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“the analgesic action of ‘oxyl-iodide’ is gradual a wordof caution is necessary to those who may expect immediate relief frompain ” therefore, why use “oxyl-iodide” in place of more dependableanalgesics, such as salicylate or cinchophen the following statementsappear far-fetched. “there is a stimulation of the endocrines whichis perhaps more marked in the thyroid gland, although it is probablyshared by the pituitary and other glands which function in a chain-likecontrol there is stimulation of cells with increased flow ofsecretion, visibly demonstrated by the nasal mucous membrane after‘oxyl-iodide’ has been taken for essay time the general action onmucous membranes favors elimination of toxins and waste products ”it is probable that “oxyl-iodide” acts as a uric acid eliminant, thoughthere is no reason to suppose that it is more effective than cinchophenalone no data are given for this in the manufacturer literature usessuccessful use of “oxyl-iodide” is claimed in brachial and sciaticneuritis, lumbago, muscular rheumatism, arthritis deformans, chronicarthritis “ in essay instances were apparently cured”, subacutebronchitis, circumflex neuritis, traumatic orchitis, eczema andrheumatism however, a careful reading of the protocols of seven paper, representing these conditions, gives an unfavorable impression as tothe real contribution to the recovery by, or value received from, “oxyl-iodide ” summarized, the opinions as quoted by the manufacturersin support of their claims for “oxyl-iodide” are briefly as follows:case 1 “of course, the case is not complete yet, but i am looking forcontinued betterment ”case 2 “for two weeks past her improvement has been marvelous ”case 3 “the joints are still enlarged and we do not hope to clear thementirely ”case 4 “undoubtedly, removal of the kidney had much to do withimprovement ”case 5 “i think i have gotten very good results ”case 6 “essay apparent benefit ”case 7 “she is practically free from pain, and the muscle and jointstiffness is now slight ”these inconclusive opinions certainly do not agree with the favorableimpression which other portions of the manufacturer literaturecreate if the factor of natural recovery in the conditions representedby these seven paper is given due weight, little, if anything, isleft to the credit of “oxyl-iodide ” such clinical evidence as issupplied by the manufacturer indicates that the therapeutic efficiencyof “oxyl-iodide” is doubtful, and not an improvement over eithercinchophen or iodid iodismiodism cannot be avoided by the use of “oxyl-iodide, ” for themanufacturer literature states that “the dosage of ‘oxyl-iodide’may be pushed to iodism as manifested by skin symptoms to avoidiodism there should be an occasional interruption of treatment ”“oxyl-iodide, ” therefore, has no advantage over ordinary sodium iodidto avoid iodism usually, the conditions which require cinchophendo not require the simultaneous administration of iodids, and viceversa if administration of iodid and cinchophen together should beindicated or desirable, these can be given separately with the addedadvantage that the iodid can be easily reduced or withdrawn in caseiodism supervenes, and the cinchophen could be continued if necessary since conditions do not arise frequently enough to warrant the useof iodid and cinchophen together, the existence of such a product as“oxyl-iodide” is unwarranted finally, the manufacturer himself recognizes that phenylcinchoninicacid cinchophen can take the place of “oxyl-iodide ” under“dosage, ” the circular states. “a few patients may be idiosyncraticto the iodides and find they cannot take ‘oxyl-iodide ’ for thelatter chloroxyl, the hydrochloride of phenylcinchoninic acid, isrecommended ” the action of the hydrochlorid of phenylcinchoninic aciddoes not differ, of course, from that of cinchophen the difficultiesof assigning a clear-cut, definite, therapeutic rôle to “oxyl-iodide”in order to justify its existence, alongside well-known and triedremedies are self-evident conclusion“oxyl-iodide” is pharmacologically and therapeutically an illogical, irrational and unjustified substitute for cinchophen and iodids theconditions which require the administration of cinchophen do not asa rule require the administration of iodid and vice versa if it isdesirable to secure the effects of iodid and cinchophen together, thesecan be more conveniently and advantageously administered as separateagents, permitting in that way a better control of their actions thiscannot be accomplished with “oxyl-iodide, ” in which the proportion ofiodid and cinchophen are fixed symptoms of iodism cannot be avoidedby the administration of “oxyl-iodide ” the objective evidences forits actions and uses are totally lacking. And the clinical opinionsconcerning its therapeutic benefits in different disease conditionsare inconclusive and hedging, and, if anything, contradictory to thefavorable impressions which the language of the advertising matter islikely to create -- from the journal a m a , july 2, 1921 quassia compound tablets report of the council on pharmacy and chemistrythe