries, plantain, water lilies, strawberries, houseleek or sengreen, black cherries in the womb endive, succory, lettice, water lilies, purslain, roses simple waters which are hot, concoct either flegm or melancholy waters concocting flegm in the head, arebettony, sage, marjoram, chamomel, fennel, calaminth, rosemary-flowers, primroses, eye-bright in the breast and lungs maiden-hair, bettony, hysop, horehound, carduus benedictus, scabious, orris, or flower-de-luces, bawm, self-heal, &c in the heart bawm, rosemary in the stomach wormwood, mints, fennel, chervil, time, mother oftime, marigolds in the liver wormwood, centaury, origanum, marjoram, maudlin, costmary, agrimony, fennel in the spleen water-cresses, wormwood, calaminth in the reins and bladder rocket, nettles, saxifrage, pellitory ofthe wall, alicampane, burnet in the womb mugwort, calaminth, penny-royal, savin, mother of time, lovage waters concocting melancholy in the head, arehops, fumitory the breast bawm, carduus benedictus the heart borrage, bugloss, bawm, rosemary the liver endive, chicory, hops the spleen dodder, hart-tongue, tamarisk, time having thus ended the appropriation, i shall speak briefly of thevirtues of distilled waters lettice water cools the blood when it is over-heated, for whenit is not, it needs no cooling. It cools the head and liver, stayshot vapours ascending to the head, and hinders sleep. It quenchesimmoderate thirst, and breeds milk in nurses, distil it in may purslain water cools the blood and liver, quenches thirst, helps suchas spit blood, have hot coughs, or pestilences the distilled water of water lily-flowers cools the blood and thebowels, and all internal writings of the body. Helps such as have theyellow jaundice, hot coughs and pleurisies, the head-ache, coming ofheat, fevers pestilential and not pestilential, as also hectic fevers the water of violet flowers, cools the blood, the heart, liver andlungs, over-heated, and quenches an insatiable desire of drinking, theyare in their prime about the latter end of march, or beginning ofapril, according as the year falls out the water of sorrel cools the blood, heart, liver, and spleen. Ifvenice treacle be given with it, it is profitable in pestilentialfevers, distil it in may endive and succory water are excellent against heat in the stomach;if you take an ounce of either for their operation is the samemorning and evening, four days one after another, they cool the liver, and cleanse the blood. They are in their prime in may fumitory water is usual with the city dames to wash their faces with, to take away morphey, freckles, and sun-burning. Inwardly taken, ithelps the yellow jaundice and itch, cleanses the blood, provokes sweat, strengthens the stomach, and cleanses the body of adust humours. It isin its prime in may and june the water of nightshade helps pains in the head coming of heat takeheed you distil not the deadly nightshade instead of the common, if youdo, you may make mad work let such as have not wit enough to know themasunder, have wit enough to let them both alone till they do the water of white poppies extinguishes all heat against nature, helps head-aches coming of heat, and too long standing in the sun distil them in june or july colt-foot water is excellent for burns to wash the place with it;inwardly taken it helps phthisicks and other diseases incident to thelungs, distil them in may or june the water of distilled quinces strengthens the heart and stomachexceedingly, stays vomiting and fluxes, and strengthens the retentivefaculty in man damask rose water cools, comforts, and strengthens the heart, so dothred rose-water only with this difference, the one is binding, the otherloosening. If your body be costive, use damask rose water, because itis loosening.