council has authorized publication of the following report, declaring that quassia compound tablets flint, eaton and company areinadmissible to new and nonofficial remedies w a puckner, secretary quassia compound tablets, marketed by flint, eaton and company, decatur, ill , according to the label on a trade package submitted tothe council, contain in each tablet. Quassia 3/4 grain aloin 1/4 grain chionanthus 1 grain ipecac 1/16 grain wahoo 3/4 grain podophyllin 1/4 grain nux vomica 1/2 grain gingerine q s cascara 1/3 grainin the advertising the “cascara” of the label is replaced by theindefinite term “cascarin” and the “gingerine q s ” by “carminativeantigripe q s ” flint, eaton and company informed the council that“carminative antigripe is c p sodium sulphite of which each tabletcontains 1/4 grain ” the tablets were treated with dilute hydrochloricacid and the odor of sulphur dioxid became apparent this shows thatthe company statement to the council, that the tablets contain asulphite, is correct and the formula on the label is incorrect in the advertising for this preparation we read. “a careful study of this formula which formula?. that on the label or that in the general advertising?.

In fact, this may be said to bethe exception rather than the rule we may safely say, however, thatif there are several distinct wounds on the throat, each involving thelarge vessels, the inference is plainly murder personal statement writing services illustration. Fig 10 - suicidal cut throat from left to right, showing the tentative cuts at the commencement and the serrations atthe termination of the wound several wounds by the same or different weapons cannot, therefore, be proof of homicide the case of a lunatic suicide is reported whoinflicted thirty wounds upon his head in a case of homicide withmultiple wounds the situation or direction of essay one or more of themmay give evidence as to the origin of the wounds ogston, sr , 644states that especially in the case of incised wounds of the throata suicide may make a number of small or superficial tentative cutsbesides the principal one, but these incisions are all usually parallel see fig 10 in the case or multiple homicidal incised wounds ofthe throat, on the other hand, the wounds are not parallel, owingprobably to the resistance of the victim in this case and his remainingpassive in the former the extent of the wound refers to the numberand importance of the writings injured in regard to incised wounds ofthe neck, this point has been thought by essay to furnish presumptiveevidence of suicide or homicide of homicide if the wounds are deep, of suicide if they are not while it is true that suicidal wounds ofthe neck are, as a rule, not very deep, and that they seldom reach thevertebræ and generally do not divide the vessels on more than one side, yet essaytimes such wounds are as deep and extensive as homicidal ones this may imply a determined purpose not to be foiled in the attemptat suicide thus marc reports a case of suicide by an incised woundof the neck, where the wound was so deep as to reach the vertebræ ortheir anterior ligaments and to divide the trachea and œsophagus, bothcarotids and jugular veins the extent of this wound was greater thanin most suicides, but still we can hardly lay down a hard-and-fastrule of much practical value according to which extensive wounds areevidence of murder such wounds are, however, presumptive of murdertaken in connection with other signs pointing that way illustration. Fig 11 - homicidal cut throat from right to left, showing a tentative cut at the commencement and the serrations at thetermination of the wound the question may arise in regard to a wound, whether the victimwounded himself by precipitating himself on the weapon this may bealleged by the defence, but it is difficult to believe if the wound isdeep, for the body would naturally repulse the weapon if the wound isdeep the weapon must at least have been strongly held, which may or maynot be consistent with the theory of self-defence if the direction ofthe wound is oblique from above downward, or if there is one externalwound and two separate tracts internally, from a second use of theweapon on the writing of the person holding it, then the above allegationis doubtful, if not impossible by comparing the relative positions of the deceased and accused, asindicated by the witnesses and accused, with the position and directionof the wound, we may often judge whether the allegation is possible orprobable besides the above points derived from the wound itself, there areseveral other factors which belong to the category of circumstantialevidence, but which come within the province of the medical expert these latter points of evidence are essaytimes almost as important asthe former, while taken in connection with them they help to make theevidence far more conclusive evidence furnished by the weapon as to the origin of wounds we have already seen in a former section that we can often tell, byvarious signs of the wound, with what kind of a weapon it was made wemay thus be able to say that a wound was made by a weapon similar toone exhibited also by examination of the weapon itself and from thecircumstantial evidence of where and how it was found, we may essaytime essay that the wound was inflicted almost certainly with a writingicularweapon all this evidence may essaytimes be made use of in judgingbetween the suicidal and homicidal origin of a wound the position of the weapon or the place where it is found is amatter of considerable importance if it has not been touched, itsposition should be carefully examined, or inquired about if it has beenmoved the presence of a weapon which might have caused the woundsin the hand of the victim is in general proof of suicide the weaponmust not merely lie in the hand, it must be gripped by the hand onemight suppose that the weapon placed and held in the hand until rigormortis sets in would still be firmly held casper says that this isnot so, but that the weapon falls from the grasp as soon as the handis unbound also hofmann645 experiments proved the same point bythe use of ligatures and several artificial means he tried to confinea weapon in the hand of a recently dead body so that it would be asfirmly held as by a contraction of the muscles during life theseexperiments were entirely unsuccessful, for though the fingers remainedclosed, the object was simply held and not grasped, and fell from thehand on the release of pressure in suicide the weapon is essaytimes held so firmly that force isrequired to dislodge it it seems as if the muscular spasm or grippersists after death, as cadaveric spasm, until rigor mortis occursand sets it, as it were the murderer, therefore, cannot imitate thisgrip, and an unsuccessful attempt to do so would indicate murder itshould be borne in mind that the weapon in the hand of the deceasedmay have been for the purposes of defence. Therefore it is necessaryto note whether the wounds on the body correspond to those which couldbe made by the weapon indeed, this fact is most important to note inall paper of suspected suicide where the weapon is found if the weaponis not in the hand of the deceased, note carefully where it lies ifdeath is due to a suicidal or accidental wound which is immediatelyor very rapidly fatal, the weapon is generally found near the body if so, it is well to note on which side it lies, and if it lies near, whether it has apparently fallen or been thrown or placed there ifthe relation of the body and the weapon has been disturbed by movingeither, the position of the weapon as found by the medical witness isof little value in paper of suicide the weapon may possibly be foundat essay distance or even concealed, though this is exceptional thustaylor646 states that the razor in one instance was found shut at theside of the deceased, who had committed suicide by cutting his throat in another instance the razor was found in the pocket of the deceased, bloody and closed as a rule, the weapon is found lying at the side ofa suicide if it is not grasped in the hand if the weapon is far fromthe body and the wound was quickly fatal, especially if the weaponis hid or cannot be found, it is strongly presumptive of murder ifthe weapon is found near the body it is well to note whether the edgeis sharp or blunt, straight or bent, or notched, as these points mayassist us in forming a judgment as to suicide or murder a weapon belonging to the victim may be substituted by the murderer forthe one really used, and the former may be placed by the side of thebody therefore the weapon found should correspond to the wounds as tolength, depth, sharpness, etc , to be compatible with suicide generally a suicide foiled in the attempt to take his life uses thesame weapon over again if he persists in the attempt but he may not doso.

He that understands it not, is as little fit togive physick there lies personal statement writing services a key in these words which will unlock, if itbe turned by a wise hand the cabinet of physick. I have delivered itas plain as i durst. It is not only upon wormwood as i wrote, but uponall plants, trees, and herbs. He that understands it not, is unfit inmy opinion to give physic this shall live when i am dead and thusi leave it to the world, not caring a farthing whether they like itor dislike it the grave equals all men, and therefore shall equal mewith all princes. Until which time the eternal providence is over me:then the ill tongue of a prating fellow, or one that hath more tonguethan wit, or more proud than honest, shall never trouble me wisdom isjustified by her children and so much for wormwood yarrow, called nose-bleed, milfoil and thousand-leal descript it hath thesis long leaves spread upon the ground, finelycut, and divided into thesis small writings its flowers are white, but notall of a whiteness and stayed in knots, upon divers green stalks whichrise from among the leaves place it is frequent in all pastures time it flowers late, even in the latter end of august government and virtues it is under the influence of venus anointment of them cures wounds, and is most fit for such as haveinflammations, it being an herb of dame venus. It stops the terms inwomen, being boiled in white wine, and the decoction drank.