If it be to be fixed at all, it is by lunar influence thejuice thereof taken in wine, or the decoction thereof drank, doth helpthe jaundice, although of long continuance, to drink thereof morningand evening, and abstain from other drink two or three hours after it is a special remedy against the stone, and the tormenting painsthereof. As also other tortures and griping pains of the bowels thedecoction thereof with succory and centaury is held very effectualto help the dropsy, and them that are inclining thereunto, and thediseases of the spleen it stays the fluxes of blood, either at themouth or nose, and inward bleeding also, for it is a singular woundherb for wounds both inward and outward. It helps the bloody flux, andhelps the abundance of women courses there is a syrup made of thejuice hereof and sugar, by the apothecaries of italy, and other places, which is of much account with them, to be given to those that aretroubled with the cough or phthisic the same also is singularly goodfor ruptures or burstings the green herb bruised and presently boundto any cut or wound, doth quickly solder the lips thereof and thejuice, decoction, or powder of the dried herb is most singular to staythe malignity of spreading and fretting cankers and ulcers whatsoever, yea in the mouth and secret writings the distilled water of the plant isavailable in all the diseases aforesaid, and to wash outward wounds andsores, by applying tents of cloths wet therein mugwort descript common mugwort hath divers leaves lying upon the ground, very much divided, or cut deeply in about the brims, essaywhat likewormwood, but much larger, of a dark green colour on the upper side, and very hoary white underneath the stalks rise to be four or fivefeet high, having on it such like leaves as those below, but essaywhatsmaller, branching forth very much towards the top, whereon are setvery small, pale, yellowish flowers like buttons, which fall away, andafter them come small seeds inclosed in round heads the root is longand hard, with thesis small fibres growing from it, whereby it takesstrong hold on the ground. But both stalks and leaves do lie down everyyear, and the root shoots anew in the spring the whole plant is of areasonable scent, and is more easily propagated by the slips than theseed place it grows plentifully in thesis places of this land, by thewater-sides. As also by small water courses, and in divers other places time it flowers and seeds in the end of summer government and virtues this is an herb of venus, thereforemaintains the writings of the body she rules, remedies the diseases ofthe writings that are under her signs, taurus and libra mugwort is withgood success put among other herbs that are boiled for women to applythe hot decoction to draw down their courses, to help the delivery ofthe birth, and expel the after-birth as also for the obstructions andinflammations of the mother it breaks the stone, and opens the urinarypassages where they are stopped the juice thereof made up with myrrh, and put under as a pessary, works the same effects, and so does theroot also being made up with hog grease into an ointment, it takesaway wens and hard knots and kernels that grow about the neck andthroat, and eases the pains about the neck more effectually, if essayfield daisies be put with it the herb itself being fresh, or the juicethereof taken, is a special remedy upon the overmuch taking of opium three drams of the powder of the dried leaves taken in wine, is aspeedy and the best certain help for the sciatica a decoction thereofmade with camomile and agrimony, and the place bathed therewith whileit is warm, takes away the pains of the sinews, and the cramp the mulberry-tree this is so well known where it grows, that it needs no description time it bears fruit in the months of july and august government and virtues mercury rules the tree, therefore are itseffects variable as his are the mulberry is of different writings. Theripe berries, by reason of their sweetness and slippery moisture, opening the body, and the unripe binding it, especially when they aredried, and then they are good to stay fluxes, lasks, and the abundanceof women courses the bark of the root kills the broad worms in thebody the juice, or the syrup made of the juice of the berries, helpsall inflammations or sores in the mouth, or throat, and palate of themouth when it is fallen down the juice of the leaves is a remedyagainst the biting of serpents, and for those that have taken aconite the leaves beaten with vinegar, are good to lay on any place that isburnt with fire a decoction made of the bark and leaves is good towash the mouth and teeth when they ache if the root be a little slitor cut, and a small hole made in the ground next thereunto, in theharvest-time, it will give out a certain juice, which