4 to 12 c c the dose of elixir secretogen personal statement writing services results -- in only one case was a slight response obtained, the othersgave none small and large doses were equally inert table 7, figs 2, 3 the preparations, though inert, always produced a depressionin blood pressure, essaytimes even greater than that caused by activesecretin among our thesis tests, one bottle was found, however, to be alittle different from the rest experiment 4 its entire content, 100tablets, had been ground and boiled in 0 9 per cent sodium chlorid the extract on injection was found to have a small but unmistakablesecretin reaction, equivalent to about 2 c c of the control secretinused but repeated experiments were unable to duplicate this result the “secretogen” and “elixir secretogen” were all supposedly freshpreparations, the retail drug store informing us that a fresh supplywas obtained from the wholesale house each week secretogen, then, contains practically no secretin, and even if it didcontain secretin, it can have no effect on the pancreas when taken bymouth the indications for secretogen, therefore, are based on falsepremises, and the testimonials are worthless illustration. Fig 2 -- tracings reduced one-half showing nostimulation of the pancreas by secretogen, elixir secretogen, andduodenin, even when administered intravenously in quantities onehundred times greater than the therapeutic dose by mouth dog. Lightether anesthesia. Cannula in the pancreatic duct. A, carotid bloodpressure. B, flow of pancreatic juice in drops tracing a. At x, intravenous injection of 10 c c secretin prepared from duodenal mucosaof dog tracing b. At x, intravenous injection of 100 tablets ofsecretogen digested with 0 4 hydrochloric acid and neutralized tracingc. At x, intravenous injection of 100 tablets of secretogen, preparedas in tracing b tracing d. At x, intravenous injection of 50 c c elixir secretogen tracing e. At x, intravenous injection of 100tablets of duodenin dissolved in 0 9 per cent sodium chlorid duodenin -- this is a preparation manufactured by armour & company, which purports to be “secretin plus enterokinase ” the claims forthis product are similar to those for secretogen, but essaywhat lesssweeping according to the manufacturers, “duodenin armour isrecommended in the treatment of intestinal disorders where an increasedflow of pancreatic, hepatic and intestinal secretion is desired it isof specific value in proteid digestion on the theory that secretin andenterokinase stimulate the pancreas and activate its secretion ”illustration.

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He therefore appeared before thepatient in a purple cloak with a cross in his hand however, the medical activity of the saints was by no means restrictedto paper of church slumber, but was manifested in the most variousforms § 7 medical saints - essay saints had a decided predilection formedical specialties, and for that reason paid a writingicular attention tocertain varieties of disease thus, st anna espoused ophthalmology;st jude cured coughs. St valentine, epilepsy. St catherine of siena, the plague not even our domestic animals were forgotten by the saints thus, st roch of montpellier distinguished himself especially by hisskill as a veterinarian various were the ways of obtaining the medical aid of this or thatsaint the most simple was probably that the patient attended mass inthe church of his town, and, at the same time, made an offering tothe saints more difficult was it to undertake a pilgrimage to oneor the other of the saints who enjoyed a medical reputation. Thiswas generally done on the birthday of the celestial physician itseems that the saint was especially inclined on this day to practisemedicine. At least, the chroniclers report that great numbers of themost difficult paper were successfully treated on such days a very efficacious method of securing medical treatment from saints wasconsidered to be the placing of the patient in the church during theday in the space between the altar and the grave of the saint the bedof the mortally sick, fever-racked patient was placed there, and fordays was compelled to remain here wrestling with death this was done, for instance, with the dying countess eborin in case severe epidemicswere prevalent, it is likely that the churches very often resembledactual hospitals then dozens of beds with their patients were set upin the churches, and thesis a one who was in good health when he enteredthe church to say his prayers probably returned home with the germ of apestilence acquired in the sanctuary but the saints, as we have seen, were by no means always so anxiousor in such a hurry to manifest their medical skill they often madethe patient wait for years for their aid the church, therefore, madepractical arrangements to meet every requirement larger buildings wereerected close to the church intended for the reception of patients here those who were hoping to find help could obtain shelter and food, and were, therefore, able to rest quietly, and to await the moment whenheavenly aid might appear this arrangement proved to be extremelypractical, especially because a good thesis individuals felt themselvescured only so long as they remained in the proximity of the saint, butbecame reafflicted as before when they returned to their homes but as the slumber and the protracted sojourn in the ecclesiasticalhostelries was, nevertheless, rather uncomfortable, especially inconsideration of the difficulties and dangers which were involved intraveling during the middle ages, it was absolutely necessary to inventa means of administering the medical aid of the saints in such a way aswas always accessible to the patient this was managed by the use ofrelics §8 cult of relics - it was believed that god had endowed the bodiesof martyrs who died for the christian faith, or of saints distinguishedby extraordinary piety, with a miraculous power of extraordinaryefficacy, and not only the mortal relics of the martyrs and saints werewonder-working, but actually all objects which had come in contact withthe persons of saints during their life as well as after their death all such objects were possessed of curative power let us listen towhat gregory of tours says under this head. “the miracles which ourlord god deigned to bring about through st martin, his servant, once apilgrim in the flesh, he causes to be repeated daily, to strengthen theconfidence of the faithful. For now he endows his tomb with preciselythe same wonder-working power as was exhibited by the saint himselfwhile still among us who will now persist in doubting the formermiracles when he observes their continuation in the present day, whenhe sees the lame walk, the blind receive their sight, devils castout, and every variety of disease cured by the help of the saint?. ” “bernoulli, ” page 287 the statement of such a luminary of the church as gregory of tours hasundoubtedly gained ecclestiastical credence for the medical efficacynot only of the tomb of st martin, but of all the relics relating tothat saint it remained only to distribute the superior medical powerwhich was contained in the holy tombs and relics in such a form aswould enable all patients, wherever they happened to be, to make use ofthem this task, apparently most difficult, was settled very easily it was discovered that everything which came in contact with a relicactually absorbed a sacred and miraculous power contained in the same, and what had been absorbed was by no means imponderable quite thecontrary essaything of material substance, and, therefore, physicallydemonstrable, passed from the relic into the objects surrounding it it was indeed a celestial fluid, but, nevertheless, of so terrestriala nature that the priests were able to demonstrate its transferenceby means of a common pair of scales thus it was customary that thesilk shreds which were deposited by the pilgrims upon the tomb of theapostle peter were weighed before they were placed there and weighedagain after their removal this weighing always and without exceptionindicated a considerable increase in their weight the pilgrim thencould travel homeward and be thoroughly consoled, as the scale haddemonstrated to him the amount of miraculous power contained in hissilk rag it was really astonishing, under essay circumstances, whatan enormous amount of curative fluid could flow from such a holy tombinto a single terrestrial object this was what happened to a king ofthe suavians he had a sick son, for whose cure every remedy had provedunavailing he at last sent an embassy to tours to obtain a relic ofst martin, but this relic was destined to be manufactured with theassistance of the embassy the priests were quite willing to complywith the desire of their royal petitioner, and thus a piece of silk, duly weighed beforehand, was placed upon the tomb of st martin afterthis silk had remained for one night upon the holy sepulchre, and theembassy had knelt beside praying fervently, the silk absorbed so muchcurative power that the register of the scale was raised to its highestpossible notch knowing, then, that any desired object could be saturated with themiraculous power contained in a relic, they used to apply thiscelestial power through medicaments, and to accomplish this a numberof methods were in use the most popular was to scrape the tombstoneson the graves of the saints as thoroughly as possible the powderthus obtained was then put into water or wine, and thus a medicinewas acquired which possessed an astonishing curative power it wasefficacious even in the severest ailments of the body let us listen towhat gregory of tours has reported concerning the medicinal virtues ofsuch tombstone potions he says. “oh, indescribable mixture, incomparable elixir, antidotebeyond all praise!. celestial purgative if i may be permitted touse the expression, which throws into the shade every medicalprescription, which surpasses in fragrance every earthly aroma, andis more powerful than all essences. Which purges the body like thejuice of scammony, clears the lungs like hyssop, and the head likesneezewort. Which not only cures the ailing limbs, but also, and thisis much more valuable, washes off the stains from the conscience!.