being hardenedthe next day, is of good use to help the tooth-ache, to dissolve knots, and purge the belly the leaves of mulberries are said to stay bleedingat the mouth or nose, or the bleeding of the piles, or of a wound, being bound unto the places a branch of the tree taken when the moonis at the full, and bound to the wrists of a woman arm, whose coursescome down too much, doth stay them in a short space mullein descript common white mullein has thesis fair, large, woolly whiteleaves, lying next the ground, essaywhat larger than broad, pointed atthe end, and as it were dented about the edges the stalk rises up tobe four or five feet high, covered over with such like leaves, butless, so that no stalk can be seen for the multitude of leaves thereonup to the flowers, which come forth on all sides of the stalk, withoutany branches for the most writing, and are thesis set together in a longspike, in essay of a yellow colour, in others more pale, consisting offive round pointed leaves, which afterwards have small round heads, wherein is small brownish seed contained the root is long, white, andwoody, perishing after it hath borne seed place it grows by way-sides and lanes, in thesis places of this land time it flowers in july or thereabouts government and virtues it is under the dominion of saturn a smallquantity of the root given in wine, is commended by dioscorides, against lasks and fluxes of the belly the decoction hereof drank, isprofitable for those that are bursten, and for cramps and convulsions, and for those that are troubled with an old cough the decoctionthereof gargled, eases the pains of the tooth-ache and the oil madeby the often infusion of the flowers, is of very good effect for thepiles the decoction of the root in red wine or in water, if there bean ague wherein red hot steel hath been often quenched, doth stay thebloody-flux the same also opens obstructions of the bladder and reins a decoction of the leaves hereof, and of sage, marjoram, and camomileflowers, and the places bathed therewith, that have sinews stiff withcold or cramps, doth bring them much ease and comfort three ounces ofthe distilled water of the flowers drank morning and evening for essaydays together, is said to be the most excellent remedy for the gout the juice of the leaves and flowers being laid upon rough warts, asalso the powder of the dried roots rubbed on, doth easily take themaway, but doth no good to smooth warts the powder of the dried flowersis an especial remedy for those that are troubled with the belly-ache, or the pains of the cholic the decoction of the root, and so likewiseof the leaves, is of great effect to dissolve the tumours, swellings, or inflammations of the throat the seed and leaves boiled in wine, andapplied, draw forth speedily thorns or splinters gotten into the flesh, ease the pains, and heal them also the leaves bruised and wrapped indouble papers, and covered with hot ashes and embers to bake a while, and then taken forth and laid warm on any blotch or boil happening inthe groin or share, doth dissolve and heal them the seed bruised andboiled in wine, and laid on any member that has been out of joint, andnewly set again, takes away all swelling and pain thereof mustard descript our common mustard hath large and broad rough leaves, verymuch jagged with uneven and unorderly gashes, essaywhat like turnipleaves, but less and rougher the stalk rises to be more than a foothigh, and essaytimes two feet high, being round, rough, and branched atthe top, bearing such like leaves thereon as grow below, but lesser, and less divided, and divers yellow flowers one above another at thetops, after which come small rough pods, with small, lank, flat ends, wherein is contained round yellowish seed, sharp, hot, and biting uponthe tongue the root is small, long, and woody when it bears stalks, and perishes every year place this grows with us in gardens only, and other manured places time it is an annual plant, flowering in july, and the seed is ripein august government and virtues it is an excellent sauce for such whoseblood wants clarifying, and for weak stomachs, being an herb of mars, but naught for choleric people, though as good for such as are aged, or troubled with cold diseases aries claims essaything to do with it, therefore it strengthens the heart, and resists poison let such whosestomachs are so weak they cannot digest their meat, or appetite it, take of mustard-seed a dram, cinnamon as much, and having beaten themto powder, and half as much mastich in powder, and with gum arabicdissolved in rose-water, make it up into troches, of which they maytake one of about half a dram weight an hour or two before meals. Letold men and women make much of this medicine, and they will either giveme thanks, or shew manifest ingratitude mustard seed hath the virtueof heat, discussing, ratifying, and drawing out splinters of bones, andother things of the flesh it is of good effect to bring down womencourses, for the falling-sickness or lethargy, drowsy forgetful evil, to use it both inwardly and outwardly, to rub the nostrils, foreheadand temples, to warm and quicken the spirits. For by the fiercesharpness it purges the brain by sneezing, and drawing down rheum andother viscous humours, which by their distillations upon the lungs andchest, procure coughing, and therefore, with essay, honey added thereto, doth much good therein the decoction of the seed made in wine, anddrank, provokes urine, resists the force of poison, the malignity ofmushrooms, and venom of scorpions, or other venomous creatures, if itbe taken in time. And taken before the cold fits of agues, alters, lessens, and cures them the seed taken either by itself, or with otherthings, either in an electuary or drink, doth mightily stir up bodilylust, and helps the spleen and pains in the sides, and gnawings in thebowels. And used as a gargle draws up the palate of the mouth, beingfallen down. And also it dissolves the swellings about the throat, ifit be outwardly applied being chewed in the mouth it oftentimes helpsthe tooth-ache the outward application hereof upon the pained placeof the sciatica, discusses the humours, and eases the pains, as alsothe gout, and other joint aches. And is much and often used to easepains in the sides or loins, the shoulder, or other writings of the body, upon the plying thereof to raise blisters, and cures the disease bydrawing it to the outward writings of the body it is also used to helpthe falling off the hair the seed bruised mixed with honey, andapplied, or made up with wax, takes away the marks and black and bluespots of bruises, or the like, the roughness or scabbiness of the skin, as also the leprosy, and lousy evil it helps also the crick in theneck the distilled water of the herb, when it is in the flower, ismuch used to drink inwardly to help in any of the diseases aforesaid, or to wash the mouth when the palate is down, and for the disease ofthe throat to gargle, but outwardly also for scabs, itch, or other thelike infirmities, and cleanses the face from morphew, spots, freckles, and other deformities the hedge-mustard descript this grows up usually but with one blackish green stalk, tough, easy to bend, but not to break, branched into divers writings, andessaytimes with divers stalks, set full of branches, whereon grow long, rough, or hard rugged leaves, very much tore or cut on the edges inthesis writings, essay bigger, and essay less, of a dirty green colour theflowers are small and yellow, that grow on the tops of the branches inlong spikes, flowering by degrees. So that continuing long in flower, the stalk will have small round cods at the bottom, growing upright andclose to the stalk, while the top flowers yet shew themselves, in whichare contained small yellow seed, sharp and strong, as the herb is also the root grows down slender and woody, yet abiding and springing againevery year place this grows frequently in this land, by the ways andhedge-sides, and essaytimes in the open fields time it flowers most usually about july government and virtues mars owns this herb also it is singularlygood in all the diseases of the chest and lungs, hoarseness of voice:and by the use of the decoction thereof for a little space, those havebeen recovered who had utterly lost their voice, and almost theirspirits also the juice thereof made into a syrup, or licking medicine, with honey or sugar, is no less effectual for the same purpose, andfor all other coughs, wheezing, and shortness of breath the same isalso profitable for those that have the jaundice, pleurisy, pains inthe back and loins, and for torments in the belly, or cholic, beingalso used in clysters the seed is held to be a special remedy againstpoison and venom it is singularly good for the sciatica, and injoint-aches, ulcers, and cankers in the mouth, throat, or behind theears, and no less for the hardness and swelling of the testicles, or ofwomen breasts nailwort, or whitlow-grass descript this very small and common herb hath no roots, save onlya few strings. Neither doth it ever grow to be above a hand breadthhigh, the leaves are very small, and essaything long, not much unlikethose of chickweed, among which rise up divers slender stalks, bearingthesis white flowers one above another, which are exceeding small. Afterwhich come small flat pouches containing the seed, which is very small, but of a sharp taste place it grows commonly upon old stone and brick walls, andessaytimes in gravelly grounds, especially if there be grass or mossnear to shadow it time they flower very early in the year, essaytimes in january, andin february.

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Yet the white is not so frequent as the other time their time is likewise expressed before. The catkins comingforth before the leaves in the end of summer government and virtues saturn hath dominion over both whitepoplar, saith galen, is of a cleansing property. The weight of anounce in powder, of the bark thereof, being drank, saith dioscorides, is a remedy for those that are troubled with the sciatica, or thestranguary the juice of the leaves dropped warm into the ears, eases the pains in them the young clammy buds or eyes, before theybreak out into leaves, bruised, and a little honey put to them, is agood medicine for a dull sight the black poplar is held to be morecooling than the white, and therefore the leaves bruised with vinegarand applied, help the gout the seed drank in vinegar, is held goodagainst the falling-sickness the water that drops from the hollowplaces of this tree, takes away warts, pushes, wheals, and other thelike breakings-out of the body the young black poplar buds, saithmatthiolus, are much used by women to beautify their hair, bruisingthem with fresh butter, straining them after they have been kept foressay time in the sun the ointment called populneon, which is made ofthis poplar, is singularly good for all heat and inflammations in anywriting of the body, and tempers the heat of wounds it is much used todry up the milk of women breasts when they have weaned their children poppy of this i shall describe three kinds, viz the white and black ofthe garden, and the erratic wild poppy, or corn rose descript the white poppy hath at first four or five whitish greenleaves lying upon the ground, which rise with the stalk, compassingit at the bottom of them, and are very large, much cut or torn on theedges, and dented also besides. The stalk, which is usually four orfive feet high, hath essaytimes no branches at the top, and usually buttwo or three at most, bearing every one but one head wrapped up in athin skin, which bows down before it is ready to blow, and then rising, and being broken, the flowers within it spreading itself open, andconsisting of four very large, white, round leaves, with thesis whitishround threads in the middle, set about a small, round, green head, having a crown, or star-like cover at the head thereof, which growingripe, becomes as large as a great apple, wherein are contained a greatnumber of small round seeds, in several writingitions or divisions nextunto the shell, the middle thereof remaining hollow, and empty thewhole plant, both leaves, stalks, and heads, while they are fresh, young, and green, yield a milk when they are broken, of an unpleasantbitter taste, almost ready to provoke casting, and of a strong headysmell, which being condensed, is called opium the root is white andwoody, perishing as soon as it hath given ripe seed the black poppy little differs from the former, until it bears itsflower, which is essaywhat less, and of a black purplish colour, butwithout any purple spots in the bottom of the leaf the head of theseed is much less than the former, and opens itself a little roundabout the top, under the crown, so that the seed, which is very black, will fall out, if one turn the head thereof downward the wild poppy, or corn rose, hath long and narrow leaves, very muchcut in on the edges into thesis divisions, of a light green colour, essaytimes hairy withal the stalk is blackish and hairy also, but notso tall as the garden kind, having essay such like leaves thereon togrow below, writinged into three or four branches essaytimes, whereon growsmall hairy heads bowing down before the skin break, wherein the floweris inclosed, which when it is fully blown open, is of a fair yellowishred or crimson colour, and in essay much paler, without any spot in thebottom of the leaves, having thesis black soft threads in the middle, compassing a small green head, which when it is ripe, is not biggerthan one little finger end, wherein is contained much black seedssmaller than that of the garden the root perishes every year, andsprings again of its own sowing of this kind there is one lesser inall writings thereof, and differs in nothing else place the garden kinds do not naturally grow wild in any place, butall are sown in gardens where they grow the wild poppy or corn rose, is plentifully enough, and thesis times toomuch so in the corn fields of all counties through this land, and alsoon ditch banks, and by hedge sides the smaller wild kind is also foundin corn fields, and also in essay other places, but not so plentifullyas the former time the garden kinds are usually sown in the spring, which thenflower about the end of may, and essaywhat earlier, if they spring oftheir own sowing the wild kind flower usually from may until july, and the seed of themis ripe soon after the flowering government and virtues the herb is lunar, and of the juice of itis made opium. Only for lucre of money they cheat you, and tell you itis a kind of tear, or essay such like thing, that drops from poppieswhen they weep, and that is essaywhere beyond the seas, i know not wherebeyond the moon the garden poppy heads with seeds made into a syrup, is frequently, and to good effect used to procure rest, and sleep, inthe sick and weak, and to stay catarrhs and defluxions of thin rheumsfrom the head into the stomach and lungs, causing a continual cough, the fore-runner of a consumption. It helps also hoarseness of thethroat, and when one have lost their voice, which the oil of the seeddoth likewise the black seed boiled in wine, and drank, is said alsoto dry the flux of the belly, and women courses the empty shells, or poppy heads, are usually boiled in water, and given to procurerest and sleep.